THE BLACK BOOK
SUFFERINGS OF THE GREEK PEOPLE
IN T U R K E Y
FROM THE ARMISTICE TO THE END OF 1920
PRESS OF THE PATRIARCHATE
Web Edition Note
At the conclusion of the 1914-1918 World War I, Turkey , which had sided
with Germany and the other Central Powers and had been defeated by the
Allies (including Greece ), was the first to sign in October 1918 an
Armistice. Between the signing of the Armistice and the publication of
this book late in 1920, i.e. within about 2 years, the number of Greek
Christian citizens of Turkey put atrociously to death in some of the
Diocese only, which are dealt with in this Book, exceeded 2.500
citizens, according to existing records. These brutal acts were decided,
planned and directed by the Turkish central authorities and were aimed
at cleansing lands under Turkish control from non Muslim citizens. They
constituted Genocide and were perpetrated systematically and repeatedly
through the years 1890-1974 in many areas under Turkish rule, in
accordance with the political doctrine “ Turkey for the Turks”. It can
be understood that, since the perpetrators of such crimes always take
meticulous care not to leave traces and to cover up any incriminating
evidence, the actual number of Christian citizens who perished
systematically, is very much larger. This book, published at first in
Greek in 1920, refers in Part A to individual cases of Genocide victims
within the above 2 year period in various Diocese of Pontus; in Part B
it referrs to victims of the Central and Western Asia Minor and in Part
C it referres to victims of Eastern Thrace. Casualties of similar brutal
acts in other regions under Turkish Rule are not dealt with in this
book. In view of such atrocities, occurring in Turkey , not only during
the 1914-18 War, but continuing even after the Armistice, the Allies
decided in April 1919 to land Greek Army units at Smyrna , for the
protection of the Christians. The landing took place in the first days
of May 1919.However, the persecution of Christians continued.
After the conclusion of the Armistice, the Christian world of the East
believed that its sufferings were at an end; that the tyrant's hands and
feet were at last fettered for ever; that the murderous dagger and the
horrid scimitar of the criminal had been put into the scabbard; that
Christian life, honour and property had been secured; in a word that a
breeze of true liberty would caress every brow.
But it was mistaken! It had forgotten for a moment that the mode of life
and the general character of a nation, formed and crystallized through
several centuries, cannot be changed so abruptly. The Turkish nation had
again remained the same as before the Armistice and it shall yet
continue to be the same for a long time. The proof of this assertion is
based on the horrible atrocities which the Turks, whether private
citizens or government officials, have committed from the time of the
Armistice to this day, by plundering, torturing, mutilating, burning
alive and massacring women and children and aged people and turning into
waste cemeteries, communities of Christians, which only yesterday were
flourishing and prosperous. The Turks committed these criminal acts
respecting neither their signature on the document of the Armistice, nor
the presence of the Allied troops and the universal outcry of the whole
civilized world against them.
The reader of this Black Book — the second published, constituting a
continuation of the book issued in April 1919, which related the
sufferings and persecutions endured by the Greek people of Turkey from
the time of the Balkan War to the day of the Armistice — will surely
shudder with horror and start with indignation the readers, who will see
the same ferocity still prevailing in the bloodthirsty instincts of the
tyrants; be they ordinary Turks or Kemalist leaders. Taking especially
into consideration the fact that, due to the interruption of
communications with the interior of Asia Minor, the Bishops and
Communities under the Kemalist authorities could not inform the
Patriarchate of the sufferings of the Christians, the reader will
doubtless justify the anxiety of our National Central Authority, in its
fears for the worst, with respect to the fate of the Christians still
living in Anatolia.
We heartily hope that such fears may prove groundless. But even in such
a case, the crimes officially reported to the Patriarchate corroborate
once more the truth of the statement, that the Turkish people, dominated
as it is by such savage instincts and having a character well known to
all, cannot by any means open a road towards progress and can much less
be a paradigm to others.
OF THE GREEK POPULATION
PROVINCE OF AMASSIA
The atrocities which will be described here and which have taken place
in this ecclesiastical district after the signature of the Armistice,
prove that no change whatever took place in the governing system of the
provinces and that the big pre-existing chaos, local tyrants widened
more and more, by continuing their mischievous acts for the complete
extermination of the last remnants of the Orthodox Greek population,
which has suffered a real martyrdom.
On the first days after the Armistice, Turkish troops went into the
village of Foutoudjak and plundered many houses, killing at the same
time inside the church Papa Lazaros, senior Priest of the village.
And again, Ali Ghalib, the Kaymakam of Tcharshamba, who two years ago,
when he was Kaymakam of Pafra, had completely annihilated that district
by setting fire to it and had exiled to Kastamouni all the male
population from 14 to 90 years of age, went to the village Kazantsoulou,
at the head of a military detachment and gendarmes, and killed there
Messrs Theodore I. Poulatoglou, Eustache Karaghiozoghlou, Jean Savva
Karaghiozoghlou and Yovanaki Karaghiozophlou. The gendarmes, on the
pretext that all these persons were military deserter, have cut of their
heads and brought them before the Kaymakam, who, although he could see
that the heads were of old men and minor boys, instead of punishing
them, rewarded the crime by saying “Well done, my children, this is the
way you must fulfil your duties”. After this encouragement, the
gendarmes have attacked the women and, like satyrs, they have satisfied
their criminal instincts, raped many girls and violated more than 56
married women. The answer which the Kaymakam gave to those protesting
for these crimes was simply: “Well done! This is what you, the guiaours,
In the village Kavak, a Turk, named Ekrem, who was placed during the War
by the Government at the head of 50 irregular troops (bashibozouks), has
plundered completely all the surrounding villages, massacred whomever he
wished, compelled all those who wanted to avoid military service, to pay
each month heavy taxes. This way he contributed to the increase of the
number of fugitives, and thanks to this scheme, he became exceedingly
rich. Further, in association with the Moudir and with his acolytes
Mehmed Pehlivan and Nedjib, he was stealing publicly the beasts and
other goods of the Greeks; he terrorised that district by arresting and
locking up Greek women in his Haremlik, and after satisfying brutally
his instincts, he would release them. This tyrant had received
unofficial orders to arm a band of his men and continue his civilizing
In the district of Pafra, the Moslem Albanians established themselves in
the by then evacuated Christian villages. Expecting that they would be
compelled some day to re-abandon the villages, they left the fields
uncultivated, demolished the houses and sold the timber to the
neighbouring Turkish villages. Those Greeks, who returned, not only
could not take back their stolen goods, tools and beasts, but they did
not even dare to go near their villages, because they were threatened to
be killed by the Moslem Albanians, who were armed to the teeth. Thus,
Jean Kavaklioghlou accompanied by his son Savva and his nephew Manoli,
who were going to visit their village Sourmeli, were literally
slaughtered by the Albanians. Anastas Savoglou, from the village
Kaitalaba, was killed between the villages Peitourlou and Kiosseli.
Haralambos Papayorgoglou was killed between Knilalaba and Tsiriklar.
Many others were killed in a similar manner. These Albanians, being
under the protection of the chief brigand and Kaymakam of Pufra, the
Albanian Hakki, and with a view of terrorizing the place and of obliging
the citizens to scatter themselves into the mountains, were firing
during the night at the windows of the houses.
The same things happened in the district of Nevien. In the middle of
December, Panayoti Tontonoglou from Kupoukaya and 5 women, all of whom
were returning to their homes, were killed by the Turks of the village
In the same month, Avraam Peftouloun, Totoroglou and Panayoti
Constantine Emanet, who where returning from Vezir-Kioprou to their
village Kapoukaya, were killed by Hadji Karahamdji and Kel Tanadjioglou,
both Turks of Sarbin.
In the same month, Constantine Tsolak from Kouzala (Pafra), was killed
by the Turks of the village Kirleycn near Vezir-kioprou. Two other
Christians coming from the interior were killed in the same month by
Turks on the banks of the river Alys near Kapoukaya.
Three other Greeks, Tryphon, from the village Kara-Hussein, Ketseli,
from Kafza and Yovan Kovavloglou from Kapoukaya, having bought some
beasts in the village Kiolitse-Agatch, were killed by Turks in an
ambush, when they were returning.
And again Mr. Miltiadis Kaladjoglou, from the burned village Devrend,
who was the only support of 13 orphans, and who was working in the
Turkish village Gazi-Beili, was assassinated in the house of Molla
Hussein, in the presence of several Turks.
In the same month, near Samtoun, a certain Nazim Tchaoush, Custom’s
official of Tckekyoi, went to the village Tsinik and thrashed Mr. Anesti
Papouloglou, wounding him in his nose, ears and other places and
plundered his house. His poor wife was so much frightened that she died
the next day. The same man has also plundered the house of Hadji Gavrili
Gavriloglou, and just for mere pleasure killed a woman from Sari-Klissp,
who was going to her village, as well as a man named Christo
Kazandjoglou, from the village Sinema-Tash.
In the village Falsa a military detachment, under the orders of the Arab
officer Mouftah, killed Mr. Zaharias Deliyannides, from the village
Sinan (Keras-sounde), the two brothers George and Jean Varitimoglou,
from Sinavli, village of Ordou and Mr. George Andreoglou, from
Guiavous-Bouki, another village of Ordou. The officer had cut off the
heads of all these men, on the pretext of being deserters, and had sent
them to the bloodthirsty Kaymakam of Tcharskamba. The above mentioned
officer is at the same time the hero of many other crimes and murders.
On December 15th, 1918 , the troops staying in Dourouk llan at Kavak,
went to the village Kara-Dayh, in the company of some Laz and Turks
irregulars (bashibozouks). At the moment when Christian citizens were
coming out of the church, where a wedding had taken place, they opened
fire and killed Mr. Symeon Tshaoushoglou. Then, they entered into the
village and plundered all the houses, robbing clothing, food, furniture,
On January 14th , 1919 a military detachment went to Taflan-kyoi to
pursue deserters and killed there Mr. Hercule Eleftheriou, a 10 years
old boy named Hercule Pandeli, a 20 years old young lady named Eleni
Yeorghiou, and another man, Eleftherios Ermenides. Then, they plundered
many houses robbing as many beasts as they could, together with all the
corn-crops. They tore the holy Gospel and robbed all the ornaments,
vessels, vestments, frontals, etc.
On the January 15th , 1919, Hadji Agha Bey, from the village Teke-kyoi
and President of the Committee for Union and Progress, accompanied by
his 3 sons and his 3 brothers and also by Kessif Pehlivan, Hassan Kokoz
Ali, Kartali, Hassan Pehlivan, Mouhazer Hakki, Ali Ibrahim and Kiritli
Memet, all of whom were armed, accompanied also by two local gendarmes,
Rechid and Ali, and by many others, went into the village of Tchinik,
where they opened fire, killed a boy, Vassilios Ioannou, 15 years of
age, plundered many houses, and then returned quietly back to their village.
On the January 16th, 1919 , troops were sent to Tchinik to make
inquiries for the events of the previous day. These troops however,
killed the widow, Sofia Christou Bekiaroglou, 23 years old, whose
husband had fought in the Amcle-Tabouroit, and had died of hunger,
terribly tyrannised; they practically cut into pieces the poor woman's
body, and went away. The peasants wanted to transport the corpse to
Samsoini, but when Riza Bey, chief of the Gendarmerie of this city,
learned that Mr. Harty, an honourable British officer, had arrived at
Samxoun, he did not allow such a thing.
On the January 21st, 1919, Ahmed Tchaoush, who together with others had
the duty to look after the security of the place Djumbuz-Han, attempted
to kill the coachman, Antonios Dem. Mouratoglou, from the village
Kara-Day, while shouting at the same time "Up to this day I have killed
50 infidels; I will kill you too. There is no one to enquire about it”.
On the January 22nd, 1919 , at a distance 15 minutes away from Merzifoon
and near the Turkish village Fiikfi, Turks have killed Mr. Katirdji
Anastas, who was coming from the village Eisandik-Kafza.
On January 27th, 1919, the Metropolitan of Amassia, Mgr. Germanos,
wrote: “It is impossible to find out and describe all the crimes taking
place openly in this place, because the peasants, who have been
repeatedly robbed, disgraced and killed for many centuries and more so
in the last years, got finally tired and desperate, since they cannot
find justice, because the authorities leave all crimes committed by
Turks unpunished. The peasants are therefore compelled to bear silently
all these monstrous deeds, as all protestations against or prosecutions
of the murderers, remain without result.”
“When such things happen under the eyes of the representatives of the
victorious Powers, one can imagine what is taking place in the interior,
where there is no control or any kind of inspection, and the Raya
(Ottoman subject), is abandoned to become the victim of despotism and
barbarous instincts of the first irregular soldier or gendarme he meets.”
“We do not receive any more news from our representatives in the
interior, because they are tired of writing in vain and reporting
persecutions and martyrdom. It is only today that I have been able to
find out that the brigands have entered also in the cities, forcing and
plundering the shops of all the Greeks. Thus, in the city Erbaa, (
province of Neocecarea ), brigands forced a Greek shop, which they
plundered altogether; the value of all the goods was 5000 liras. In the
village Kavak they forced the shop of the Greek Mr. Jordan Kademoglou
and robbed everything in it, worth about 1200 liras.”
“We do not get any more news from the districts Ladic, Vezir Kioprou,
Tsoroum, Tokat, etc., because the Greek population there became
hopeless, after the two terrible massacres: the red massacre of the
Armenians and the white massacre of the Greeks. They are something like
a herd of beasts, ready to be slaughtered, terrorised and all gathered
in one place, see their flock decimated every day by the butchers, and
are anxiously expecting from hour to hour to suffer the same fate as
“While we were expecting upon the termination of the War and the signing
of the Armistice which followed, an improvement of this state of things,
on the contrary, the tyrant became bolder and more impudent. After the
political change and the downfall of the Unionistic Government, the
Committee of Union and Progress continues to have the control in its
hands and the power to impose itself omnipotent every where. This fact
is quite natural and easily explained from a psychological point of
view, when we presume that this Committee is the expression and
incarnation of the Turkish soul itself. The Turkish people in the face
of the Committee have recognized the incarnation of their desiderata,
their dreams and their ideals. But on the other hand the Committee too,
being an offspring of this people, and consequently in a state to know
better than any body the popular psychology, has drawn up a program
entirely in conformity with its tendencies and instincts, with a view of
strengthening and extending itself in as greater an area as possible.
Talaat, this highest representative of the Turkish soul, has publicly
expressed himself about the Greeks, saying that he will reduce them to
beggars by robbing their properties and distributing it to the Turks.
And indeed, the property of the expelled Greeks of Thrace , of Asia
Minor and of Pontus , amounting to several hundreds of millions of
liras, was distributed among the Turks.”
“Deli Raafet Pasha, the murderer and incendiary of the district of
Samsoun, during the persecution of the Greeks of Pontus , expressed
himself in the sense, that he will turn the Greeks to boatmen and
porters (hammals). In reality, after the Turks had plundered the
property of the expelled Greeks, and burned their houses, those Turks
who up to that moment were boatmen and hainmals, became millionaires,
whereas the Greeks, who up to that time were very well off and rich,
died or nine tenths of them were killed or forced to leave their
motherland. Those Greeks, who somehow have managed to return to their
homes, not only they do not find any of their belongings, but they are
swept off every day by hunger....”
Such being the psychological dispositions of the Committee of Union and
Progress, one must not be surprised to hear me say that this Committee
is still dominating our place, and is intending to bring about new
catastrophes, resulting in the complete destruction of the remaining
ruins, heaped up by the fanaticism and barbarism of recent years. For
the last two months this Committee continues to arm the Turks of all the
cities and villages from the coast, to the interior of Asia Minor .
Rifles and ammunition of the Government are distributed every day to the
Turkish population. The rifles of the demobilized troops at Batoum have
been and are still given to the villagers of all the districts of
Samsun, Pafra, Tcharshamba, Ordou, Kerassund etc.
The same things take place in the interior of Anatolia . Thus, in the
city of Sivas, the ex-Vali of Sivas and Konia, Sivuzli Emin Kcltflywylou
Hull Bey, the faithful acolyte of the notorious assassin Mouaver Bey, as
well as Gani Bey, the representative of the Committee there, Emir
Beyoglou Elem Bey and Sakirdji Zadelev & Co. are publicly distributing
rifles in the city and in the villages, and armed to the teeth are going
about everywhere giving arms also to the Sandjaks of Tokat, Amassia,
Merzifoon, Erbaa, Ladik etc.
In the light of this new armed preparation and systematic organisation,
which is going on most methodically among the Moslem population, the
Greek people are in great terror and agony, not knowing what will happen
to them. Many of those who could manage, came from the interior to our
City, and others are getting ready to flee. All these unfortunate beings
are perfectly right. The big wounds of the Nation are still fresh. They
have not been yet cured and they cannot be. The murders, the robberies,
the disgraces and violations committed by the Turks have become the
order of the day. On the other hand, the injustices, crimes and
corruptions of the governors of Baffra, Hakki Bey and Tcharshamba Galib
Ali and others, who committed the deportations and usurpations of the
property of the Greeks, not only remained unpunished by the Turkish
Authorities. Consequently, the perpetrators became even more audacious
and turned to be the chief-brigands of the place and the tyrants of the
Christians. Every piece of property of the Christians is found in the
hands of these monsters. The honour of the women becomes the prey of the
first aggressor and there is no safety of life, property or honour.
In the city of Samsoun alone, 178 young men were hanged in the middle of
the market, 210 villages were burned down to ashes, and 70,000
inhabitants of the villages of Samsoun were deported and scattered about
in the Turkish villages, hungry and naked; 90 % have died the worst kind
of death. About 203 of our schools were burned, about 350 of our
churches were plundered and then burned, our houses, religious places
and everything sacred were ruined and smashed to pieces, our life is
On February 1st, 1919, soldiers have killed Hadji Elia of Kerassound,
Persefs K. Zaifoglou and Hriste Tsigaroglou, all of them in the village
Tsinik; and although they had declared that they surrender, nevertheless
they were fired at, and Ghristo, seriously wounded, hid himself in a
corner, where he died, and the other two were arrested and taken
somewhere out of the village, where they were slaughtered. Then the
soldiers cut off their heads and rejoicing, brought them to Teke-kyoi
and hung them for 8 whole hours in front of the shop of the President of
the Union and Progress Committee, Hadji Aya Bey. It has not been allowed
to have the corpses buried. They had left them to be eaten up by the
dogs and the crows. The Metropolitan of Amassia wrote a lakrir and
complaint about the crime to the Governor, who of course has done nothing
A report from Bafra, dated February 4th, 1919, states that on February
2nd, in the village Issaakli, a suburb of Bafra, while a wedding was
taking place in a house, a Turk named Sarimin Ismail, has fired through
the window at those inside the house and killed a young man 25 years
old, Lazar Prassaoglou, and a girl, Despina Kalaoglou, from the village
Kain-lalabci, wounding at the same time a Demetrios Panaoglou, a Yovan
Pandeli and a girl. Although the perpetrator was arrested, he was
released two days later, on the ground that there was no proof. However,
all those who were present, recognised him, and so, in his place the
wounded persons were imprisoned.
According to another report from the representative of the Metropolitan
at Gavza, dated also February the 4th, the refugees who were returning
to Bafra, were killed by Turks of the village Surbin, near the Kaza of
Bafra, and the corpses were speared and set up on prominent places.
A 16 year old boy, Panayioti K. Anastasoghlou, and Mrs. Katina, wife of
Kyriake N. Alessoglou, both from Kapoo-Kaya, as well as Averkio Papa
Paraskevaoglou, from the Christian village Tolioalar, were also
assassinated. The witness of these assassinations was Sava Antonoglou,
from Donooz-Alan, who miraculously succeeded to save himself.
A bride, wife of a tailor from the village Kabou-hlou Esmc, kaza of
Vezir Kioprou, who was going to Amassia to visit her imprisoned for
political reasons husband, was carried away by the Turks of the village
Essin Bey. She was taken to the house of Pits Ahmed Oglou, where she was
violated by the Police Magistrate and his secretary, who happened to be
found in the house. After this base action and in order to have their
crime concealed, all three of them sent her to Zeintounlouk, one of the
A report from Kavza, dated February 10th, 1919 , stated:—The day before
yesterday, Saturday, at about midnight the infamous Moulazim Memdouh
Bey, with sufficient troops, surrounded Kiosroufi, a village which
suffered a great deal and in which two weddings were taking place. They
attacked with mittrailleuses the houses where the people were
celebrating and proceeded with violations and plunderings, and then with
thrashing to death every single person. Memdouh Bey killed with his own
hands the father of the bridegroom, Isaak Karabadjakoglou, carrying away
all the booty with the horses and being proud for their deeds. The
following day he came back once more to the same village with his troops
and surrounded it again.
Of the two weddings mentioned above, one bride had to go to Knvza. Here
however nobody knew anything of the events which took place at
Kiosroufi. Therefore many people set off from there, with eight
carriages and about 50 horses, to go and receive the bride. Thus all of
them, men and women, fell in the trap, and a pandemonium followed. Every
single person was imprisoned in the stables etc. Cryings and horror fell
throughout the village, because Memdouh the murderer had ordered that
the best-man, Basile Kiossoglon, and Cotso K. Antonoglou should be at
On February 15th, 1919 , Turkish bands arrested outside of Erbaa, two
brothers, Eleftherios and Stylianos Kalaidjoglou, and carried them to be
massacred. At a certain moment however, both of them run away and
although repeatedly fired at from behind, they were miraculously saved.
On February 21st six young men from the village Hallab-Kogliaz, this
side of Tsoroum, who had completed their military service and were
returning from Angora to their homes, were arrested by the Turks of the
above village, and three of them, Nicolas P. Simeon from Merzifoon,
Jioannis Semer-djoglou from Hadjikeuy, and Stavros from Kiosrouf, were
killed, while the other three seriously wounded.
On February 22nd Memdotih Bey, Gendarmery Commander at Merzifoon,
renowned for his monstrosities against the Greeks of Vezir-Kioprou, who
with one shot had killed 18 Greek boys, by placing all of them in a row,
the one behind the other, came in the village Kiosroof, kaza of Kavza,
and killed Isaak, a sixty years old quiet peasant.
On February 23rd Turks entered in the house of Haralambos Hristou, in
the village Terpez (Oinoi), and literally stripped it. The most
notorious of the bands, raging all these districts, is that of Terme
Pits Ahmed, composed of 150 murderers, who are plundering and killing
every day the remnants of already ruined villages.
On February 26th, near Kessillou a Mehmed Pehlivan, ex guard of the
village, attacked Christo Photoglou and mortally wounded him. While the
poor victim was expiring, he said to Harilaos Avraam, from
Tsikour-Yatak, who happened to pass by, that the above mentioned Turk is
his murderer. The perpetrator now lives in Samsoun, quite undisturbed.
On February 27th, the renowned Commander of Gerdarmery at Merzifoon,
attacked with gendarmes and Bashibozouks a wedding procession, which was
going from Hadjikeyj (kaza of Amassia), to the village, and a fighting
of 20 minutes took place, during which three Christians were wounded.
On March 2nd, two Christians from Kirezli, of Baffra, who were returning
to their village, were killed at midday , near the village Toum-Soiigluts.
On March 4th, five Greeks from Phulsn, who were going with kaiks back to
their country, were arrested near Tcharshamba by pirates, who carried
away goods worth 4000 liras. The pirates have not touched at all the
kaiks transporting Turkish goods, checking carefully whether the goods
were belonging to Christians or to Moslems.
On March 7th Osman Tchaoush, the Police Commander of Platano thrashed
mercilessly the priest Lazaros.
On March 8th in the village Sounoussa Arpa Deressi, Kaza of Ladik, six
Greek soldiers, returning from their military service, were massacred
with axes by Turkish peasants.
On March 9th the Laz-Turks who on January 10th had entered in Tsalnl
Armootkyoi, robbed everything from the house of Samsounlou Panayot,
whose ear they have cut, and arresting Anthimos Vassiliou, ordered him
to get ready for them 1000 liras, otherwise he would be killed.
On March 10th seven cavalry gendarmes met near the village Dere
Tchiflikt (Frbaa), five Greeks going to their village Teke and firing
against them, they killed one of them.
On March 12th two young Greeks of Kurd-Dere of Oinof, who had been
exiled to the village Kirez-Tepe, were engaged as servants of the Aga
(chief) of the village Tayar, who then asked them to take charge of
guarding, as it were, the house of his son Hassan, against a probable
attack by the Armenians. Without suspecting anything the two poor Greeks
went there and they were assassinated at midnight .
On March 14th Turks arrested the priest George, who was returning from
Russia to his village Tsan-gueri (Onoi) and after thrashing him they
took from him 300 liras, which he had with him.
On March 16th at about midnight , Fethi, son of the gendarmerie
Commander at Oinoi, has forced the door of the coffee-shop Sava-Mavi and
entering in the shop, fired at him, wounding him mortally. He died after
a few days.
On March 18th the priest Mihail, from the village Youha Yapou of
Amassia, who was going with his companion Vassilios Papa Kyriakou to
Merzifoon, was attacked near the village Alala by Ahmed Imamoglou, from
Kiork-kyoi, who robbed them and then shot Yassilios at his right breast.
He also fired at the priest, whom he wounded in his neck. The priest
pretending to be dead, fell and so saved his life. The assassin went
away, after ascertaining that both of his victims died.
On March 20th in the village Ersandik (Vezir-Kioprou), a band of 23
bashibozouks and 10 soldiers, have asked a woman to give them bread. The
woman gave them the only loaf she had with her. The bashibozouks began
cursing her, which made her husband come out of his house and intervene.
A little later, however, came reinforcements with mitrailleuses and many
other Moslems from the neighbouring Turkish villages and attacked the
whole village, killing the priest George and 14 women and children.
On March 21st, the infamous brigand Kasik Mehmed, from the village Rash
Alan near Kavak, had gone with his acolytes to the village Souloudjak
Pitsindjik, killed Anastassios Kyriakoglou, Demetrios Yeorgiou, loannis
Constantinou, Costi Yeorgiou and Panika Vassiliou, and robbed all their
mony and clothes. Besides, he also committed several other crimes, and
when he was leaving, he gave such a blow on the skull of Sofia Anesti
Panteloglou, that the next day she died. The Metropolitan of Amassia
officially protested this murder, but the Moutessarrif gave no notice to
this denunciation and let the perpetrator go free, without asking
anything concerning this crime.
On March 22nd, in the village Mouxid (Kavza), Turks killed John
Eleftheriou and Philippe Sava, both from Ttredjik.
On March 23rd, George Haralambassoglou from Ordou, who was working in
the Turkish village Tsivril, has sent his employee, Paul Ioannou
Tsamadjoglou to Samsoun for work. The latter was arrested outside the
village and killed by the Turks, sent there for the purpose.
On March 25th, the gendarmes of Tekekyoi arrested in Andrialos two
peasants from Tsawalan, on the ground of being deserters. But instead of
taking them to the Konak, they slaughtered them like sheep, and
rejoicing, carried their heads to Tekekyoi.
On March 26th several women came from the village Karadjakyoi of Siuopo
with wounded heads and limbs, describing in very black colours the
tortures they suffered by the gendarmes, in addition to their privation
and other ill treatment, after their return from exile. The commonest
phases which the Government functionaries are using against the
unfortunate Ottoman Greeks, are “You, Ghiaours, (infidels), you still
dare to talk, and you are still living; in one evening we shall sweep
On March 27th Turks entered at night in the village Tarkandag, arrested
two Christians and killed them. After these crimes were committed, Kara
Dimit, chief of a band, entered in the Turkish villages Ahourlou,
Smonssik and Kdlik, the populations of which were armed by the
Government and disarmed, them without killing a single person.
On March 28th Turks killed in his mill a Greek, George the mill-keeper,
from the village Poulaman (Phatsa), with a view to take over his mill
with all the surrounding fields, which they were cultivating, as their
own, during the exile of the true owner.
On March 29th, three Christians from the village Tsinglur were arrested
by Turks on their way to Samsoun. The Turks literally cut them into
pieces. The Christians of the village Tangarlou found and brought the
corpses to their village. They then informed the widows and the orphans,
who weeping and lamenting came to take the corpses and bury them in
their village. The persons so cruelly murdered, were Nicolas Samloglou,
Archangele Samloglou and 14 years old boy Savva Tachtadji.
On March 31st, between the Turkish villages Carli and Emirli, four
Greeks from the villages Karakostalar were massacred by Turks; they were
called Constantine Karacasoglou, Cost. Dimitriou, Paul Papazoglou, and
Tarahtchi, son-in-law of Hadji Lazaros.
On April 2nd, in the Turkish village Tsolah Kaza of Ladik (Amassia),
murderers have killed the son of Kosma, Ktradjom a young man 20 years
old, and also the son Pavlos, a young man 18 years old. The first was
shot and the second was literally slaughtered.
On April 7th, near the Turkish village Alionrlou Surkish bands have
arrested and killed in the road G. Philiposoglou, and Aposlolos
Mouhtaris, two Greeks from the village Doumuz-Agli. At the head of the
band was the infamous Laz Mehmed, who had robbed about 30 women and
children passing from that place, and carried away clothes, monies and
everything else the unfortunate creatures had with them. On the same
day, in the village Kadedi, Hadji Mehmed Tchaoushoglou with his acolytes
and assisted by the gendarmes of Tekektyoi, arrested at night the
following persons who were working there: Christo Papazoglou, a boy 13
years old, Kyriako Yeo-ika, 45 years old, Theokhari Moumdji, Kosti
Termeli 25 years old, and three other tinmen. All of them were from the
village Tsinik. From them one, named Thokhari and a further tinman,
succeeded to escape, but all others were massacred.
On April 8th, about 50 Turks under the leadership of Kurdoglou Mehmed
Redjeb, surrounded at 3 o'clock in the morning the little village
Kertchembe, comprising 10 houses and situated only half an hour's away
from Samsoun. At first they blockaded the house of a 17 year old young
man, J. Vassiliou, who for three whole hours was courageously resisting
the band, without surrendering his home to the brigands. In the
meantime, a Greek, Christo Triantafillides, came out of his house, to
assist his countryman, who was in danger, but he was cruelly killed; his
wife, Parthena, and a Lazaros Vassiliou, were mortally wounded.
On April 13th, the teacher Haralambos Yeorghiadis, in the company of
George Ilia Tsinoglou and the 17 years old son of Hadji Panayoti, as
well as Anastase Tombouli, left the village Kiztl-Giul lo come to
Samsoun. All of them were arrested near Indje-Sou by Turks and massacred.
On April 14th, the corpses of two Greeks, who were strangled on the road
of Bagdad , were brought to Samsoun.
On the same day, about 200 bashibozouks assisted by gendarmes, blockaded
the village Tosoaz of Amassia, killed four peasants and slaughtered a
good many children, who had escaped to the mountains.
On April 27th, near Katnmoul, about 50 soldiers and bashibouzouks, were
arresting all those passing from the central main road. Among those
arrested, was Anastasios Vassiloglou from the village Omer-Guioylou, who
having served as soldier for seven whole years, had returned from his
military service. This man was killed by the above mentioned
bashibozouks. On the same day, in a place called Tsorljouk-Bogan, a
Greek, Kyriakos, from Enguiz-Tepc (PMra), was put to death,
On April 28th, at Tchikour-Alan (Krwzu), Turks have killed Paulos Koja
Biyikoglou; they have cut off his head, put it on a pole and used it as
a target for shooting practice.
On April 30th , at Pekerli (Al-tcham), a widow was murdered, leaving
four minor orphans. On the same day the Greek J. Anatasiou from the
village Ormanos, while returning from Bafra to his village, was attacked
by a band of 15 brigands and put to death.
On May 1st, about 200 armed Turks firing against all the Greek villages
in the vicinity of Sepija, have hilled Ilia Etikwuzuylott, a tobacco
merchant from Inje Keris. On the same day at Erbna a Greek Chief named
Yakovos, who after the Armistice was handed over to the Authorities and
later on he was left free, while going to the house of Mr. X.
Kojamanidou, was shot dead at midday in the centre of the city. Many
Turks participated in this crime, but those who have shot him were
Kurkji Euzeyir, kurd Hassan and Poughamali Ali Shan.
On May 2nd, the Chief of the Gendarmerie Detachment, Corporal Sari
Mehmed from Asarjim, invited the Greek N. Hadji Sava from Karamough, to
go and see him. Hadji Sava took with him the teacher Lazaros, from
Teke-kyoi, and went to see the corporal. When they arrived there they
saw that the corporal had with him a few armed well known brigands, who
a few minutes later left and hid themselves in a spot, about 15 minutes
away from the station. When the two Greeks were returning to their
homes, these brigands fired at them; Hadji-Sava succeeded to escape, but
the poor teacher was killed.
On May 5th, a band of brigands arrested near Kavadjik 3 Greeks,
kidnapped them and their horses, took them to an unknown destination and
then exterminated them. On the same day a band of 25 Lazes and others,
entered the Turkish village Kousktshoulat (Baffra), arrested the Greeks
Eleftherios Parasoghlou, from Tekcmljik, Isaak Daniiloglou, and
Kallinikos Yacow, who were working in the village, and killed them.
Further on the same also day, a band of Lazes and Turko-Albanians
attacked the village Enguis-Tepe (Baffra). Women and children scattered
about and the brigands having plundered all houses, killed Kyrillos
Demirdji, Alexandre Kesseli, Costi Papaioannou, Styliano Mihailoglou and
the carpenter Haralambos from Ineboli, all of whom have been unable to
On May 6th near Kavadjik (Samsoun), another band kidnapped and put to
death G. Theodorou, J. Savva, and Christo Panayotin, all natives of
Chaldea . The crimes took place before the eyes of the guard-soldiers of
the main road, who where simply admiring the scene.
On the 8th of the same month, another band attacked the village Petes
Bafra, plundering the house of Apostolos Sagiroglou, who was kidnapped
to the mountains and disappeared ever since. The robbed goods were found
in the houses of Oflou Zade Risa, Tahir Aga Zade, Hadji Bey Kerzeli
Oglou Redjeb all, of whom were arrested, but released a little later.
On the 9th of May, several peasants of Sira-Kendir (Ladik), and of other
villages, while going to the bazaar of Ladik between the Turkish village
Hamid Kyoi and Kiodec Kyioi, have fallen into a snare of a band composed
of 12 brigands. One of the travellers, Panika Vomankozoglou, was put to
death. On the same day another band arrested and carried away to the
mountains Stylianos Bodosoglou, from the village Lenyieiti (Baffra).
After a few days his body was found near the village Sounnrli, next to
the corpse of another unknown Greek; the heads of both of them were cut
off and placed under their own armpits.
On the 13th of May, the Greek chief Pits Vassili, in the company of his
wife, was going from Kaxza, where he used to live, to his native
village. Although after the Armistice he had surrendered to the
Authorities and was living a private life and he was under supervision.
He fell into the ambush of a Turkish band near the village Sivri Klisse.
Somehow he saved his life, but his wife was killed. On returning to
Havza he reported the crime, but he was arrested and put into jail.
The Metropolitan of Amassia, Mgr. Germanos wrote the following on May
13th, 1919 ,: — “The evil has increased in the littoral districts of
Bafra Teharshamba, Ounia and Phalza. Every day new bands of Lazes are
landing. The peasants are in a desperate situation. The Greeks in the
City see the brigands and murderers coming and going with blood-stained
hands. They are unable to find the least protection from anyone. They
therefore began to seriously think about emigrating, because they
foresee massacres and they are quite right. The government itself is at
the head of all this and organises bands of mischievous element, which
are doing nothing else except kill every day and prepare a new blow
against the Christians. The same things take place in the interior too,
in the districts of Ladik, Erbaca, Kavak Merzifoon, Amassia,
Vezir-Ktoprou, Kawza and elsewhere. There is chaos everywhere, there is
no Government. The Christians are considered to be outside any law. The
Turkish bands, organised and armed by the Government, are working
according to the extermination program. In every city and with the
Government’s consent, organisations establish themselves are hold
regular meetings, call peasants and other mischievous elements, form
bands, and send them against peaceful Christians, in order to commit all
sorts of crimes, such as plundering, kidnapping, killing, disgracing and
violating fearlessly property, honour and life of innocent and civilised
people. These Christian citizens are considered as criminals, only
because they survived their martyrdom, remained faithful to their
national traditions and refused with the greatest obstinacy to become
The same Metropolitan wrote on May 31st. —“The evil is continuing during
the month of May as well, robberies, kidnappings, murders and terrorism
are now quite ordinary phenomena and the Lazes under the protection of
the Government are landing around Samsoun and preparing to massacre the
Christians. The place is full of criminals. The Turks of the cities are
organising themselves and directing bands with the knowledge of the
Government. These bandits go freely about the cities and at night go up
to the mountains. They are plundering and destroying and return
undisturbed to receive new instructions and perpetrate new crimes….”
At the beginning of August 1919 regular troops with bashibozouks
attacked the village Kouloudjata, which was completely and literally
plundered. A similar attack took place on the 21st of August against the
On August 4th, the Greek Pavlos Panayotoglou from Kizyl Yol, while
returning from Samsoun to his village, was robbed and killed at
Indie-Sou, by the band of Mehmed Effendi. Although the Authorities have
arrested one of the murderers, he was afterwards released, through the
intervention of the chief of the band in question.
On September 18th, the son of the shepherd Bessim Tchaouch, from the
village Alaichak, has killed at Zeintounglou another Greek shepherd,
grandson of Yovani Hadji Badjanaghi.
On September 23rd, several peasants from the village Alan and Sernitch
going to Ladik, where robbed. Three of them accompanied by a girl were
carried away, and were later found dead, lying in a ditch, with tied
hands and feet. The poor girl was mortally wounded under the ears. The
gendarmerie did nothing for the arrest and punishment of the criminals.
On Obtober the 5th, a big sailing vessel carrying tobacco from Alatcham
with several passengers on board, was attacked by Lazes, who robbed the
ship; the damages were more than 6000 liras. About the same date a
Greek, Savvas Pavlou, from the village Tougssnuskyoi in company of his
servant, was coming back home from his mill; on the way they were
attacked and killed. Also another Greek, Porlika Papazoglou, and his son
Lazaros, were killed on the same day.
On February 21st, 1920 , while Papa-Nicolaos, Eleni Constantine
Tastsoglou, Paraskevi Ilia Keskin, Lazaro Cyriakoglou and his wife,
Maria, were going from Samsoun, to their native village Tafian-Keuy,
they were attacked by a Turkish band and all of them killed. The corpses
of four of them only were found and they were terribly massacred. At the
same time 15 other Greeks were killed, from the villages Zannas and
Foundoukli of Amassia, as well as from the villages Kirk-Harman, Ilidje
and Feriz Dagh of the Kaza of Erbaa. The following five persons were
also killed, viz: Sava Hadji-Yovanoglou, Gregorios Zanali and his wife,
Yanni Davoultsioglou, and another, whose name could not be found. All
were natives of Zana. The murderers belonged to the band of Molla Bekir,
from the Turkish village Yihilgan.
On April 7th, the following persons were killed by Turks of the village
Inbat, ten minutes away from the city Erbaa, where they had gone
shopping: Dimitrios Grigoriou Abbazoglou, and Stefanos Yeorghiou
Abazoglou, natives of the village Fadura, and Kyriakos Pandelioglou,
Savas S. Sariparoglou, and Savas Sekir Lambi, natives of the village
On May 17th, Alexander Mamatidis, living at TeM-Kyoi, disappeared; it
was found out later, that he had fallen into a snare of Lazes, and was
On May 28th, Constantine Yovanoglou, Eleftherios Dimitroglou, Nicolas
Chrissoglou, Efraim Phot. Kiossekehaya and Paraskeva Demirdjsglou, all
natives of Knrabounar (Baffra), while returning from Majifoon, sustained
and attack near the Turkish village Tshal (Kaza of Kioprou). The first
three were killed, and the other two wounded.
On June 28th, one of the leaders of Tsbroum named Astos Ouraktsoglou was
strangled in the prison of Alalscham.
On July 19th, bashibozouks killed two Greeks of the village Yatjli
Pussan, named Yorika Yerz. Xenitoglou and loannis Amanetoglou. On the
31st seven Lages carried away and killed near Eski Idissc, Panayoti
Hadji Yeorghiou, native of the village Christi (Bafra), and his
son-in-law, Kyriako Kara Demirdtoglou.
On August 1st, soldiers killed at Yagla Keris, the Greek Aleco
Minasoglou, a native of the village Kapa Djeviz. On the 19th of the same
month, the Greek Antonios Karakostali, native of the village
Kara-Koushitshoular (Ladik), while returning to his village was killed
near the Turkish village Kol-Alan, by Ouzoun Ali Oglou Ahmed and his
acolytes. On the 23rd, armed Turks of the Turkish village Mamalzi,
attacked the quarter of Adji-sou (Kodja Dagh), killed four, Layaros
Kemendjepji, Sofia, wife of Iordanis Savoglou, Stavroula, wife of
Nikolaos Hizardji, Eleni, wife of Pavlos Dimitroglou, and wounded Yanko
Lazarou. And again in the quarter Tsikour Yatak, they killed Photios and
Panayoti Aridjoglou, Yorika Parassi, the son of Yanko Photoglou, and
wounded Evyenia Theodorou.
On September 1st, Stavro Savoglou, Panayoti Photoglou, Simeon and
Anastas Nizanoglou, all natives of Kourou, were coming to Bafra. On the
way they were arrested by armed Turks, and the first two were wounded
mortally by dum-dum bullets, while the other two were killed on the
spot. On the 23rd of the same month, Turkish brigands entered the garden
of Periklis Kalpaktsoglou , situated 18 minutes away from Baffra, and
killed his mother-in-law, Elissavet.
On October 5th, at Tsakalli, on the road to Kavak, Turks knocked at the
door of the house of Ioannis Tomazoglou. When the latter opened to see
who had come, he was shot dead.
The Kemalists, numbering 4.000, are pursuing the Circassien Hassan
Tchaouch, and since last August begun to ruin and burn to ashes the
Greek villages of the district, so that the above mentioned Hassan may
not be welcomed and there. Sixteen houses of the villages Sernitcch,
four houses of the village Kadir-Alan, (Kaza of Erbao), and again two
houses in the village Sahardja and two houses at Karamouch, (Kaza of
Ladik), and the churches were completely plundered and everything sacred
were trampled. As Hassan Tchouch found refuge in the district of the
Kaza Vehir Kioprou, the Kemalists proceeded to ruining of the following
Greek villages: Ersandouk, Saradjik, Kaplan, Kodja, Daout Yourd,
Poutsouk and Tchift. In the village Kaplan 12 Greeks were killed,
amongst whom, were the mouchtar of the village, Panayoti Hadji Mihail,
Yanni Hodja and his brothers Theodoros, Haralambos and Pavlos Papazoglou.
All crimes, plunderings and violations were chiefly committed by
bashibozouks of the districts of Kavza and Kioprou. They were encouraged
in their deeds by the presence of regular troops and so they thought of
using the occasion and cause a complete catastrophe wherever they could.
PROVINCE OF NEOCESSAREA
Since the very first days of the Armistice, the Turkish Government
officials, as well as all other private Turks, have adopted a menacing
attitude against the Christians. Rumours about imminent massacres were
going about every day, and the terrorised Christians did not dare to
come out of their houses and attend to their ordinary agricultural work.
This anxiety was continuously increasing in consequence of the fact that
the local Authorities had begun to publicly furnish arms to the Turks.
On March 29th 1919 , a Turkish band attacked between Phalsa and Oinoi,
several refugees, who were returning to their homes from Oinoi, Ordou
and Kerassund. One of these refugees was pitilessly thrashed and
wounded, while all the rest were completely robbed. On the 31st of the
same month, in the village Elez-kyoi, (Kaza of Ordou) and at the place
called Boulama, Turks killed the Greek George Tsilinguiroglou, in his
During the month of September of 1919, the Greek John Panayot Reis, was
cut to pieces between Samsoun and Oinoi. In the middle of the same
month, Aristidis Simitos, a native of Oinoi, was returning from Ratoum
on board his own motor-boat and he moored in the bay of Kerasund . The
following day he intended to continue his journey to Oinoi; but the
Turks forced him to tug with his motorboat, another boat with six Lazes
on board and take them to Ordou. No sooner they had left port, the Lazes
began shooting heavily against the motorboat. Under this rain of
bullets, the helmsman, Kyriako Pambou, from Oinoi, fell dead, mortally
wounded in his head and another Turk together with an Armenian were also
wounded. The captain cut off the ropes and going full speed, he
succeeded to save himself.
In the middle of October 1919, the 3rd Turkish Army Corps instructed
telegraphically the Municipal Prefect of Oinoi to try and persuade the
Greeks to sign documents refuting all crimes committed by the Turks
against the Christians and stating that in the interior of the district
reins perfect lawfulness and tranquillity. The Metropolitan of
Neocesarea however, gave the due reply, at a moment when from all parts
of the Province news were reaching him of violations and plunderings
committed by Turkish bands. Such a state and even worse continued in the
On June 6th 1920 , armed Lazes attacked the village Sinanli, plundered
all t clothes, provisions and beasts of the peasants, and went away. On
June 8th, the same things happened in the village Annaiclf, which the
Turks have ruined completely, not failing to wound two peasants at the
same time. A few days later, the Greeks Andreas Efthimiou Orphanides,
Panayotis Har. Batzaktsoglou, Michael Nic. Batsaktsoglou and Constantine
S. Orphanides, all natives of Aria, were killed by Turkish bands between
Kabatooz and Pakadjak. Likewise, Stylianos Efst. Terpsenides, natives of
Alitsen, Anastasios Geor. Kalaidjoglou, Angelos X. A. Karipoglou,
natives of Armaleli, Haralambos K. Manousarides, native af Guiavouriki,
and Kyriako Karipides, native of Mcsssudie and two other boys, were
literally slaughtered by Turkish bandits, while going to Messoitdie.
On June 25th, about 3000 antikemalists have made an assault against the
Kemalists at Ziles and by putting fire to the city, have burned down to
ashes all of it, including six houses belonging to Greeks.
About the middle of September Kemalists burned and ruined the Greek
villages of the Kaza of Erbna. Seven houses in the village Entik-Pounar,
six houses in the village Heriz-Dagh, four in the village
Guiok-Tssukour, three houses in each of the villages Guiol-Ognou,
Fadara, Hadji Bey and Kil-Yoldouren, and two houses in each of the
villages Djebrail and Kelemiz, were all burned down. Besides many human
losses are to be reckoned.
In a report of the Greek community of Falsa dated October 19th, states:
“The oppressions, the tyrannies and persecutions against the Greek
element from the Nationalists are always continued systematically and
premeditatedly.... We are under full anarchy …. About a month ago Greek
families coming here from the interior, were robbed on the way. Their
losses amount to more than 10,000 liras. Besides, two Greeks were
murdered. A few days ago in the centre of the City shops and houses were
plundered. The losses amount to 3,000 liras. Three days ago Turks have
stolen the motor-boat of a Greek, which was lying in the bay of Oinoi ,
and have killed three Greek sailors. We are terrorized. At night we are
shut inside our houses, not knowing what may happen the following day.
We are continuously sitting on the top of an active volcano…..”
Mgr. Policarpos, Metropolitan of Neocesarea, while returning back to his
diocese in the middle of October, he was compelled to go back to
Constantinople , because the Police Authorities did allow him to land
neither at Inebolit or at Ounie, or at Ordou.
PROVINCE OF TREBIZONDE
The plunderings and murders against Christians became very frequent from
the very first day of the Armistice in the Vilayet of Trebizonde, to
such an extent, that the peasants abandoning everything were compelled
to find refuge to Trebizonde to save their honour and their lives. There
was a complete lack of security.
On the evening of July 14th 1919 , the Greek Panayoti Efstratiou
Petridis, was shot dead in the village Okhtcha. He was doing his
military service and was the support not only of his own family,
comprising 10 members, but also of the family of his brother.
On the night of July the 5th Turkish brigands slaughtered the Greek
Aristidis Frangoulidis in his own chop, situated in the quarter Pelras
of the village Tsikoli, at Sourmena. On the night of the 19th the same
month, a band of ten Turkish brigands, entered the house of Apostolos
Foundoukoglou, situated at Kelonissa, of Sourmena, forcing the gate, and
after thrashing him pitilessly, they robbed all his money, furniture, etc.
On July the 22nd, three Greeks, Apostolos Nicolaidis, a grocer from the
village Assou, Dimitrios Frangoulidis, a grocer from the village
Tsikoli, and Spiridon Gourzoulidis, a blacksmith from Tsikoli, all of
them working in the small bazaar of Assou, after closing their shops in
the evening were returning to their houses at Tsikoli, about twenty
minutes away from the bazaars. On entering to their village, four armed
Turks waiting in ambush, fired at them, and killed Apostolos Nicolaidis,
wounding the other two. Of these, Spiridon Gourzoulidis also would have
been shot dead, if he had not fallen down and pretended to be dead. As
for Dimitrios Frangoulidis, he was wounded in his belly and if he had
not creped to avoid the bullets fired against him, he also would
doubtless been killed. The murderers, appeared to be only four, but in
reality they had other armed acolytes as well. After the attack have all
left perfectly unmolested.
On August 2nd, the Greek, John Har. Moumoulidis, from Tsikoli, while
going to his shop, at Assou-han, and only twenty minutes away from the
village, was repeatedly fired at, by several unknown persons, lying in
ambush on the road, and seriously wounded on his shoulder.
The continuous murders of the Christians were terrorising the whole
Community of Sourmena and particularly the inhabitants of the village
Tsikoli, population of Sourmena dit not know what to do for the safety
of their lives. Robberies and even occasionally violations of women were
openly committed every day on the main road of Trebizond-Argyroupolis,
four hours away from Trebizonde.
The Metropolitan of Trebizonde wrote on August 11th: “The situation
becomes every day worse and worse, partial security little by little
disappears, and the hatred against the Greek element is continuously
increasing. According to our information, whole bands of armed local
Turks are continuously coming up from Sourmena. The day before yesterday
two Greek young men were most tragically killed at Kromni. The situation
at Galliani and generally in Matsouka, is very troubled and precarious,
becoming every day worse and more problematic. All the Turks are ready
to rise up for internal revolutions. One half of the Moslem population
at Matsouka has already been armed and the other half, coming in groups,
receives arms and ammunition in the city of Trebizond, both from other
Moslems and from the Government Authorities. Four days ago an armed band
of well known Turks entered at night in the village Tsimcrcu Moudjeni of
Toroul and literally plundered it. The situation at Sourmena gets
likewise worse and worse. On the 9th of September, the day on which the
bazaar of Houmiourkian takes place, while the Greek Petro Kazandjidis
was going to that market, was attacked in the middle of the street by a
band of brigands, who were waiting in ambush. The band arrested him and
kidnapped him to an unknown destination and at the same time fired ten
bullets in order to frighten the crowd of the people and keep them far.
The plan was premeditated. We have at once informed the Captain of the
Gendarmerie, who only two whole hours after the kidnapping, has ordered
enquiries to be made. The fate of Kazandjides, who perhaps was killed,
remains unknown. It is rumoured that many other Christians will be ill
treated. Three days ago, a band of brigands plundered at night five
Christian shops in Assou-han, although there is a Gendarmerie station
and there, as well as night-watchmen... On the first days of the same
month, the infamous murderer Souleyman Kalfa, entered in the village
Sourmanoi (Galliani), with 15 of his acolytes and other gendarmes, and
pitilessly thrashed a Greek named Ilia.”
Messona, of the village Yemoura, Kaza of Tre-bizond. On September 7th,
1919 , the Greek, Avraam Kimonidis, a native of the village Santa, was
shot dead near his mill, situated in the quarter Varvara of the village
Sourmena. On the night of the 4th—5th of September, a band of brigands
approached the house of Sotirios Salonikides in the village Assou.
Sotirios' wife opened the window to see what happens outside. At that
moment one of the brigands caught her hand; she began to cry out and her
husband ran to her. Then another brigand fired at him and wounded him so
seriously, that he died two hours later,
Hodj Kerassea. On the 9th of the same month, two armed Turks came to the
house of Nico Metaxa in the evening and kidnapped his son John, leaving
at the same time a letter by which they were demanding a ransom of 2000
liras, to be paid within three days...
Herriana. (Caza of Arghiroupolis). About the same month, the Greek
Vasilios Tazidis, watchman of the village Upper-Tarsus arm, was shot
while he was inside the village. In the villages of Herriana, in which
Christians had fled from the interior for refuge, the provisions and
beasts of those poor men, which were given to them by the American
Relief Committee, were taken away. It was made known that the Government
took them, in order to secure the collection of arreared debts of the
Christians to the Authorities.
Kapikyoi Kondou. On September 12th, 1919 , while Nicolas Bektassidis was
grazing the sheep of his uncle Panayoti, the Commanding Officer of
Arghiroupolis sent seven cavalry gendarmes, who took by force 28 sheep
and carried them to Djevizlik.
Sourmena-Arukli. At daybreak of September 13th a motor boat in the port
of Arakli Sourmcna , caught fire and was burned. The vessel belonged to
a few Greeks from Kerasund and had on board 13 Greek young men, of well
known families of Trebizonde and Kerasund. The boat was anchored in the
bay and in the meantime Turkish brigands taking advantage of the
darkness, killed every single man on board, took the cargo, which they
sold at Aragli, and then set fire to the vessel, to make belive that an
accident had taken place. The perpetrators of this crime are the
infamous brothers Ismail Tsepioglou, a renowned old family of
Janisaries. All crimes committed in that district were due to that
family. Everything else committed by others, was due to the instigation
of those monsters.
Kouhla. On the evening of Friday October the 9th Greek John Leoussidis,
was wounded with a pistol in the elbow of his right hand, in his right
leg while he was in his house by Temel Ouzoun Mehmedoglou,
Tiroul—Mouzena—Tsimera. On October 11th two men and three women were
going from Trebizonde to their village Tsimera. As they were passing
over the mountain Altas, there were repeatedly fired at by two brigands,
who compelled them to stop. After robbing them, the brigands killed
Lazaros Moshopoulos and wounded one woman called Mari Gueivenidis and
the other man called George Moshopoulos
Mahmad-Bogazi of the village Acrid, Kaza of Plalana. On October 19th
some Turks attacked the Greek Theodoras Kandjidis, a musician and
wounded him with a pistol. On the 26th, the poor man died.
Rizeon. On the evening of October 30th, Ismail Kiveloglou Yehiya, who a
year ago had killed the Greek, John Adamidis, from Rizound, went to the
house of Stavrianos Makridis and asked to see him personally. The
son-in-law of Makridis with two other Greeks, had been wildly
assassinated four months before. Ismail Yehiya had previously visited
Makrides and by threatening to kill him, had succeeded in obtaining some
money. This time Makridis was in his garden and only his wife and his
daughter were in the house. The girl, having suspected the violent
intentions of the murderer, informed her father, as he was coming back
from the garden, to get away. The mother of girl asked the murderer the
reason he wanted to see her husband. In reply the brigand attacked her
and hit her on her head with his bayonet. The poor woman fell shrieking
in pain and at that moment the murderer shot her dead. The mother-in-law
of the killed woman heard the cries from the next house and ran to see
what transpired. As she saw what happened to cry out, three bullets
were fired at her, and she fell dead
Hodj-Tamassea. On November 2nd, 1919 , at night, about 20 armed Turks
blockaded the house of Christoforos Parigori. The latter's wife began to
cry out, when the brigands opened fire at the house.
Komera (of the village Yemoura, Kaza of Trebizond ). On November 9th the
Greek, Isaak Koufadji, from Santa, having come from Trebizond ,
disappeared as he was returning in the evening to Komera.
Dirha (Caza of Trebizond ). On the evening of November 15th, eight armed
Turks from neighbouring villages, came to Dirha and entered the house,
carrying away with them every single thing.
In a report written by the Metropolitan of Trebizond, dated April 7th,
1920, it was stated among other things that: “The state of the Greeks
here and in the provinces is most critical, because the only Authority
ruling here is, the Committee of Union and Progress. This alone is, we
think, sufficient to give an idea of the situation…”
On June 19th, 1920 , it was communicated from Sourmena, that the
inhabitants of the Turkish village Zavli had imposed a personal tax on
the Christians, threatening them in case they even disclose the fact.
During this period, the Turkish villages Bation, Tsimilit, Kelema and
other villages, were robbing Christians. The band under Toursoun
Kantsoglou, of the village Ration, was doing the greatest mischief.
DIOCESE OF RODOPOLIS
The state of the villages of this diocese was very anomalous ever since
the first days after the Armistice. Nowhere was it safe with respect to
life and property. Bands of armed Turks appeared and the peasants did
not venture to move from one village to another, fearing they may fall
into these hands. Daily the country-police ill treated and even tortured
Christians, stealing from them whatever it desired, whilst the
governmental machinery was in a state of disorganization and in dissolution.
On October 30th, 1918 , an armed Turkish band attacked the village of
Livadia , literally plundered it and killed a lady named Zoe A. Vassiliadou.
On November 1st, 1918 , another band of Turkish robbers attacked and
sacked the village Cotylia.
On the first days of January, 1919, the Turks living around the
“Kremasti” nunnery (run by the Monastery of Vazelon) broke into the
establishment, removed whatever they could from it, even the doors and
windows and then destroyed it. At this same time, a strong Turkish band,
including natives of the villages Tsicanoe and Yaghmoordere as well as
of other areas, attacked a company of Santaeans numbering about 100 men
and women in all, as they were going from Trebizond to Santa. They
robbed them, when they reached a place called “Kimisli” and left after
killing seven men and three women.
Contemporary to the above was the finding of the corpses of Gabriel
Passalidis and of another man, both Santaeans, who had been killed by
robbers, natives of the Turkish villages of Ashia and of Kolosia, laying
on the road joining them.
In the district of Galiaene as well as all over the diocese, numerous
assaults and acts of violence and murder were made by robbers and bands.
These bands violated also the holy Monastery of Vazelon. Armed soldiers
assailed the Metropolitan Bishop of Rodopolis on his way to the said
monastery and robbed him of all his money. On another occasion his
Episcopal residence in the village of Yiannacanta was besieged by
Toward the and of the same mouth, the villages Mantanton, Kostorton and
Hava Dzindzin (of the neighbourhood of Spelia) were surrounded by Turks
of the villages of in same neighbourhood. John Pargorides and Parthena
Tolphidou were killed, Christodoulos Terpsides was wounded and the
peasants underwent an exhaustive pillage.
On March 7th, 1919 , a Turkish gang attacked a group of two men and
women (natives of Pistofanta, district of Santa), who were going to the
village Ouz of Ghempoura, massacred them and stole whatever they possessed.
Simultaneously with the above, murderous assaults and robberies were
committed in all the remaining districts of the diocese and particularly
in the villages of Scalita and Sachnoe. All thirteen villages of the
Galliana district were destroyed, after been plundered and oppressed
with particular persistence. The village of Romanos (Tsangar) was
On the 8th of July 1919, a Turk, named Hussein, was murdered at
Kirli-Klisse near the Djevizlik-Hamsi-Kieui road. The murderers were
Turkish robbers, but the Turks attributed the crime to the inhabitants
of the Christian village Hortocopi and with this pretext they resorted
to all kinds of acts of violence theft and adultery. The Bishop of
Rodopolis wrote about these events on July 9th: “On the day following
the murder, three hours before sunrise, country-guards came to Hortocopi
from Djevizlik and on an order from its Governor, asked for three of its
notables. When they took one of them and were proceeding to the house of
the next notable K. Evghenides, suddenly came reports of gun burst from
the center of the village. The moment of the massacre of the villagers
had come and in great terror they took their wives and children to a
neighbouring forest, where they hid themselves. Fifteen minutes had
hardly elapsed, when about 100 Turkish Tsets (irregulars) coming from
afar and from neighbouring Turkish villages, entered the Christian
village, pillaged the houses and beat mercilessly those of the
inhabitants who had stayed behind, nine of whom after been tortured in
several ways, were conducted away to Djevizlik prisons, where they were
beaten for three days in succession. Such wild desire for vengeance
possessed the Tsets when they broke into the village, that they cruelly
beat and wounded Palassa Papagherides, George Papagherides, Constantine
Havianitis, Kyriaki Carayannidou, Aristocles Hadji Petrou, Apostolos
Hadjidakis, Sophia Apostolides, Elizabeth Hadji-Panaghi, Anastasios
Lamprianides, Anasta Carteridou, Christopher Caraghiozides, Anastasios
Michaelides, Apostolos Christophorides, Kyriaki Caffedzoglou, Anasta
Vassiliadou and Paressa Tsa-houridou. Many ladies and virgins were
dishonoured. Among them were Kyriaki Papagheridou, Calliopi Apostolidou
and Kyriaki Carayannidou. The aforesaid murder gave the Turks inhabiting
of my diocese, a chance to show very openly their bad dispositions
towards the unarmed and peace-loving Christians of my villages. The
heads of my communities saw that bands were being formed and all the
Turks were being armed, preparing themselves for new attacks on my
villages. Thus they found it necessary to inform the British and French
commissions at Trebizond about these dangers and asked that necessary
measures be taken for the safety of their life, honour and property.”
The penal law-court of Djevizlik condemned Kyriakos Amanatides, (of
Sachnoe), John Calaidjoghlou (of Daniacha) and Panayotis Marmanides (of
Hamouri) as perpetrators of the murder mentioned above. But on the 27th,
of August 1919, the three men were acquitted by the superior law-court
of Trebizond and were consequently set free. Panayotis Mannanides, one
of the three, went home where he received a visit by Hassan, a nephew of
Hussein who had been murdered. Hassan was accompanied by another Turk.
When they had been entertained and they were taking leave of their host,
they fired at the people in the house and killed Panayotis and his
father Evstathios. On the 12th of the same month, the Bishop's
representative in the district of Skelia was killed in his field, half
an hour's distance away.
On November 23rd, 1919 , a band of robbers entered the house of John
Tagtevernides in the village Romanes and killed him. He was the Bishop's
representative of the district of Galliana. This band, headed by
Moustapha Ghetimoli, committed regularly undisturbed acts of violence
and exacted money from the peasants of this district. On January 1920
they tortured frightfully Apostolos Emmanuelides of Koutsilanta village,
burning his hands and feet to compel him to give them the sum of Ltqs
100 they demanded from him.
A report of the 3rd of March, 1920 , accused the military functionaries
Bachri and Ali, staying in the village Hapsikeui, of insulting, beating,
wounding and plundering peasants. This state of things was more
pronounced particularly in the district of Galliana, where government
officials and Turkish citizens cooperated to this effect. A report on
May 23rd, 1920 , undersigned by the notables of many communities of this
diocese, depicts the situation as follows: “It is a question of
existence for us. The pending danger of our complete extermination
obliges us to toll the bell of despair. Ever since the re-occupation,
neither honour nor property, has been left to us and a thousand
atrocities have been committed on us by force of threats, of slander and
of treacherous tricks. This situation is going from bad to worse. We
have no hope of its amelioration and we raise our cry of despair asking
for our safety or for our free exit from these districts, where those in
power consider us as beasts, not as men. We, as peace loving people,
have undergone exactions, thefts, arbitrary seizures, damages, fire, in
short, all kinds of pillaging. We have showed ourselves generous, hoping
that we would at least be allowed to live like animals. Our hope was to
meet with disappointment. Gangs of deserters and of robbers, whose
organization is due to the government's negligence to dissolve them
promptly, steal and sack, day and night. And instead of the criminals,
they arrest the farmer in his field, the workman in his shop and by
means of sophisms accuse us of the perpetration of these crimes. Lately
at Koushane, a band attacked some carts. A man from Tsirabanta,
travelling with the cart’s divers, was arrested as culpable and another
person from Zavera, although veryfied by many witnesses that he was in
his shop, and two persons from Hortocopi. They succeeded in having the
carts divers bear testimony against these men and killed Apostolos
Karypides of Counaka ou his way to his field, considering him as a spy.”
A Turk was murdered by unknown persons and at the beginning of June
1920. A number of soldiers were sent to Santa to arrest the so called
Santaean murderers. The soldiers stayed there for more than 2 1)2 months
arresting, imprisoning and beating Christians to death. Only toward the
middle of August were the local authorities convinced of the innocence
of the quiet loving Santaeans and the soldiery were removed.
DIOCESE OF CHALDAEA
The acts of violence and the murderous assaults continued with the same
vigour all over this diocese. The Turks' insolence and fanaticism grew
more threatening, chiefly in the open country. The Government was
incapable of imposing the law, with its instruments distinguishing
themselves in the persecutions of Christians. The supporters of the
Union and Progress Party prevented the repatriation of the refugees, by
accusing them of crimes during the Russian occupation. The court-martial
of Erzeroum accepted these charges without making inquests and ordered
that the accused be presented iron-bound before it.
In March 1918, governmental officials and police-officers together with
many Turkish citizens, natives of Ak Dagh maden, Boghazlian, of Yozgat
(Vilayet or Angora) and of Yeni Hani (Villayet of Sivas), accused of
having participated in the Armenian massacres and the pillaging of the
property of Christians, formed a gang and attacked the Christians of the
above districts, plundering and sacking their property completely.
In April 1919, John Spyrou and George Dimitriou of Boghoulan village
(Keskin section), were accompanying, together with others, five newly
married couples, going to a neighbouring village. Armed Kurds fell on
them on the way, bound up the men's eyes and led the brides elsewhere to
violate their honour.
Towards the middle of the same month, Abraham Bodossoglou of the village
of Tsati Kim er (Ak Dagh Maden), was thrown into prison on a slanderous
accusation and died of the tortures to which he was put.
A gang of robbers headed by Topouz Oghlou Ahmed of Ordoti molested the
Christians between Boulandjaki and Abdal.
In May, 1920, the Kerassurde-Karahissar highway communication was
stopped. Bands, armed in the vicinity of Tripolis, terrorized the
Christians of Kerassunde, Boulandzaki and of the country round.
On August 13th, 1920 , armed Turks beat and oppressed many peasants of
the villages of Tzanghoul and Divan until they handed over to them a
good deal of precious metals, food supplies and clothing.
In October 1920, armed Turks took prisoner some women and children and
the following men: Kyriakos Psomiades, Savas and Elias Pime-nides,
George Havianides, Panayotis Cotsides, and Elias Pimenides, all of the
village of Aghalik maden. After beating them, they stripped them naked.
Two women and a child died of fright.
On October 27th, the peasants Pandelis Dzemahides, Panay Castanides,
Elias Pimenides and Kyriakos Emanuelides were going from Kerassunde to
Espen in a boat. Opposite Caledjik they were fired at by Turks, who were
in another boat. Kyriakos Emanuelides was killed. At the same time
Turkish policemen killed Lazaros Abadjiades of Tokouz (Ak Dagh Maden
district while he was at Kourtenimi.
A report of November 26th, 1920 , from Arghiroupolls mentions that
murders, thefts and plunderings were the order of the day; that the
situation became worse and two months earlier (September 1920) a
Christian was killed in the middle of the market by a Turk who was
afterwards helped to escape from prison. On the 28th of the same month,
K. Mourat and K. Pelkimbachi of Kouscaya village and George J. Kotoglou
of Yamourdja village on their way home from Kerassunde were assailed by
the followers of Koti Ibrahim near the Poghatsaki Mill. The last one of
the three was killed.
In April 1920, assaults, acts of dishonour, of violence and of theft,
took place in the communities of Poulantzaki, Kguskaya and Yaghlidere.
In May 1920, the mayor of Kerassunde, Osrnan Agha, a savage persecutor
of Christians, making the tour of the Christian villages armed,
committed all kinds of acts of cruelty and massacred 15 Christian
peasants of Goreli and Courouk in a most atrocious manner.
On July 5th, 1920, robbers led by Kior-Salih of Vesserna entered the
villages of Upper Kermont, Castrineta and Soutou and after beating the
peasants and robbing their property departed, conducting away five men
whom they massacred.
The surroundings of Kerassunde were plundered and oppressed by Osman
Agha. In July 1920, the members of the National Defence who were at
Boulandjaki, one night summoned before them Jordan J. Pastourmadji and
slew him, on the pretext that it was not in the interest of their
district to have educated youths among the Turks. Later on they arrested
25 other young men who it was said they have sent to labour in the
defence projects around Kerassunde. On April 20, from the same also
community, youths were arrested for the same purpose and Panayotis
Mihailidis and his wife were killed.
DIOCESE OF COLONIA
(KARA HISSAR CAHRKI)
This destructive work of the “Young Turks” during the War did not end
after the Armistice. The governmental officials, always adhering to the
“ Union and Progress” Party and subject to instigations from higher
circles, continued their activities in trying to excite the fanaticism
of the Turkish populace for the annihilation of the remaining Christian
On April 24th, 1919 , George and Eleftherios Tsiranides of Troupsi, on
their way to neighbouring villages to sell cloth, were robbed and killed
by Cara Mehmed of Firetoukse.
The district of Epesiou was tried quite hard. A report of May 1919,
mentioned that the Christians expelled by the Turks, upon returning from
exile, were killed. This happened in the villages of Troupsi, Paltsena,
Epola and Kiamissi, where the families of Eleftherios Toroman, George
Tekes and Michael Apostolou were slaughtered by Tsataloglou Mehmed,
Tapanoglou Halil and Sai'd as soon as they reached home.
On June 29th, 1919, John Aracadjoglou, Elias Berberoglous Lazarus
Tongharoglou, Savas Keshishoglou and John Tongharoglou went to get food
supplies from Koliasar; eight hours' distance from their village. They
were savagely slaughtered with axes near the Kurdish village Zarghona.
This monstrous crime was discovered ten days later and caused a panic
among the Christian inhabitants of Kovadzouk, the native village of the
victims. They prepared to emigrate to some other place.
On July 8th, 1919 , Nicolas Papadopoulos, his brother Peter and his
nephew Christos of Inayet village, Tourouch district, who were working
near the Iman of Tsatal Tsam village (Kerassunde Mutes-sartflik),
suddenly disappeared. On the 10th of the same month Theodore Potouridis
disappeared. He was a native of Litsasa (Kara-Hissar section), a
peace-loving man and a good head of a family. His disappearance occurred
as he was going to the pasture-lands near Eghri-Pel mountain on the
Kerassunde Kara-Hissar highway. On the 18th of the same month, Nicolas
Semerdjides, Pandelis Costanoglou, and Anastasios Biticoglou of
Deirmen-Tache village, were beaten mercilessly and stripped of whatever
they had with themselves, on the Messoudie Koliassar road.
At the beginning of November, 1919 two young ladies, Sophia Christou
Demirdji and Catherine Sava Demirdji, both of Karadja village,
(Karahissardistrict), were accompanied by Christians from Kerassunde to
Kara-Hissar. Three policemen posted on the highway, near Ayou Tepe
(because of the systematic thefts and robberies committed in the
district) detained the girls by force, after beating fiercely the men
accompanying them, and them violated their honour, leading them away to
an unknown direction.
The above incident justly grieved the Christians of Kara Hissar, who for
five entire years had seen many similar victims seized from the refuge
of their Christian homes. They were all the more grieved because in this
case government organs of Kerassunde were incriminated, to whom the
protection of the life, the honour and the property of the travellers
had been entrusted.
It must be noted that during this time the Kerassunde-Kara-Hissar
highway became a robbers' nest, whose presence not only interrupted
communication for several days at a time, but also rendered impossible
every commercial enterprise. The policemen guarding this highway had
been recruited from that class of people, who had not spared their
services in the application of the program for the destruction of the
Christian element. Hence they were the most significant and the fiercest
initiators in the robberies committed on this highway. The honour and
the property of the Christians continued to be the target of the
incorrigible Turkish element in the provinces.
From the first days of May 1920, a real reign of terror of the mayor of
Kerassunde Osman Agha Feridinoglou reigned over this diocese. When he
arrived at Kara-Hissar, he did not respect even the post and the garb of
the patriarchal representative there, Bishop Ghervasios of Sivas . A
report dated May 29th , 1920 , mentions the following: “The Mayor of
Kerassunde Topal Osman Feridinoglou made a tour on the pretext of
arresting escaped prisoners. The truth was that he got together a gang
of varoius criminal elements numbering 170 men and went around the
diocese of Colonia, burning, slaying and sacking, dishonouring youths
and girls and driving away innumerable cattle. He went to Kara-Hissar on
the pretext of seizing guns and ammunition. There he met with
Kel-Hassan, a terrible criminal, whose adherents he took with him, thus
forming a terror inspiring gang, which the local military and police
authorities did no endeavour to drive off and which took to plundering
the houses and shops of the Christians. The destruction began on May
23rd and lasted 4 whole days. Osman's adherents became savage horse
riders, having stolen horses and money from the Christians. They
attacked the Holy Metropolitan Residence, beat Bishop Ghervaasios
mercilessly, and obliged him to sell the oxen bought with American
relief funds and pays Osman 303 Turkish liras, in addition to the price
of the cattle driven away by the latter. Besides this, the outlaws
dishonoured many virgins and newly married young ladies, killed 17
Christians and then went away. They obliged Kel-Hassan to organize a
band of 30 men, to sack the flourishing Greek community of Merkez
(Alondjera). Communication between Nicopolis and Kerassunde was stopped
for fear of Topal Osman. The Bishop was always confined and a panic
seized the inhabitants.
From the 12th of July to this day, Halil Topanoglou and his accomplice
Serif Ali, as well as the instruments of the persecutor of the
Christians Osman Agha, have killed in the village of Paltsane the priest
Panaretos Papadopoulos, Thomas Thomaides Panayotis Toumanides, together
with his wife and mother, Theodore Sideropoulos, Panayotis Carayannides
and George Djeiloglou. At Carakevelet, they killed Pan. Poursaitas, John
Hotipanides and St. Hozanitas. At Trouptsi they killed Pan. Paramelides,
whose daughter in law they took away and Michael Semerdjis. At Habavla
they killed Or. Pascalides, led away Semeli, daughter of John Hourmides,
and violated the honour of Parthena Tsedeme, of Anastasia Toumanides and
of Helen Demirdjoglou.
DIOCESE OF KERASSUNDE
It has not been possible for the Patriarchate to be informed on events
in this diocese, on account of the lack of regular communications with
it. But it is known with certainty that since the conclusion of the
Armistice the terror has incessantly been reigning over it. Osman Agha
Feridinoglou, the Satrap of Kerassunde had full freedom and absolute
right to do whatever his savage soul dictated to him, always having
Hakki Bey Lardjin Zade as his assistant and adviser. What the Christians
of this community have suffered under him is indescribable. His crimes
could make up an entire volume. We limit ourselves to the following for
the present. Even the Turks could not conduct their bisiness, unless
they promised to give him the lion's share of their profits. Otherwise
they were prevented from loading their goods for sale. He tore down a
whole row of buildings, newly built and for their greater part belonging
to Greeks, on the ground that he wanted to widen the street, but in
reality he wanted to raise the value property he had bought near by. He
was the cause of many losses to Greek alcohol manufacturers, for he
confiscated and poured into the sea thousands of okes alcohol. He drove
out numerous Greeks from shops they rented and replaced them with Turks.
He obliged those who had bought property from Turks before the war, to
restore it to them, receiving the equivalent in paper money of what they
had paid at the time of the purchase. The local administrative judicial
and ather authorities were functioning according to his nods,
imprisoning or acquitting at the notifications or orders of the tyrant.
He obtained great sums of money from the Greeks, for having the
coast line guarded against any landing of foreign troops there. He
terrorized the Christian population of the city with bands of robbers,
which he sustained until they became the scourge of the Christians,
beating and robbing whomsoever they pleased.
About the middle of June 1920, a Greek motor boat of 400 tons, coming
from Batoum had to stop at Kerassunde because of engine damage. The crew
of the boat, consisting of captain Marinos Mariades with his French
wife, two Russians, possessing some eight or nine millions roubles and
nine other persons were caught as prisoners of war by Osman Agha and put
into jail 20 or 25 days. Later he sent them to the interior with the
exception of the French wife of the captain. The men were killed at a
distance of two kilometers from Kerassunde and the French lady was sent
to Constantinople to be informed as they told her of her husband's fate.
Toward the end of the same month Osman Agha Feridinoglou killed
Thomaidis, the only Greek physician of the city, in the following tragic
way: He had him invited to be present together with three other Turkish
physicians at the birth of a child. On reaching the house they were told
that they had to examine an insane person. They all went in, Thomaides
accompanied by his father, who suspected some danger. They were received
by a cut-throat, armed to the teeth. Two of the Turkish doctors escaped,
by jumping out of a window. Thomaides and the third doctor were killed
by the murderer, together with Totnaides' father, who had run to his
son's assistance. The event was immediately reported to the governor of
Trebizond and he ordered the murderer to be taken there. Meanwhile
Osman's organs presented the criminal as insane and before he reached
Trebizond , helped him escape from the boat he had embarked on.
After a diligently woven up calumny about the violation of a Mohammedan
girl's honor by a certain Greek named Panayotis, f rom fifty to sixty
Christians bearing this name and fifteen women were arrested and beaten
pitilessly by the organs of Osman. Two of the men, named Panayotis H.
Sekirkenides and Panayotis A. Seitanides were led away to a villa of
Osman Agha where they were slaughtered after undergoing the cruellest of
At the beginning of August 1920, a rumour spread in Kerassunde, that
allied men-of-war were on their way there. Satrap Osman Agha immediately
sent the Turkish inhabitants to the interior, leaving the Christians in
the city. Then he asked a few Turks, who still remained there and
certain Christian notables, to confer in common about confronting the
enemy. The Christians knew the real purpose of the invitation and they
did not show up. On the day after, a systematic search was made in the
Christians homes and persons hiding were discovered. These were to be
sent to koulak-Kaya, where Osman Agha had his victims slaughtered.
Wailing and crying followed the Agar's decision. Women come to him in
tears and on their knees beseeched him to change his mind, for they knew
that slaughter was awaiting those arrested. Osman was convinced, it is
not known how and he spared them but he confined 500 of them in the
school as hostages, who he swore solemnly to massacre if the infidels
(Englishmen, Frenchmen, and Greeks) dared land at Kerassunde. These 500
were guarded by custodians, murderous instruments of Osman Agha and were
allowed in groups of 10-12 to see their families now and then and return
to the school again.
A report received in August, 1920, contained among other points, the
following: “The financial condition of the inhabitants of Kerassunde is
frightful. The horrors of famine threaten all the Christians. They come
as the natural consequence of taxation, surpassing all limits, heavily
oppressive, sucking the very blood of the unlucky people. What a
deplorable situation! For need of money, they sell the last jewels,
articles of furniture and the like, which they have left, in order to
satisfy the greed of the Ottoman gluttons. Undergoing constantly the
most straining exaction, lacking the necessary means to make up for a
part at least of their financial privations, having always before them
the picture of daily arrests and of exile, they avoid leaving their
homes to look for means of living. The few owners of shops stay at home
for the same reasons and their shops remain shut except for a few hours,
according to the will of the monster, Osman Agha, so that his heroes may
have a chance to lay hands on what they may like to appropriate for
The news received at the Patriarchate during the last days certifies
that the situation of the Christian population of Pontus is more than
dangerous. Between the 23rd and the 28th of October 1920, all Greek
citizens of Trebizond , Kerassunde, Ordou, Sinope, Partenion and
Inebolis were sent to exile. On November 4th the Greek citizens of
Amissos suffered the same fate. The property of all these people was
about to be confiscated.
OF CENTRAL AND
DIOCESE OF CAESAREA
From the beginning, robberies had taken such an extent in all the
districts of Ceasarea, that communication between the different villages
had completely stopped.
On April 1919, Stephen Charalambous and Savas Anastasiou from Koumourtse
were killed. The latter was in company of his son. They were returning
from Sis, in the province of Adana , where had gone for provisions.
Nicolas Tserah, returning from Azizie, province of Sivas, was killed
between the two villages of Kourbali and Ouzoun Bounar and stripped of
all he had with him.
In the community of Urkub the exciseman of Eyub, for a small amount owed
by the community, beat cruelly the Sexton of the Church of S. John and
then entered the Church, took away all the holy objects from the Altar
and sold them in a public auction.
On the 20th of May, 1919 , Theognosia Ab. Pamboutsoglou and some other
women left New Shehir with their children for the Capital. They fell in
the hands of highwaymen, who tortured them and took away what they had.
On 25th of May 1920, about a thousand Circassiens entered Yosgast and
held it for 14 days. On the 21st of June, when the town was occupied
again by the Kemalist troops, the Circassiens, under the supervision of
their commander Edhem Bey, began first to plunder and then to massacre
all Greeks and Armenians. The slaughter took place in the market-place,
so no one could be saved. Many girls were violated, many houses were set
on fire and many were wounded. Their corpses after four days were
gathered and by cleaning “caits” and without any religious ceremony,
were thrown into a ditch outside the town. Among the killed is Rev. John
Architectonides, Parish-Priest of Keugloukioi in the province of Amissos
. He was killed because he refused to point out the rich of the town.
The other fifty massacred were: Michael Kohiroglou, Abraham and John
Choudaverdoglou, Athina Papazoglou, Charalambos Kesisoglou, Anesti his
son in law, Kyriakos, Anastasios Prokopiadis, Charalambos his son and
his wife, teacher Anastasios, John Arzoumanides, George Sarafides,
Thomas Papazoglou, Philip Papazoglou, Savas Savaides, Jordan Anastasios
Tsakirides, George Efinoglou, Gregory Efinoglou, Savas Artizoglou,
Gabriel Taiploglou, Anastasios Adosides, George Butcher and his son
Michael, Charalambos Charapasides, Constantin Tyamouglou and his wife
Helen, Theologue Gregory, Nicolas Ananiades, Elias Mouratoglou, Larzaous
Saviades, Cyprian Jordanides, Basile Kazezoglou, Elias Kazezoglou and
his father Prodromos, Eleutherius Tsaousoglou, Mary Chatzi Anastasiou,
Joanakis Serafimidis, Theologue Sarafidis, Hatzi Maria, Gregory
Saatsoglou, Avitas, Charalambos Tachtzoglou, Ghothsimani, Paul Panoglou,
Stylianos Lanyer, Ananias Manoglou, Stylianos Kesisoglou and Sophia
On the 8th of September, 1919, the regular Kemalist army, under the
leadership of the infamous for his cruelty officer Djemil, entered the
village of Otsoglou (two hours away from Yosgat), and caused all the
villagers, 280 in number, and all Greek, to gathered in the church.
Then, after violating beastly all the women and girls in the presence of
their fathers, husbands and brothers, he killed them. Then he killed all
males, not excepting small babies. One baby was found killed, sucking
his slain mother. From this terrible slaughter only 24 people could
escape, having run away before the arrival of the troops. As the
Kemalist army had the intention to invade and massacre all the
surrounding villages, the poor inhabitants were obliged to leave their
homes and to go to the mountains, where many of them perished.
The situation in this district had always been unbearable and every day
was getting worse.
On January 5th, 1919 , in Malakopi, a girl under age, named Eirini
Michael Topoglou, was kidnapped by a Turk, Noury Islamoglou. She was
converted to Islam and then she was obliged to marry him. In February of
the same year, the adjutant of the 20th Battalion, went to a performance
given in the hotel “ Bagdad " in the community of Eregli, where he
ordered his soldiers to beat the watchmaker Apostolaki, who was wounded
On 14th of March, Agapios Ghianoglou from Permate, was killed near his
house in Konia , while he was drawing water. About the same time some
Turks from Caraman, entered the house of a Greek lady to steal and
having found her strangled, they then stabbed her. On the 30th of the
same month, in Nigdi Rifad, Zade Galil Bey seriously wounded with a
stick in the public market Basile Amfilochiadi, the school master of the
community. In April of the same year, Basile Atlamatis of Kelveri, was
killed between Kelveri and Nigdi.
At the end of May, 1919, some Christians from New Sehir, who had
benighted near Ak-Serai, were robbed, beaten and mutilated. In the same
month, Turkish brigands robbed all those passing from Eregli to
Ouloukisla ( Adana ). They killed two men and wounded twenty.
On the 27th of July, 1919 , in the courtyard of the Cathedral of Konia
and in some Christian houses the following threatening letter, signed
“Young Turkish Soldier”, was distributed: “Cursed goad! Fanatic infidel!
You have been fed with Turkish bread and in return you spread poison in
this country. It is known that for your sake Armenian women and children
have been killed. The rest ask to go to England for refuge, but been
unsuccessful, they complain to Europe through their representation in
Constantinople . But all in vain! You will be killed by our knives.
Don't believe that Djemal Pacha is dead. His partners are present. We
see that you prepare to establish your own state here. It is time that
the two thousand Christians here, die. Don't waste your time, because
your end is near.”
In September 1919, in Pozkir, Chrisafis Arslanoglou and mason George
where killed. Mason Pantelis, his wife Despina, the widow of the barber
George, her son Jordan, Socrates Ghiavroglou, his wife Rebeca and two
other masons were wounded.
On the 5th of October, 1919 , the shepherd Basile Christou from Antabak
(Kaire) was killed by the fanatic Turkish men Apaglou Djemal, Hakki, Kel
Mehmed Latif and Tsaouch Nedjib. On the 6th of the same month, Nicolas
Katrantzis from Kervali, returning from the Turkish village of lliso,
was killed by Turks, who afterwards extracted his eyes.
The Nationalist movement of Moustafa Kemal inspired the Turks hate and
fanaticism against everything Christian and Greek. Consequently the
Greeks, fearing to be massacred, tried to escape danger, by immigrating
to other countries.
DIOCESE OF ANGORA
Brigandage did not cease in the district of Angora and particularly in
Kaza of Haimana, where all business transactions among the non-Moslem
population were consequently completely paralyzed. The brigands remain
unpunished, because the Government Authorities claimed their gendarmerie
force was insufficient.
In July 1919, the miller George Vassiloglou was murdered at a spot, two
hours away from the station of Alpou Keuy, beyond the city of Eski Shehir .
The Christian communities were terrorized. The male Christians of Eski
Shehir were deported from the town, after being imprisoned and heavily
taxed. Violations and murders were perpetrated, details of which have
not yet been received. Houses of Christians were robbed of their
furniture and even of their windows.
Children 10 to 12 years of age were mercilessly beaten as they were
conducted to the military headquarters to be questioned if their
fathers, uncles or brothers were hiding and to disclose where they could
be found. Irregular and regular soldiers drove people out of their homes
and entering the Christian houses, carried away everything they wanted.
The town of Kutahia was the scene of indescribable atrocities, from the
day on which the fanatical Kemalists Tserkess Edhem Bey and Major Ismail
Hakky Bey arrived there. The latter followed by 150 chosen Albanians,
found no great difficulty in obtaining the assistance of the Turks of
Kutahia. After consulting with them, planned the annihilation of the
Greek and the other Christian elements, himself presiding in all those
acts of horror. He ordered that all Greeks be disarmed. His agents
searched the houses of several people. Two double-barreled guns were
found in the house of Anastas Abajoglou and the poor man was arrested.
While taken to the military headquarters, two hand-bombs were put by the
guards into his bag, which he was compelled to take along. He was then
brought into the presence of Edhem Bey, who ordered the poor man to be
hanged at once.
Some people in the district of Kutahia were called to enlist and the
Greek community of that town was asked to deliver 245 military rifles
with proportionate quantities of ammunition, for their exemption from
military service. But the Greeks of that town had no rifles and had to
purchase them. A committee was then formed by Messrs Anastasios
Symeonidis, a lawyer, and Yannakos Papadopoulos, a merchant, who were
given passes by Ismail Hakky Bey himself and went to the surrounding
villages to buying fire-arms. At the same time Ismail Hakky sent the
chieftain Pehlivan, at the head of a band of irregular soldiers to the
same villages. The aforesaid Anastasios Symeonidis and Yannakas
Papadopoulos, with their coach-driver Ilia Sakidji, were aprehended in
the middle of July by a band of rebels and were carried to Tcham-lidja,
a neighboring grove of pine-trees, near the village of Ova-Keuy, where
all three were tied with popes and killed after horrible tortures. The
bodies of the unfortunate men, with the assistance of villagers of
Ova-Keuy, were found by some Greeks four days after the crime, lead by
the dogs of the village. Anastasios Symeonides had his right thigh
pierced by a red-hot iron and had a deep bayonet wound in his stomach.
The toes of both his feet were separated by deep cuts and the soles of
his feet had wide wounds caused by a sharp tool. Yannakos Papadopoulos
and the coachman Ilias Sakidjis had deep wounds in their chests caused
by a sharp tool. These two men had apparently not been tortured. The
bodies were brought to the Greek cemetery of Kutahia, placed into a
casket and buried after a fourth victim, Constantinos Takinakoglou, was
added to their member, who had been killed in the outskirts of the town
on the previous day. The real perpetrators of these crimes were Edhem
and Ismail Hakky. To a committee of Greeks, which called upon them to
ask about the men who had not returned home, these officers replied that
they were sent to invite the Greek army to come and take possession of
Kutahia. They moreover threatened the committee with imprisonment.
Repeated murders followed the above mentioned crimes. Two Greeks,
Constantinos Demerdjis and Nicolas Abajis were murdered in a mill near
the town. Five others, Pandelis Karagiorzis, Haralambos Karabournis,
Anastasios Seraphimidis and two others whose names have not been
ascertained, were murdered by Tevfik Bey, Edhem Bey's brother, near the
village Tourgoutlar, after being tied by their hands at their backs with
a rope. These men's bodies had remained unburied. Lazaros Mihailidis and
three others were murdered by a Band of irregulars in a village where
they had gone to repair a Mosque. Costis Zeibekoglou, Dimitrios Akbabas
and three others, Armenian coachmen, were seized by Kemalists and forced
to go to the front at Getis. There the coaches and horses were taken
from them and the men were ordered to go back to where they had come
from. But only after walking a few steps, they were shot from behind and
Another measure of gradual annihilation was used against the defenseless
Greek population of Kutahia, as if all these crimes were not sufficient.
On the 28th of August, 27 notables of the Greek community were arrested
and following a plan, well organized beforehand, they were joined by
other men from the Armenian and Armeno-Catholic communities. Then they
all were unjustly displaced to Eski Shehir and thence to the district of
Angora. On the following day, a public herald announced that all
Christian males, above the age of 15, should assemble at an appointed
place, under penalty of death for disobedience. On assembling, all those
who could not walk, as well as the lame, blind and old, were thrown into
railway carriages and sent to Eski Shehir, while the remaining men, 543
Greeks and a few Armenians and Armeno-Chatolics, were marched off under
escort of gendarmes and irregulars. This last convoy was met near the
village Sofdji by a section of a regiment, which, while lead to Bolou by
Ismail Hakky Bey, had mutinied and killed all the Albanians entrusted by
him. The fierce Ismail Hakky was also severely wounded. On meeting the
mutineers this wretched convoy of the deported men, they killed the
escorting gendarmes and irregulars and ordered the Christians to return
to Kutahia. Panic seized the Christians hearing gun shots. Some of the
remaining attempted to run away, but they were fire at by the mutineers
and three of them were killed: Haralambos Kodjagas, Vassilios Koulakli,
and Kyriakos Papailiou, while two others were wounded. Most of the
others returned to Kutahia, after many vicissitudes, and hid themselves
in their homes. About forty men are missing from this convoy, their fate
being still unknown. Those sent to Eski Shehir were sent back to Kutahia
by railway by order of Ali Fuad Pasha. But Edhem's brother, Tevfik Bey,
to spite Ali Fuad Pasha, sent them back to Eski Shehir, and thence to
DIOCESE OF PISIDIA
This district and some particular regions in it, were terrorized in an
In October 1918, Matheos Constantinides of Varla, went to Polavatin
(district of Afion Cara Hissar) and was murdered in the house of Sari
Ahmed Agha. In the same month Vassilios Yeorghiou Lazaroglou, barely 18
years of age, was killed at Karamik (a town in the district of
Polavatin) by Ibrahim Osman Tchavoushoglou, whose sheep he was keeping.
On December 10th, 1918 , Dr. Theokritos Satyridis, from Constantinople ,
and Diogenes Thomaides from Bourdour, while travelling to Diner, were
waylaid by Turkish brigands at the village of Kishla (near Bourdour).
The brigands literally stripped them of all they had, beat them
mercilessly, and then they tried to cut their throats with a razor. The
two men barely escaped death after receiving serous wounds.
In a report from Adalia, dated August 16th, 1919, the following
statement was included: “Besides the 3 Greeks, who some time ago
disappeared between Adalia and Stanaz, 8 more Greeks are missing; 3 at
the mill of Doryan three weeks ago, and within five or six days 7 more,
i.e. an Armenian and 6 Greeks, disappeared at Kumnitza (near Phoenix).
Brigands attacked that village in broad daylight and after much looting
of goods and money, they carried off those 7 Christians to some unknown
destination. No Christians are left in the surrounding villages. None of
our people dare go to the Turkish villages to work, and the farmers have
abandoned their fields to their fate. Some days ago Turkish gendarmes
have murdered on the quay of Macri the physician of the Greek Red Cross
in that town.”
On September 9th, 1918 , Turkish brigands at Tchibouc Boghazi caught and
beat cruelly the brothers Misail and Gavriel Misailoglou from Sparta .
At the same period, many Christians from the villages Tekadir, Doiran,
Stanaz, Koumnitza,Tshonbeki and Tekir Ova were abducted by Turks. A 12
year old boy from Cyprus was found murdered at Tekir-Ova.
Mustafa Kemal's hordes, after their retreat from the “Meander” front,
settled in the district of Pisidia. At Sparta , the notorious Hafiz Bey,
a well known blood-thirsty criminal and chief organizer of the lately
constituted “Iron Regiment” (Demir Alai ) established his headquarters
there. He had as his assistant and subordinate the terrible Mahmoud Efe,
known as “Demirdii Mehmed Efe”, infamous for his crimes of women and
children at Denizli. He also had various other assistants, Circasians,
Lazes, and Yuruks, all known for their savage and sanguinary instincts
and especially notorious in the massacres of Nazli, Denizli and Serai
keuy. Many oppressions and violations were committed by this criminal,
with victims the unfortunates Greeks of Sparta and the surrounding district.
Mr. Damianos Kahramanoglou, one of the Greek notables of Sparta, a much
esteemed citizen and head of a respectable family, and also a woman,
called Kyriakoula Hodjekoglou, both died of their wounds. The former
having being cruelly beaten and the latter after being shot with a pistol.
Demirdji Mehmed Efe, the infamous butcher of the Christians of Denizli
ordered that all the treasures of the Churches of the Jjreek community
of Sparta should be given up. The sacred implements of the churches and
the precious offerings on the images were delivered to the notorious
Efe, including four magnificent candelabras, of great value and beauty,
weighing about 800 okes, and a golden cross weighing 6 okes, a Byzantine
relic of inestimable value, for which even European tourists had
expressed their admiration. The Efe also searched the houses and seized
the jewels of the ladies of Sparta . The Greek community of Sparta was
also compelled to pays within 20 days a war tax amounting to 300,000
From September 1920, the condition of the Greeks in these districts got
worse and worse. Since a section of the “Iron Regiment” settled in
Sparta and Hafiz Bey, and the chieftain of that regiment returned from
the National Assembly at Angora, the regular government authorities of
the districts were suppressed and replaced by followers of Mustafa Kemal
and the “Union and Progress” Committee.
Sparta was and still is closely blockaded by the Kemalists and no
Christian is allowed to travel. The Turks who travel from and to that
town are made to swear that they shall say nothing of what happens at
Sparta , in case they go to Smyrna .
DIOCESE OF EPHESUS
Desire for security and order was noticeable in places inhabited by
Christians. Fanatical Turks, particularly Turks from Crete , were
terrorizing the Christians, violating their country houses, robbing or
destroying the agriculture implements and other objects and killing
every Greek they happened to meet.
In October 1918, some Turks at Ahmedli (of the district of Kassaba,
Government of Magnessia) went to the house of Polycarpos Papadopoulos,
situated near the Government house and killed his 14 old year son
Benjamin and his brother-in-law Dimitrios, after tying them. Then they
robbed the house and went away. In the same month, Sevastos Bakalyorgis,
a notable of Axar, was murdered by Turks.
On the 24th of November, 1918 , some Turks went to the field of Georgios
Papanikita, at the place called Semikler near Cordelio, and killed him
and his 18 year old son John, after tying them hand and foot. The
Government released the criminals immediately after they were arrested.
On the 4th of January, 1919, the chief of the police at Vourla, Hussein
Effendi, a well known Christian hater, on learning the hiding-place of
H. Mytaras, a deserter from the army, took a policemen and 15 gendarmes
and hastened to apprehend him. When a policeman entered the hiding
place, he was shot by the deserter and fell dead. The local authorities
then giving political significance to the incident, besieged the town of
Vourla with a significant military force, asking that the deserter be
given up within half an hour. On the expiration of this time, as the
demand was not complied with, in the evening of January 8th the town was
attacked from all sides by machine-guns and hand-bombs, both by soldier
and irregulars. The attack lasted 24 hours. Five innocent Christians
were killed and six others were severely wounded. The attack was stopped
on the arrival in the harbour of Vourla of two Britich torpedo-boats.
The destruction of the town was prevented through the efforts of the
Metropolitan of Ephesus . The chief of police was given a position in
Smyrna and promoted to a high rank. The deserter H. Mytaras was killed
on the 25th of January in the village of Gulbazi , outside the town of
In the same month, near the village of Kushjular, district of Vourla,
Dimitrios Krasas, 18 years old, while carrying food to his father,
staying in the country, was killed by two Turks, named Hussein and
Nouri, from the above village. After this crime, the same men caught
another Greek, named Markos Hadji Nicoli, near the place Tchakallar and
robbed him. They let him go only after ascertaining that the man was a
servant of a Turk.
At midnight of the 26th January, 1919 , the same soldiers entered the
prison of Vourla and cruelly beat the Greeks, who were imprisoned there.
On February 22, 1919 , Georgios Kirlis of Azizie, while returning home
from Scalanova, where he has gone on business, was attacked by Turks on
the road between Scatenova and Azizie, and was killed. He leaves a wife
and 8 small children. On the 24th of the same month February, while
Alexios Costi, Georgios Kyriakou and Efstratios Kastritsis were have
having a picnic with their families in the neighbourhood of Axar, they
were attacked by 14 gendarmes who beat them cruelly. Alexios Costi lost
an eye by the blows he received. On the same day four brigands forced
their way into the house of Georghios Meimaroglou of Menemen and tied up
him and his wife, demanding all their valuables and threatening them
with knives and revolvers. They went away after looting the house and
leaving the owners half dead.
In June 1919, the Archdeacon of the Bishopric of Ephesus , Joachim
Gounaris, died a real martyr's death. Since he was acting as
representative of the Bishop of Heliopolis , he was at Aidin on the day
the Greek Army of occupation left that town. In the atrocities which
followed the departure of the Greek Army, more than 3.000 Greeks men
women, and children lost their lives, as martyrs of their faith and
race. The Archdeacon himself was brutally and ignominiously treated, but
he unfortunately accepted the proposition made to him of conducting the
deported Greeks to the town of Denizli . The leaders of this expulsion
had promised that the Greeks would remain at Denizli entirely
unmolested. They would thus escape certain death, for it was said that
the rebels at Aidin intended to burn the Government house and the crowd
gathered in it. During the march to Denizli, some brutal Zeibeks made
their appearance between the stations of Shamli and Kondjele and
demanded to take away some maidens from the crowd. The Archdeacon then
interfered, trying to convince them to desist from their shameful
intentions, but the brutes savagely killed him with knives and bullets
and then threw his body on the railway line. Later, a passing train cut
the unfortunate clergyman's body to pieces.
On the night of June 6th to 7th of the same year 1919, Turkish brigands
carried off and hanged three Greeks from the village of Baltcha (between
Axar and Yayakeuy), Mihail Kyrillou, Nicolaos Diakoumis and Stylianos
On the 7th of June, 1919 , the same brigands carried off and killed 2
Greeks from Yayakeuy, viz. Stefanos loannou and his son-in-law
Nikiphoros. Then they seized 16 others Greeks working in their fields
and burned them alive.
The condition of the Christians living outside the Greek zone of
occupation is continually critical owing the oppressive measures of all
kinds taken against them by the “Nationalist Organization”. The heaviest
form of the oppressions exerted is the intolerable and continuous
taxation of the Greeks, because the enormous sums demanded are entirely
out of proportion and beyond the financial position of the Greek
communities. The object of such a heavy taxation is the complete
financial exhaustion of those communities.
Greek army's advance has liberated all the remaining districts of this
diocese, except Scalanova. The Christians of the latter district are
cruelly oppressed and the community in the above town is in danger of
dissolution, owing to the threatened confiscation of all its real
estates and property.
DIOCESE OF ANEON
This district was terrorized by a gang of Turks who even after the
Armistice, carried on with their criminal work, out of hostility for the
Greeks inhabitants. Many Greeks were murdered and much property was
robbed. The following list or murders perpetrated in the district of
Sokia from the time of the conclusion of the Armistice to the end of
August 1919, is a true picture of the terrorization and the destruction,
which continues in this district. Further information was not received,
owing to the interruption of all communication between this diocese and
the Patriarchate of Constantinople .
On January 9th, 1919 a blind man, Neokratis Vlessas, native of Smyrna ,
who had a coffee-house in the railway station of Kamarya, was killed in
his house with a Mauser rifle, by Turkish peasants. On the same day the
woman Sophoula Validou of Scalanova, servant of Neokratis Vlessas, was
savagely killed with an axe by the same criminals.
On February 19th, 1919 , Stylianos Pandeli from Aidin was savagely
killed with knives by four Turkish Cretans, only ten minutes away from
the railway station of Sokia.
On February 20th, a charcoal dealer, loannis Xanthias from Macri, was
killed by gendarmes, as he was working in the country.
On March 13th, the carter Manouel Lazos from Scalanova, carrying a load
from Sokia to Scalanova, was caught by Turkish peasants on the way and
On April 11th, Mihail Protoclitou from Sokia was killed by Turkish
peasants at the place called “Yourdani”, between Sokia and Kelembesh.
His body was thrown into the Meander and after a few days it was washed
out by the river.
On April 28th, loannis Nasos of Yeronda was killed by brigands near the
Turkish village Bafi.
On May 28th, Athanasios Spyroglou of Ak-keuy, a sergeant of the Greek
army, visiting Sokia on leave, was killed near the Italian barracks.
On May 29th, Joakim G. Deres, a notable farmer of Kelembesh, was killed
by Turkish peasants together with the woman Theodora Parasskeva, at the
place called Gumenes. On the same day Thrasyvoulos Bedelis of Vagarasi,
was kiled in his farm near the village Vagarasi.
On May 30th, Evangelos Kambour Andoni was killed at the farm of the
brothers Gavriloglous, where he was at work.
On June 2nd, Thomas Saroglou and Pandelis Mavrou from Sokia, were killed
by Turks at a place called Bounarakia near Sokia, as they were
returning home from their work. On the same day the Greeks Georgios
Margietis, Emmanuel Kanayos and Efstathios Efstathiou were killed at
Tchangli by Turkish Cretans.
On June 3rd, Emmanuel Tsakiris, his grandson Nicolas and Nicolaos
Tsamouris were savagely cut to pieces, while sleeping in the meadow of
the sheep-pen of the Turkish Cretan Garib Hussein. On the same day
Yannakos Boyadjis of Sokia was killed at the farm of the brothers
Fourneti. His body has disappeared. Yet on the same day, Nicolas
Bateskas, a notable of the village of Vagarasi , was killed near the
Meander, by his Turkish companions, while he was on his way back from
Sokia to Vagarasi.
On June 4th, the Christians Athanassious Sotirakis, loannis
Tsakourellis, Andonios Tsakourellis, Theodoros Alevras and Emanuel
Kabasakaloglou were savagely cut up to pieces at the place Sari Tchai
twenty minutes away from the village of Vagarasi. On the same day
Pythagoras I. Katsayannis of Kelembech was killed by Turkish Cretans
while on his way to Sokia.
On June 6th, Evangelos Bayoukas was killed by Turkish brigands at the
place Zia Bey Tchiflik.
On June 8th, loannis Goumalatsos from Samos , was killed by Turkish
Cretans at the place Siner Boghaz, while at work in the tobacco field of
Evrysthenis Bagtchevanakis. On the same day loannis Milassianos from
Sokia was killed by Turkish Cretans at the place Boghag in the tobacco
field of lonnis Kalis.
On June 10th, Pandelis Pericleous from Sokia and Vassilios Andonion of
Domatia, while tending their oxen at the place called Kamarya, were
killed by Turkish peasants and their bodies were thrown into the river
On June 12th, Theodosios Mammis from Scalanova, a miller in the town of
Kamarya , was killed by Zeibeks.
On June 14th, Dimitrios Rondos, a gardener from the island of Cos , was
killed by Turkish peasants at the village of Kamarya . On the same day,
the woman Anastasia Savva from Sokia, was killed by Zeibeks near the
bridge of the village Kamarya.
On June 16th, Hadji Georgios Haloutsos from Scalanova, was killed on the
way from Sokia to Scalanova. On the same day, Georgios Karabetsos of
Vagarasi was killed with gun and knifed at the place called Giol Boghaz,
twenty minutes away from the village Vagarasi.
On June 13th, Michail Dal Panayoti from Sokia was killed by Turkish
Cretans with a gun, while at work in Evrysthenis Bagtchevanakis tobacco
On June 25th, Marcos Vlachos, Evangelos Koulias and Manouel Nikitoglou
were killed outside the village of Domatia . On the same day Dimitrios
Arapis of Vagarasi was killed in the neighourhood of Varka Meandrou
while working in the farm of a Turk.
On June 26th Georgios Karaiskos from Vagarasi, was killed at the place
called “Islam Vagarasi”, while at work in the farm of the Turk Omer Aga.
On the same day Georgios Tsipnis from Vagarasi was killed by Turkish
peasants outside the village of Vagarasi .
On June 27th, loannis Rodios from Vaarasi, was killed by Turkish
peasants outside Vagarasi.
On July 3rd, Emmanuel Masakas from Sokia, was killed by Turkish Cretans
at Deirmen Dere, while at work in the mills there.
On July 3rd, Sotirios Kirkitzotis of Kelembesh, working in the sheep-pen
of Xenophon Anastasiadis was killed by Turks from the village of Oz
Bashi , about an hour away from Kelembesh.
On July 11th, Aslanis Vasiloglou from Sokia was killed by gendarmes at
the place called Kapakli Bounarnear Kelembesh.
On July 15th, Constantinos Melembiscou was killed in his sheep-pen by
Turks from the village of Oz Bashi .
On July 22nd, Constantinos Xiropsomis and his wife Morphi, from
Kelembesh, were killed by a Turkish sergeant and gendarmes at the
village of Koibeni , an hour away from Kelembesh.
On July 22nd, the women Calliopi Argyriou, Urania Tsardoulia, Despina
Tsardoulia, Maria Spanou Argyro Spanou and the 10 year old boy Georgios
Tsardoulias were carried off by Turkish Cretans from the tobacco fields
of Kerim Arnaout, where they were at work, and they were killed after
On August 1st, Constantinos Vikos from Neohori, was killed in the
country by Circassians at a place only half an hour distant from the
village. The same criminals badly wounded in the thigh a widow from
Neohori, Efthymia Theodosiou.
On August 122th, Georgios N. Hadji Iliadis, while returning with two
Armenians from Scalanova to Sokia, was killed with his companions at Kranta.
On August 14th, Constantinos Zambioglou from Kelembesh, leading sheep to
Kelembesh and escorted by two Turkish gendarmes, was killed at a place
called Oz Bashi.
On August 27th, Georgios N. Tsangliotou, loannis K. Vouta and Stylianos
Hiotatis from Sokia, who had gone to cut wood, were killed by Turkish
Cretans at Karaoghlan, an hours away from Sokia.
On August 23rd, Grigorios Kambouroglou from Neori, working in the
sheep-pen of the Turkish Cretan Kior Ali, in Zia Bey's farm, disappeared
and no trace of his body has been found. On the same day, Demosthenis
Philippou from Cyprus , was killed by Turkish peasants, while on the way
from Sokia to Scalanova.
On August 30th, Georgios Zeibekis and his son Panayis, who had gone to
the village of Oz Bashi to search for their robbed cattle, were both
killed by the peasants of that village.
DIOCESE OF HELIOPOLIS
Particular attention is invited to the fact that this district has
received the hardest and wildest blows of Turkish ferocity. It witnessed
the annihilation of its Christian population, which was not mandated by
any purely military reasons. It heard the wailings and the distressed
cries of countless Christians carried away to exile and to slaughter.
When the political situation clears up, the civilized world will be
horrified to find out all that the Christian population has suffered in
the hands of the Turks, whether government officials or private individuals.
We shall, for the present, confine ourselves to the complete destruction
of the town of Aidin after the retreat of the Greek army and the
occupation of the town by the Turks. Arsons, massacres, violations and
abductions were the principal means by which the savage Turkish hordes,
that had temporarily recovered Aidin, punished the inoffensive and
peaceable Christian population of that town. Beautiful Aidin was almost
entirely destroyed by fire and the greater part of its inhabitants were
killed, some being shot, others pierced with red hot irons, others cut
to pieces and others put to death with the cruelest tortures, The
inhabitants' property was plundered, virgins were carried off to the
mountains, and now Aidin is as vast cemetery.
After the destruction of Aidin, 800 women and children were sent off by
railway to Nazli and Denizli, on June 18th and 19th, 1919. During the
deportation a number of the people were killed, among them Archdeacon
Joachim Gounaris, as already stated above. When the unfortunate people
were installed in the place of exile, they were tortured in various
ways. Some of them were compelled to work without pay, others had their
clothing and covers taken away, though they were the only objects they
had. Nine of them who had stayed at Nazli were shot by order of the
brigand chief, the bloodthirsty Yuruk Ali. This villain went into a
Christian house opposite the church and tried to shoot down the cross on
the roof of the church. As he missed it, he became furious and ordered
all prisoners to be put to death. His order was about to be executed
when the Mufti of Nazli, moved by really humane sentiments, appeased the
brigand's fury, by delivering to him 9 of the youngest and richest
prisoners. Among those who then perished at Nazli, was the Archimandrite
Matheos Pavlidis of the Church of Jerusalem , who thus suffered a
But the suffferings of the miserable prisoners of Nazli and Denizli were
not yet at an end. Such wild scenes of horrors are seldom to be met in
history. An official report based on correct information, give the
“On the evening of June 11th, 1920 , the notorious rebel chieftain
Demirdji Efe, on hearing of the advance of the Greek army, demanded 8000
gold liras from the Greek community for them to buy their safety. He
then ordered the Christians to assemble and prepare for departure.
Demirdji's men, some in soldier's uniforms and others dressed as
brigands, went through the Greek quarter in the previous evening,
apprehending those who did not wish to leave their homes and conducted
them to their chief. While this was going on, officers of the Turkish
army and of the gendarmerie, as well as various other irregular soldiers
or deserters, staying at Nazli, joined the peasants of Lower Nazli in
looting the Christian shops and houses. The Turkish inhabitants of the
upper quarter, abandoned during this time their houses and carried their
belongings away. Men and women hiding in their houses during the
looting, were killed, as soon as they came out. Their disfigured corpses
were subsequently recognized by 40 Greeks who were later rescued by the
Greek army. Those rescued had being hiding in various places, such as
caves, fields and other spots in the neighbourhood of the town. At 10
o'clock exactly on the 12th of June, when the looting was completed,
Turkish soldiers and rebels, directed by officers of the Turkish army
and gendarmerie set fire with inflammable materials to various points of
the Greek quarter. Thus houses and shops were consumed by fires, which
lasted for two days. More than 60 Greeks, hiding in their houses, were
burned to death and their charred bodies were found afterwards. The
unfortunate people could not save themselves, both because of the fire
and also due to their assault by irregular soldiers, who killed those
who sought protection, after cruelly torturing them. The whole of the
Greek quarter and market was consumed, with the exception of 70—80
houses at the northwestern part of Upper Nazli .”
On June 13th to 16th , 1920, Turco-Cretan rebels and Turkish
inhabitants of Nazli, speaking Greek and wearing Greek military
uniforms, went through the Greek quarter and called out to the hiding
Christians to leave their houses, for the Greek army, they said, had
entered Nazli and they were Greek soldiers. Those who believed the
deceiving calls and left their hiding places, were seized and put to
death with horrible tortures.
Fifty-nine Greek workmen, working on the bridge of Ak-Tchai on the
Meander and on the road to Bozdogan, were also carried away on June 12th
and probably put to death.
After the events at Aidin of June 1919, a crowd of 7.000 Greeks, coming
from Aidin, Omourlou, Akdje, Kiosk, and other towns of the Aidin,
district had gathered at Nazli. The losses of the Greek population of
that district up to the time of the Turks' departure from Nazli may be
stated as follows:
(1) From June 17th, 19l9 to June 11th , 1920 , about 300 Greeks were put
to death by Turkish soldiers and irregulars or by the Turkish authorities;
(2) From June 11th to 18th, 1920 , 38 men, women, and girls were killed,
their bodies being recognized later;
(3) 60 persons, mostly women and children, whose men were long ago
murdered, were burned alive, and their charred remains were found and
(4) 59 Greek workmen were carried away, probably thrown into the river
(5) 4 Greeks were tortured and murdered and their bodies were thrown
into the river Meander on the evening of the 12th of June by the brigand
chief Dikouzoun Hassan Hussein and his 8 followers;
(6) 40 Greeks who remained at Nazli were found;
(7) The remaining Greek inhabitants of Nazli were deported to Denizli,
Davazon etc., and 20 of these, mostly women, were massacred on the road
from Nazli to Kouyoudjak.
“But this tragedy”, writes Mgr. Chrysostomos, Bishop of Philadelphia ,
on August 11th, 1920 , “was unfortunately not destined to end here. For
the Greeks who were deported to Denizli and the neighbourhood, had to
suffer additionally. Demirdji Efe, who remained with his men at the
station of Kondjeli near the ancient Laodicea, sent to Denizlf the
bloodthirsty Sokiali Mehmed, in order to get hold of the money in the
Government Treasuries and in the Ottoman Bank, and to take the
Christian men and youths from among the refugees and conduct them to no
one knows where. The inhabitants, with the Governor at their head,
resisted, and in the fighting which followed, Sokialy Mehmed and his
followers were killed. Demirdji Efe on hearing this went mad with fury
and hurried to attack the town. He took possession of it, and after
massacring 150 of the most noted Moslems, he ordered the looting of the
town by his followers and by the peasants of the neighbouring villages,
who he invited using special heralds. Separating the male Christians of
the communities of Denizli and Chonae (the ancient Colossae ) down to
the age of 14 from their families, he exiled them to Diner, Olou-Borlou,
Bourdour, Sparta , and Egerdir. An entire Christian population,
numbering by most moderate accounts about 15,000 souls, to which 3,000
inhabitants of Sarakeuy similarly treated should be added, are in danger
of complete extinction...”
The next day after the “Iron Regiment” arrived at Denizli, the
Archdeacon Xenophon Raptakis, barefoot and without his clerical cap and
robe, was brought before the commander of that regiment. The latter gave
a pair of scissors to the Archdeacon and compelled him to cut his beard
and hair and threw them away. After that he sat near the Archdeacon and
said mockingly to him: "See how handsome you now look. The only thing
left for you now, is to deny your Christ, to wear a turban, and to
become a Musulman. You will be a noted man among the faithful”. But the
Archdeacon scornfully rejected the proposition saying that he preferred
to die than to deny Christ. The bloodthirsty commander, furious at such
a reply, ordered the Archdeacon to be tortured and beheaded. The
courageous clergyman died a martyr's death.
The predatory bands of the “Nationalist organization”, attempted four
times to penetrate into the town of Kotcharli , in order to plunder the
property of the Christians, burn their houses and massacre them. A band
under their chief Davazli Ibrahim, numbering 300 brigands, was the first
to besiege the Christian quarter, but the Mohammedan notables Hadji
Hafiz, Hadji Koniali, and Tcherkess. Tahir Tchaousch dissuaded them from
their objectives by giving them rich presents offered by the Christians.
Two months later, another brigand chief, sur-named Dedish, came with 80
followers from the neighbouring town of Vagarasi , bent on the same
scheme. The same notables, by using the same method of the gifts,
averted the danger. But this brigand, getting into the habit of making
money easily, came back again and again, until he was at last driven
away by the Italian troops that were stationed there.
Though the danger threatening the body of the Christian community was
thus averted, isolated crimes against individual Christians did not
cease. For instance, Younous Mehmed, president of the local
“Nationalist” organization, had fallen in love with the pretty daughter
of the Greek notable Georgios Veopoulos. Orders were given to the men of
the “Nationalist” organizations, and the unfortunate father, who did not
consent to such an odious union, was carried away with his friend
Sophocles Baxevanis. Both were killed between Katcharli and the river
Tchina, after being put through many cruel tortures.
On the Sunday before Lent, the members of Council of the “Nationalist”
Organizations arrested 14 Greek notables and condemned them to death
without trial. Italian soldiers intervened at the moment when the men
were brought to the square of the town to be hanged. Meanwhile agents of
these organizations murdered Yannacos Milionis an old man, notable of
Aidin, Dr. Hardalotipas, a dentist, and 3 others from Sokia. Mr.
Sapoudjis from Yambis, the brothers Antonios and Joannis Symeon
Baxevani, Theodoros Bakalis, Statnatios Karathanasiou and many other
Greeks, were conducted from Sokia and the neighbouring villages to the
Court Martial of Demirdji Efe at Nazli, but were killed outside of
The brigand chief Yuruk Ali, entering by force into the mill of Mihail
Astypaliotis, violated his daughter Efthymia. Another brigand chief
Koulaksiz, accompanied by eight followers of Yuruk Ali, forced his way
into the house of Dimitrios Tenekedjis and violated his three daughters
Maria, Eleni and Irini. The Managing Council of the “Nationalist”
Organizations of Kotcharli was composed of the following men, all
notorious for their criminal instincts and their anti-Christian
sentiments: Hadji Yunus Mehmed, President; Husni Bey, Vice-President and
Treasurer; and the members Sarioglou Mevlout, KaraOmaroglou Nazim,
HafizTefvik, Kolmemourou Kadir, Molla Dourmoush, Emin Effendi, Fuad Bey
of Aid>n, and Kiamil ex-mayor of Kara Bounar.
DIOCESE OF PHILADELPHIA
This district has also suffered considerably from the savage instincts
of the Turks, at first immediately after the Armistice, but chiefly
after the military operations in Ionia , began.
A secret provisional government was organized at Philadelphia ( Ala
Shehir) by the fiercest and most fanatic notables: Mousta, Akif, Galib,
Hapji Ali, and Omar Beys. This government sent its disreputable agents
to the various villages as far as Afion Kara Hissar and Bali Keser and
mustered volunteers by paying large sums of money. In a short time all
those criminals gathered in the side around Philadelphia . Their ideal
is to persecute Christians, to rob and to plunder.
These brigands were walking armed to the teeth in the streets of
Philadelphia and Salihli, spreading terror not only among the
Christians, but even among the Moslems. No one dared go out into the
open country, especially since the day when these criminals stealthily
attacked and killed six Christians working in the vine yards.
The Government authorities secretly assisted these “Nationalist”
Organizations by various means. But the situation had become so
desperate, that even the Moslems of Philadelphia could no longer stand
it. Consequently they applied for protection in early September to the
believed to be a man of less violent temper brigand chief Edhem Bey,
then staying at Salihli. Edhem Bey came to the rescue. After a fierce
several hour fight, he entered Philadelphia , broke up the provisional
government of the “Nationalists”, established a new government under the
moderately disposed Tevfik Bey and hanged the ringleaders. Unfortunately
he was not successful in establishing law and order, because his own
followers were of the same temperament as the other men. He was himself
accustomed to a life style of robbery and bloodshed, and he was known to
have no regard for law and human rights. The misfortunate Christians
were so much oppressed and tormented, that they were obliged to flee
from their homes in large numbers.
Under the pretext of installing Mohammedan refugees, Fdhem Bey
arbitrarily seized most of the Christian houses with everything in them,
and imposed heavy taxes on the Christian population for sustaining the
“Nationalist” troops. He moreover imposed many humiliations on the
ill-fated Christians, by beating, insulting, imprisoning and exiling
them. He condemned to death several Greeks, particularly strangers to
the place, who were stopping there on their way to their homes, on
various trifling charges. These men, considered to be Greek spies, were
annihilated without any sort of trial.
Such was the condition, when the Greek army began its attack last
February at Odemish and Sardis . The Christians remaining at Salihli
suffered all kinds of oppressions. Eight men were murdered, many women
and girls were violated, houses were looted, and the people were obliged
to abandon everything and take refuge in Philadelphia , where they found
real brotherly treatment from the Greeks of that place. But the Greeks
of Philadelphia were by this time beginning to live under intolerable
tyranny. There was scarcely a Greek house not seized for military
purposes or for the shelter of Musulman refugees and one can easily
guess the sufferings undergone by the Greek population. The Greeks were
compelled to pay a third of their income to the “Nationalist”
Organizations for the support of their troops, besides other sums of
money that the suffering Christians had to give up on various pretexts.
Hatred against the Greeks was kept up and inflamed by preachers and
speakers specially sent from Angora, by theatrical plays, by public
lectures, by boycotting and other unlawful and arbitrary measures.
The sufferings of the town and district of Philadelphia ceased on the
24th of June 1920 , when they were liberated by the advancing Greek army.
A terrible tragedy, however, took place in other parts of this district.
The Greek army, advancing from Salihli in the latter days of July 1920,
occupied Demirdji, where about 90 Christians remained after their last
persecutions. The Mohammedan inhabitants of the town of Simav , had
become desperate on account of the Kemalists' intolerable oppression.
Foreseeing that the Greek army would eventually advance to their town,
they rebelled and drove the Kemalist authorities away and hoisting the
Greek flag on the Government house, they formed a Committee of
Mohammedans and Christians for governing their town in the name of the
king of Greece . Then they sent a committee to the Greek commander
informing him of the events in their town and inviting him to come and
take over of their town. But the Greek troops had no orders to advance
there. The result was that Kemalists, who had been driven out, collected
as many forces as they could, by associating with brigands and murderers
of the surrounding country, made an attack on Simav and occupied it
after a brief resistance. Two hundred anti-Kemalist Mohammedans were
hanged and 15 Greek notables were stabbed to death. On the next day,
July 29th, they gathered all 240 Christian inhabitants in the public
square of the town and deported them to Kutahia. At a distance, however,
of five minutes from Simav, they attacked the unfortunate Christians,
killing them in great numbers. Only 25 people escaped this massacre. A
prosperous, though small, Greek community, was thus swept out. It was a
community supporting schools and a church, being an oasis in the desert
of the barbarity.
Note 1. The districts of Smyrna and Aivali suffered cruelly from
oppression by the Turkish police and gendarmerie up to the time of their
liberation by the Greek army. Aivali has moreover been particularly
boycotted by the Turks.
Note 2. The people of district of Tcheshme had been deported en mass and
returned to their homes, only after the liberation of the town by the
Note 3. The Communities of Biza and Lambsacos in the diocese of
Dardanelles were all the more terrorized, owing to the violent hostility
between the “Nationalists” and the Turkish populations of the district.
The people of the town of the Dardanelles found themselves under the
protection of the Allies, on returning to their homes. The people of the
other communities of the diocese have also begun to return to their homes.
DIOCESE OF CYZICUS
It is particularly noted, that immediately after the Armistice, the
Turks in this district, whether Government officials or private
citizens, were hostile and threatening to the Christian population.
The Turkish newspapers published at Bali Keser and sent gratuitously to
the Turkish villages around the district, contained inflammatory
articles exciting the fanaticism of the Turks and their enmity against
the Christians. On the other hand, brigands roaming in the open country
and pirates sailing along the coast of the Peninsula of Cyzicus , robbed
all those who came in their way and carried off any merchandise they had.
On February 2nd, 1919 , pirates seized the ship of Christo Hadji
Antoniou, moored in the harbour of Dracous (of the Peninsula of Cyzicus
). After robbing all the goods contained in the ship, valued at more
than 3.000 liras, they obliged its owner to pay another 500 liras in
Around Erdek and particularly on the road between Erdek and Panderma,
bands of brigands made their appearance from the neighbouring Turkish
villages of Hamamli and Edindjik, during all the spring and summer of
1919. These bands were under the command of the Circassians Mustafafa
and Refik and robbed travellers or Christians going to work in their fields.
In July 1919, the Moukhtar of Kermasti, Constantinos Soukadjidis and his
friend Anastasios Fatsos, while returning to Panderma, were waylaid by a
Turkish band of six brigands near the village Kadikeuy of the district
of Mihalitch. The first saved himself by giving up all he had in
clothing and in money, but the second was killed because he had no money
On August 7th, 1919 , Turkish brigands attached the village Koum Keuy.
They took various sums of money from the villagers and wounded Georgios
Mitrou. The Priest of the village was more seriously wounded with a
club. On the 27th of the same month, a girl 18 years of age, Eleni
Yancou Hadji Nicoli, was shot dead by a Turk of that village named
On August 8th, 1919 , Georgios Valtiros from the village of Ivrindi ,
was carried away by Turks, who tortured and cut him to pieces. On the
6th of the same month, the Turks Salihoglou Talih, Deli Youssoufoglou
Aii, Psihouoglou Ismail, Abdullahoglou Ibrahim, Kara Mustafaoglou Osman
and others from the village of Ivrindi, robbed the miller MihailKouros
and then cruelly beat him to death.
In early October of 1919, some gendarmes caught the Priest Photios
returning from Erdek to Vathy and beat him mercilessly asking for money.
Towards the end of September of 1919, some gendarmes forced their way
into the Monastery of the Phaneromeni, broke the sacred utensils and
other articles in the church, tore the sacerdotal robes, took off the
silver cover from the image of the Virgin Mary, destroyed all they could
find in the monastery, beat the superintendent Priest Alexios and killed
Yovannaki son of Costa Papadaki.
On January 19th, 1920 , a band of brigands attacking the village of Roda
seriously wounded two women with hand-bombs. At about the same time a
band of 40 Circassians from the village of Yapidji Keuy penetrated into
the village of Gonia of the Peninsula of Cyzicus and kept busy for six
hours robbing the villagers of all goods and beating many of them.
In February 1919, brigands from the Turkish village of Tchaoush Keuy
went to the neighbouring village of Mousatsa and mercilessly beat to
death the “Moukhtar” of the village Christos Vlysmas.
On April 18th, 1919, gendarmes went to the villages of Gedje and
Sycaminea, where they looted houses and goods, beat the villagers and
forcing their way into the church of Gedje, carried away all that they
found in silver. Similar maltreatment experienced the village of
On June 1st, of 1919, a detachment of troops commanded by the Governor
of Erdek and the gendarmerie chiefs of Erdek and Pandermawent went to
the village Ano Neochori, where they committed various atrocities. They
beat cruelly Sotirios, the Priest of the village and savagely massacred
the following men: loannis, the Priest's son, Kosmas Milidis, Thomas
Tsakirisjoannis S. Milidis, loannis Chr. Milidis, Thomas Tsakiris,
loannis Zakkas, Dimitrios and Constantinos Evangelou, Yannakis Kostas,
Sotirios Kostas, Christos Karavelas, Nicolaos Stephanou, Sotirios
Kafedjis, Photios Koutois, Yacoumis Kodjas, Kostis, loannis
Georgiou, Mitros Nicolaos Koukouledakis and Constantinos Djourakis.
The mutilated bodies of these men were found in the mountain defiles.
DIOCESE OF PROKONNISOS
The people of this district, who were almost in their entirety deported
during the war and suffered cruelly, were not left unmolested after they
returned to their homes. The Turkish villagers of Araplar were chiefly
those who joined the Laz pirates and other brigands, in order to attack
the Greek communities of the islands of the Marmara Sea, which form this
ecclesiastical district. These communities, and particularly the
community of the island of Afyssia , were sorely oppressed and
terrorised. In the island of Afyssia , the Greek Costis Hadji Georgiou
was murdered by Turkish soldiers, and its Priest Constantinos barely
escaped death, after repeated menacing from a Turk of the same island,
DIOCESE OF BROUSSA
The situation in this district was never entirely satisfactory, but it
became really intolerable in the days of Gumuldjinali Ismail Hakky Bey,
the fanatic governor of the province, who was the organizer of marauding
bands and as he had openly declared, that his task was not to govern:
“But to act as a «gazetadji, firkadji and comitadji» (journalist, party
man, and political intriguer)”.
On July 3rd, 1919 , the Christians Nicolaos Evgenidis, Kotsos
Parpatsolias, and Athanasios Arabadjis from Demirdesh, were beaten and
robbed by Turkish brigands. On the 15th of the same month, a young man
Stavros Dimitriou, native of Tahtali in the district of Nicomedia, was
killed by the Turkish gendarme Davouldji Mustafa.
On August 18th, 1919, the sergeant Safet Tchaoush, accompanied by
gendarmes, caught the Greek Theologos Apostolou, returning from the
village of Sousourlouk and beat him cruelly. He robbed him of his money
and then let him go. On September 8th of the same year, Dimitrios Hadji
Georgiou was murdered with his 13 year old son Alexandros, at Tepedjik,
by Turks from the village of Panair Keuy .
On October 18th, 1919 , Turkish brigands caught between Akdje Keuy and
Alishar Vassilios Karakassis from the vllage Demirdesh and after
torturing him for two days, they let him go. They took a considerable
sum of his money and cut off his right ear and right cheek.
On the 10th of March 1920 , inside the city of Broussa , in the quarter
of Kaya Bashi, three “Nationalist” Turks attacked Georgios Hadji Naoum
and seriously wounded him saying that they wanted to drink an infidel's
blood. In June of the same years the merchant Vassilios Roumoglou,
coming from Angora , was arrested in Broussa and thrown into prison.
After ten days in prison, he was given to a policeman, named Moustafa
Nazmi, on the pretext to be exiled, but in reallity to be taken out of
Broussa and killed. A few days later the unfortunate merchant's bare
bones were found near Tomanli Agha, half an hour's distance from
Broussa, as the flesh had been completely eaten up by carnivorous animals.
On the 12th of July, 1919 , the Christians Lazaros Constantinou, Ilias
Symeon and Georgios loannou were caught by Kemalists on the road to
Inegiol and beheaded there.
DIOCESE OF NICAEA
This district had for a long time been terrorised by Turkish and
especially Laz bands. Robberies in the streets, raids of Christian
communities and abductions of Christian notables, were none but too
On May 27th, 1919 , in plain daylight, Christos Kehayoglou of Hudi and
his son were abducted, their ears were cut off and their nails pulled
out. He had to pay a ransom of Ltqs. 3.000 and give an I. 0. U. for
On June 12th, 1919 , more then 60 Laz brigands raided the village of
Kupi , killed Theodore Cosmaoglou and Elia Ocoumoushoglou, after
extracting their eyes and cutting off the latter's nose and ears. They
then began firing at the houses and the villagers ran away to the
neighbouring woods. Two days later a third man was found dead with a
bullet in his head and two young men, drowned in the river Sangarius.
The same day a force of nearly 300 gendarmes and bandits, under the
leadership of the renowned Laz brigand Zaroglou, attacked the village of
Paboujak, beat the Priest George and other notables, raided the houses,
robbing them of everything that could be taken away and left, taking
with them and leading to the jail Yenisheir, the Bishop's delegate and
The community of Mihalitch underwent martyrdom under the very eyes of
the officials, who repeatedly attempted to Islamise young girls, who had
not yet come of age.
Towards the end of July 1919 gendarmes fired several rounds at farmers
working in the small plain of Kios, wounding Demetros Matselli. At the
same time five Turkish brigands carried away Leonidas Polydorou
Garyfali, as well as two Armenians, to the Turkish village of Kouseia ,
where they beat them mercilessly.
In August, Spyros Artakenos went to work in an olive wood near Kios. He
never came back.
In January 1920, Turks from Mejikeh killed Demetros Nicologlou,
Stylianou Stoyanoglou and Mich. Anastassoglou from Paboujak-Dervent.
In March 1920 began and in July ended the horrible tragedy of the once
flourishing community of Ortakey and of its homonymous region. This
tragedy is described thus, in a report dated Aug. 7:
First Attack: On March 13th, third day of Easter, the Kemalist division
- commandant Mahmout Bey - accompanied by Col. Moustapha, Major Samy,
his chief of staff Samy Bey, 700 soldiers, two pieces of artillery and
two machine guns, armed Turks from the villages Estseler, Akkaya,
Sarajadi and Kurfalar and by the brigand corps of Tarakli, surrounded
Ortakeuy and opened fire against the town. The inhabitants sent begging
for a ceasefire and asking for the reasons of the siege. The Turks,
however, continued the fire under the pretence of disarming the
inhabitants. The latter in their despair put up a defence for three
days, after which, their means being exhausted, they surrendered. The
besiegers had hardly entered the village, when the pillaging of the
richest houses began, accompanied by the robbing of all met in the
streets, as well as by beatings, violations and the murders. 38 houses
were destroyed by fire. Then, the chief of the assailants called the
Priests and the notables and forcibly collected from the inhabitants: 1)
1450 liras as a war indemnity, 2) 1000 liras as a war contribution and
3) 4000 liras for taxes in arrears of the preceding and running year.
The pillage lasted for three days. After the departure of the army, the
Turks of the neighbouring villages continued the sacking for another ten
days, carrying away 300 horses, 700 oxen and 1300 sheep and goats. So
rich were the spoils, that it was said by the soldiers, that though they
had often pillaged Armenian villages, they had never seen such wealth as
that at Ortakeuy. The army departed carrying also away 38 notables and
the two Priests of Ortakeuy, who were later taken to court-martial in
Second Attack: On June 9th, 1920 , Etem Bey's band of 3000 bandits,
returning from Ada Bazar, was divided into two bodies. The main body of
1700 went to Ortakeuy and burned to the ground its 1000 houses and the
church of St. George . The remaining smaller band of 300, raided the
Armenian village of Emin near Gheiveh, robbed the inhabitants, killed
three of them, and violated several of the women. In Ortakeuy, during
the second attack ,270 were killed and 70 disappeared. After the burning
and destruction of the town, the inhabitants ran away to the woods and
hills and for days the brigands and the Turkish crowd were carrying off
the spoils to their own villages.
Third Attack: In July, 1920, the famous brigand Ghiavour Ali leading a
band of 200, arrested over 70 Greeks and Armenians living in the Railway
Station of Gheiveh, shot them all dead and threw their bodies in the
river Sangarius. He then went to Grtakeuy.
At the same time the gendarmerie at Gheiveh arrested the Greek and
Armenian government officials, robbed them of the money and books, of
which they were in charge, cast them into prison and later killed them
all, men, women and children outside Gheiveh in the presence and with
the assistance of the Public Debt Guard Ali Riza, Ridvan Tchaoush and
ten soldiers of the Turkish reserve. Then Ghiavour Ali went to Ortakeuy,
Goudi, and Burhanieh and under the pretence that the deportation of the
Greeks to Tavackli had been decided, arrested all the inhabitants, men,
women and children. Then led them in three groups to the bank of the
Gallus, a tributary of the river Sangarius, and after robbing them of
everything precious, slaughtered them all. Their bodies were either
thrown in the shallow brook nearby or were sprinkled with petroleum and
burned. The remaining 150 houses of Ortakeuy were set on fire. 50 women
and children shut up in the Armenian church, were devoured by the
flames. The brigands had surrounded the church, barring any escape.
Several detachments were later on sent to the woods and set them on
fire, to burn all who had taken refuge in them. Those who had succeeded
in getting away, were hunted down with the aid of bloodhounds and were
caught and slaughtered at Kara Jam.
Ghiavour Ali picked out for himself the prettiest of the most beautiful
young girls. 10 of them he sent to prominent Kemalists in Gheiveh, as
presents. Some of those girls were killed after they had suffered all
kinds of violence and shame and others were led to Turkish harems.
The unfortunate wife of the Greek named Kakos, was violated by eight
Turks in succession and then torn asunder. The genital organs of several
men and the breasts of women were cut off. Their bodies were cut open
and their intestines taken out and scattered. Arms and legs were cut off
of poor people who were then burnt alive. The heads of children and
babies were smashed against rocks or walls. In other cases little
children were taken to the bank of the river and ordered to wade across.
The poor things wanting to avoid drowning tried to return to the bank,
but then they were bayoneted. The body of one of them bore the distinct
marks of 11 such bayonet wounds.
In Goudithe, said Ali stood on the Altar and having the women and
children around him, proclaimed himself their God, whose wrath was to be
appeased only through money and abundant blood of infidels. He
slaughtered them all. Such was the horror, that mothers killed their own
babies for fear of the worst.
The fate of Ortakeuy was shared by the historic burghs of Nicaea and of
Leuke. An extensive report to the Patriarchate of H. E. the Archbishop
of Nicaea Basil describes all the crimes committed by the Kemalic hords,
which did not even respect the historical Cathedral of the Holy Virgin
in Nicaea . We read in that report:
“We visited the famous church and we found it in ruins. The Altar was
brought down. The famous Altar marble slab was broken to pieces. The
church mosaics, except those too high for the profane to reach, were
destroyed. Several of the many and ancient icons were broken and their
valuable dedicative jewels robbed. The strong and thick glass of two
large icons of the Virgin and their gold-plated frames were smashed.
They were votive offerings of the late Patriach Joachim III. All the
lamps, candlesticks and holy vessels were either stolen or broken to
pieces. All the ecclesiastical books, archives, a record, bearing the
names of the Priests of the church from its very foundation, were torn
to pieces and thrown into the streets. The large and famous sarcophagus
in the south wall of the church, another in the north wall and the
quaint archaic larnax in the wall of the Holies, suffered irreparable
damage. The two well-known black columns, precious relics of Byzantine
art and the large cross on the dome, do not exist any more. The ground
was dug up by the sacrilegious Kemalists, in the hope of finding hidden
treasure. In a word no sacrilege was left undone.”
“The Turks, not satisfied with the destruction of the historical
Christian Cathedran, preceded to the annihilation of the Greek
inhabitants of Nicaea . By midnight of August 13th, men, women and
children were forced out of their houses and led through the gate of
Leuke to their place of martyrdom. On the way, some of them could not go
on, especially the children, and the monsters killed them on the spot
and threw some of them in wells near by, while others were covered up
with a little earth. Their bodies could be seen for quite a long time
afterwards. Three wells by the roadside were filled with half dead.
Later on they were covered with earth, to stop the odour coming out of
them. The remaining victims were led to their place of execution, which
was outside a large and deep cave and near a smaller one, a little
farther away. They were killed outside these caves and then thrown in
them, one upon another. Several bodies were found horribly mutilated,
those of the women, whose breasts were cut off and their bellies cut
open. A young girl was found crucified on a tree; she was afterwards
buried by some Greeks of a village near by.”
“While the above tragedy was taking place and the two caves were being
filled with the dead mutilated bodies of Greeks, a horrible scene was
happening in the city and within the court of the church. Some women
escaping the persecutions took refuge inside the church, where Nicaea 's
only Priest, named Jordan, was present. The women were all slaughtered
and their bodies were thrown in the well of the church court, where
blood marks can still be seen. The Priest, with a bridle in his mouth,
was forced to go about the town on all four, carrying a Turkish boy
astride on his back. He then was led to the large cave outside the city,
where he was killed, like the rest of his congregation.”
“From the house of the late Sophronius Stavrides, Exarch in Nicaea , his
son and his fiancee Wilhelmine, daughter of Sevastos from Leuke, as well
as Soterios’ mother and sister Sapho, were carried away. Sotirios was
killed, trying to defend the women's honour. Of the latter, Wilhelmine
was destined for Djemil's revelries and Sapho for those of his
lieutenant Ali Haveki. Both of them were later on killed at Leuke.”
“Only one Greek soul survived, Olga Thomas Valessoglou of Leuke, a
victim of Djemal's shameless passion. She now is in Kios, under the
protection of the Greek staff. She informed me of some of the events
that took place in Nicaea between the 6th and 19th of September.”
The villages of Vezikhan, Kuplia, Bashkeuy, Adakeuy, Kizil Kavak, Aktchi
Sehir' Peltes and Suyut had the same fate in the hands of the Christian
and Greek haters. Papoujak Dervent escaped, losing only 50 men, while
the remaining 1503 were saved and they are now residing in Zouncouldack,
After the destruction of Nicaea , Djemal's herds turned against Leuke,
where they robbed all houses and each Greek, of everything valuable.
They then proceeded and massacred all Greeks, by carrying them off at
night and by slaughtering them like sheep, cutting off their carotids.
These crimes terrified the desperate Greeks. A native “Hodja” took the
opportunity and pressured them to turn Mohammedans, to save their lives.
The great danger for their existence, made them accept Mohammedanism, in
the hope that if they thus survived, they might later on be able return
to the faith of their forefathers. But all was in vain, for they had
already been doomed. All of them disappeared within a fortnight. It has
been said that very few girls and some women escaped death, by being
carried off to Turkish harems.
DIOCESE OF NICOMEDIA
Numerous bands of brigands had held this region in terror. They had
raised panic by raids on the Christian villages, frequent shootings and
merciless beatings, as well as by all kinds of ill treatments, to which
they subjected the notables of those villages and even the village
Priests. They also went about pillaging and robbing the houses of all
that could be moved. The local gendarmes often took an active part in
In February 1919, the gendarme Arif beat and mortally wounded a
Christian named Stylianos, who was on his way from Nicaea to Heracleia
(Tepe-Keuy). The same month Turks from Keur-Keuy murdered Constantine
Hadji-Sava and Michael Terzioglou. Again in the same month a
Turkish-Albanian and Laz band, which had been preying in the district of
Karamousal, imposed an arbitrary tax upon its villages. The Turkish
officials did not intervene, but advised the Christians to take the
brigands as their field-and vineyard guards!
In March 1919, a band under the leadership of the sons of certain Beys
of the villages Hainsiz, Pri-mikir, and Djambaz, killed an old man named
John Malea, murdered also John Papagheorghiou from Kekeia and submitted
to horrible torture the Mouhtar of the village Theodore Kazi, who was
thrown into a fire and was barely saved. Yanni Panton and George
Hadjuli, were mercilessly beaten and died of their wounds.
On May 5th, 1919 a Turkish-Albanian band of eight, raided the grocery of
Michael Zasos in railroad station of Herekeh, wounded him mortally add
robbed his store.
On May 29th, 1919 , Andronikos Karyfollou working in the Yalova baths,
was killed a short distance from that establishment. During the same
month Abram Bezopoulos from Safram was killed as he went to a forest to
On June 3rd, 1919 , the young child of the owner of a flour-mill,
situated at Chili, 5 miles from Ada Bazar, was murdered. The murder was
committed by a Turk, wishing to revenge himself. He hated the miller,
because he had sued him for theft of goods belonging to deported
persons. The murdered boy was to appear before the court as a witness.
At about the same time a certain Greek, named Demetrius, was murdered in
Kadikeuy of Yalova.
On July 17th, the gendarmes of the prison of the island of Kalolimnos ,
most shamelessly violated Constantine Nicolaou, then in jail.
On July 20th, a Turkish-Laz band of 15, murdered Michael Antonoglou and
John Vassiloglou on their way from Elmali to Ak-keuy. Five days later
another band robbed Nicolas Vlissitoura's grocery in Courtkeuy and
carried him away. His body was found by chance, at a short distance from
the village on August 5th.
On August 22nd, Georges Eliou from St. Kyrake (Ya-lova), was found dead
near Tchinar (Yalova)
On August 15th young Paul D. Vassiloglou was murdered on his way from
Nicomedia (Ismit) to his village Sari-Suk.
On October 1st, an Albanian band murdered the miller Pericles Daidinis
two miles away from Tepe-Keuy.
On November 5th, Anastassios John Papadopoulos of Kirk Hamam was
murdered just outside the Turkish village Hamidie.
On November 29th, an Albanian band, under the notorious Yahya literally,
cut to pieces two men from Mi-halitch on their way to Kandra. On
November 1st, the same band, cut to pieces, near Kaimaja Hadjigeorge,
Jadji Demetrios, from Mihalitch.
On November 25th, bandits wounded the night guard of the village
KaraTepe Theodore Tzalividis, leaving him half dead.
In Febrouary 1920, near the Armenian village Tefizli, 12 miles off Ada
Bazar, John Papanicolaou and John Cary,das were murdered, along with two
more men, as they were returning home from Ada Bazar.
On April 11th, the gardener John returning from Sapanja to Ada Bazar was
murdered by Turco-lazes.
After the occupation by Kemalists of Ada Bazar, as well as of the
surrounding districts, and due to the continuation of the pillage by
numerous Turkish-Laz bands, the inhabitants of several Christian
villages outside the war-zone of Ismit, began abandoning their houses
and gathering in Nicomedia (Ismit). The refugees of Sapanja, Fundeklu
and Kara-Tepe arrived first. Pillages and robberies by bands and
Kemalist officials became more frequent every day, while taxing and
rasoming of Christian communities grew unbearable. The community of Ada
Bazar was especially tried.
In the first days of June 1923 the remaining troops of the
Constantinople government, retreating after a skirmish with the
Kemalists, plundered the little burgh of Mihalitch, an hour's distant
from Ismid. What the Kemalists left undone, was completed by the
government troops. The community church was badly damaged, the icons
broken to pieces, the Priests insulted. Elias Demetriou, Anastassios
Nicolaou and a little girl, Eugenia Demetriou were bayoneted, while 10
other villagers were murdered and 7 disappeared. The remaining
inhabitants panic-stricken and deprived of everything, gathered at Ismid.
On June 8th, the Priest Anastasios Donaxides, the Bishop's delegate
Paraskevas Gheorghiou, Kara Antonis and George Demetriou were hanged.
On June 23rd, the “Kaimakam” of Karamoussal Kemal, leading a detachment
of soldiers and accompanied by Alaheddin Mehmed, Ajento, Ismail, Riza
Zeibek and Faik Tchaoush, raided Foulajik, carried away the cattle and
all they could lay hands on. Then opening fire on the crowd, arrested
all inhabitants, especially the men. Afterwards they locked up inside
the church all arrested. Then they demolished the church with bombs and
machine-guns and killed the people locked inside. Those who, in their
despair, tried to escape, were shot down or bayoneted by Kemalist.
Several women were violated and many young girls were abducted by the
Nationalists. The Priests were tortured most fiercely. A few, who
succeeded in escaping, took refuge in the hills.
On June 16th, robbers went into the village of Arman , where they beat
and robbed the inhabitants and forced them to abandon their houses in a
On July 23rd, the inhabitants of Esme, threatened with massacre, left
their homes in terror. Similarly, the Christian inhabitants of the Laz
villages beyond Ada Bazar, were driven away. Four of those villages,
Kiregli, Kastania, Bounar, Tzoban Yatak and Kash Bashi were burnt to the
ground. The survivors ran away to the hills, where they were mercilessly
hunted down by the Kemalists, who sought their annihilation.
The community of Ada Bazar suffered a great deal. Its Christian members,
taking advantage of the temporary withdrawal of the Kemalists, started
leaving for Ismid, where they could feel secure. Their property was
later on plundered by the returning hordes.
In September, the village of Kiz Dervent , having being sacked, was set
on fire. Its inhabitants ran off to the hills; many died, while the
survivors took refuge in Kios and the district of Yalova.
On September 19th, the brothers Hip. and Pan. Stylianou Areni from
Heraclion were massacred. After the crime the other inhabitants of the
village crossed to Herekeh.
DIOCESE OF CHALCEDON
The conclusion of Αrmistice brought no peace to this diocese. Government
officials and private Turks competed with each another in the
ill-treatment of Christians.
Towards the end of 1918, the fanatic governor of Pontoheracleia closed
the community school there, while an inspector of public schools shut
down the one in Dousja.
In December, the students of the Turkish orphanage at Tchenghelkeuy went
into the chapel near by, and filled it with filth. In January 1919 they
broke all the wooden and marble crosses of the community churchyard.
On January 22nd, 1919 , a young man, N. Drakos, broke a window glass in
a coffee-house in the course of merry-making. The chief of the
gendarmerie Daout Tchaouch asked the young man to follow him to the
police station. Upon the young man's refusal to comply with the order,
Daout Tchaouch accompanied by gendarmes and other field guards, returned
to the coffee-house, and shot at the young man dead on the spot.
At the beginning of the same year, 1919, the Turkish villagers of the
district of Ghevzeh commenced arming themselves and adopting a
threatening attitude towards the Christians of upper and Lower Neohorion
, of Chili, who had just returned home. The government invited Albanians
from the country around Ismid and formed them into bands, which robbed
the Christian shepherds and villages. The Kaimakam of Ghevzeh Fend Bey
was the especial patron of such a band.
In February 1919, the military police at Chalki beat many of the
Christians, leaving Andrew Zozos half dead.
On February 12th, the Albanian band patronized by Ferid, attacked a
flour-mill of the village Kioselez, a distance of 10 miles from Ryssion,
and horribly tortured Paleologos Demetriou and his uncle, both from
Neohorion. On the 16th of the same month, the same band carried away
Christos Tzakissis from the village Zahtalar; he never came back.
On February 21st, the same band tortured the shepherds Meletius and
Christo Tzakevoglou. On the 22nd the band seriously wounded and robbed
Demetrios J. Raphi from Ryssion.
On February 26th, at about midnight, a band of Circassians in military
uniform, attacked the village Asa-keuy of Kandra, near Ada Bazar and
after terrorising its inhabitants by continuously firing for two hours,
raided the house of the notable Ch. Patossiadis and subjecting his wife
and children to horrible tortures left, taking away Christos, 200 liras
in gold, the dowry of the girl and other valuables worth 2000 liras. The
unfortunate notable was later found outside the village half dead and
with one of his ears cut off. The governor did nothing to arrest the
In March Albanian bands murdered the following: John Seraphim
Kalakzoglou, Dem. Hadji Veleshis, Ch. Katraftous, Ch. Sivris, Con.
Zarifi, Nic. Constandinidi, Au. Drakos, Sot. Drakos, St. Bairlakakis.
Dem. Gallos, St. Koupanikis' two sons and Basil Hadji Stoyou.
On March 18th, two men from Pendik and two from Pasha-keuy had their
ears cut off.
On March 20th, Albanians attacked Pendik and robbed the house of the
physician Dr. Salabantat, who owes his life to the British policemen who
ran to his help.
In April, a detachment of regulars tortured in various ways the
inhabitants of Kourtchiyou, Yeniyer and Emin Atchmas of the Kaimakamlik
of Dousdji. During the same month a band of 30 raided one after another
the villages of Pasha-key, Buyuk and Kut-chuk Bakal-keuy, robbed the
inhabitants, beat them unmercifully and then carried them away to the hills.
In the month of May, the brothers Paul and Demetrius Stavrou Kopassani
were cut to pieces near Kousna of Chili, in the presence of the chief of
the gendarmerie of that district. In the same month, George P. Kopassani
and his wife Polyxeni disappeared, while going to their sheep herd near
In the first days of June, Apr Yazidji and his wife Margharo were
murdered by an Albanian band on the highway of Scutari-Chili. Their
bodies were later found in a horrible, condition. Both man and wife had
their heads cut off. A medical examination proved, that the woman had
been violated previous to her slaughter. In the same month, the corpses
of Pan. Papageorghiou, Pan. Zighoni, Nic. Yamenoglou and of the latter's
two sons, were found in Boyalk.
In July, a large band of Lazes robbed the inhabitants of Arnaout-keuy
(near Beicoz) after badly beating them.Towards the end of the same month
Miltos of Pashakey and two other men were killed with bombs near
Doutouli, and a fourth one was wounded.
During the months of August and September, Albanian and Laz bands
terrorised the regions of Pashakeuy (Ghevzeh), robbing and beating the
On September 3rd, in the district of Chili, at a distance of 6 hours
from Yenikeuy, at the place called Moudali, the 16 year old son of
Lambros from Yenikeuy was killed with an axe.
On September 9th, a Laz band, mortally wounded Manoli Stamati and cut
off Ap. Teplesi's ears.
On September 10th, Pan. Hepanis and J. Patzajis were found literally cut
to pieces near Deyrimen Tchaisi. The same fate, at the same time, was
shared by Elias Triandafillou, his son Triandafyllos and the sailor
Papazoglou. Towards the middle of the same month the notable of
Pasha-keuy Dem. Parnjis, was found murdered between AlemDagh and Sultan
Tchiflik. After the murder and on account of the frequent raids of the
bands on the village, the inhabitants abandoned their houses. The same
did the people of Buyuk-Bakal-keuy.
On September 20th, Jacob Zographides from Pontoheracleia, was murdered,
as he was on his way to the market of Alapli.
On October 15th, two field-guards of the community of Ryssion were
fiercely slaughtered by Albanians, at a distance of half-a mile from
On October 26th, certain Turks going to the mill Tchaoush-Degimeni (at
Kandra), cut to pieces the miller A. Philippou, his wife, his daughter
and his relative St. Demetriou. The next day, three Greeks, while coming
from Kandra, were murdered near Kara-Begte. The millers Nic. Kakouzis
and Sp. Mariou were also killed and near Ava.
On October 29th, Ant. Palavraji and Polychronis were murdered near Moudamli.
On October 30th, Theodore Zarocosta, his wife and daughter, were
merciless beaten and lead away to the hills.
On November 19th, Basil Stephanou, a grocer, long since established in
the Turkish village of Doudouli , was carried away to the hills.
Since the very first days of 1920, conditions in this diocese became
very precarious. Bands raided all the Christian communities, robbed,
tortured and generally terrorised the inhabitants.
In February 1920, three gendarmes took Pa. Karademetriou and his two
young sons to the gendarmerie station and there beat the father to
death, while badly woulding one of the boys.
On April 1st, Laz bandits raided Beicoz at night and carried away Sheo.
Ch. Kalphopoulos. On the same day George Tatazoglou was mortally wounded
On April 10th, the same Laz bandits wounded Anne Stylianou of Pashakeuy
and cut Athanassius Romanos to pieces.
On April 15th, Ch. Touratzoglou was murdered in his mill in Agasich of
Kandra, by Turkish brigands.
On April 25th, the same band caught 10 Christians, beat them, tied them
up in the Mosque, intending to kill them. They were saved only through
the mediation of native Turks.
On May 7th, robbers went after the shepherd George Theodossiou, while he
was returning with his family to Yeni-keuy and seriously wounded his
In May, all Christians working in Ava, Kandra and the neighbouring
villages, unable to stand the torture and tyranny of the bands,
abandoned everything and came to Yenikeuy (Chili).
Towards the end of the same month the bands at Pontoheracleia, fleeing
before the French troops, plundered, violated and massacred all that lay
on their way. Ch. Savoglou, George Myrides and Theo. Aslanides were cut
to pieces. The Greek village Karakavouz, 6 hours away from Pontoheracli,
was surrounded, plundered and its inhabitants, excepting very few,
The same fate was shared by the village Alapli. Of its inhabitants Dem.
Manolis was wounded in the neck and the miller Bas. Deyirmenji had his
ears cut off after a savage beating.
In the first half of June began the emigration of those who had escaped
massacre, during the advance of the Kemalists. In Pontoheracleia all the
stores and houses were plundered, and the Archimandrite of the community
Joachim Kaloudis was cast to , together with other notables. Later on
they were taken to the prisons of Bolou, where the Archimandrite and 11
notables were hanged.
On May 11th, bandits under the leadership of the boatman Birbad Emin,
carried Fotini Hadjistephanou, her daughter-in-law, Despina, her two
daughters and her two grand-children away to the mountains, where
Despina was killed. On the same day another band murdered the notable of
Pontoheraclion Hadjistephanou, his wife Despina, the daughter and three
guests from Saframboli,
The inhabitants of Chili and Yeni-keuy fleeing before the Kemalist
hordes, were scattered. Yeni-keuy was set on fire. Several of the
survivors took refuge to the capital. About 180 of the people of
Yeni-keuy died a horible death, and several of the inhabitants of
Pashakeuy were also murdered.
On June 20th, a numerous Turkish-laz band raided Beicoz and plundered
the stores and houses of the village. British and Greek troops were
brought in and succeeded in capturing many of the brigands. A close
search in Turkish houses led to the discovery of firearms, bombs and
On June 25th, 750 Kemalists surrounded the four villages of Foundouklia
(12 miles off Ada Bazar), pillaged them, killed nearly 400 men, violated
and then murdered 30 women, gouged out the eyes and cut off the ears of
the Priest Constantine, an old man of 95, and then bayoneted and shot
the Priest Stavros dead. The survivors ran away to the mountains.
In June again, Arnaout-keuy, a short distance from Beicoz, was besieged
for several days and then plundered by brigands and Kemalist troops. The
advance of the Greek army saved the people from certain death, but they
were once again obliged to emigrate to Beicoz and Pasha Bagtche.
From information which has just reached here, it is concluded that
conditions in the interior of Asia Minor is growing worse and worse. The
Christians are drafted to the army, unless they pay heavy taxes, or
both. Notables and Priests of various communities suffer indescribable
tortures and several of them are actually in prison.
Metropolitan Procopios of Iconion, a victim of slander, was brought from
Sivas to Erzeroum, to be court-marshalled there. The Patriarchal Exarch
of the diocese of Colonia (Kara Hissar-i-Sharki), Bishop of Sevastia
Gherassimos, is actually being subjected to all kinds of humiliations by
the government organs.
Many of the inhabitants of Iconion, Nigdi, Kutahia, and Eski Sheir are
being tyrannized and several have already been hanged. The Bishop's
Exarch of Kutahia has been exiled to Haimana with several other Priests.
In the diocese of Pisidia, all the Greek schools are closed and the
people are heavily taxed.
In Sokia, the officials confiscated the houses and shops of many
Christians. In November 1920, two Greeks, going from Kelebek to Sokia,
were killed by Turks. In December the authorities at Sokia arrested
Petrides from Akka-keuy and took him away. Only Christians are forbidden
to travel from the interior to Smyrna .
ARCHBISHOPRIC OF CONSTANTINOPLE
At the signing of the Armistice, it was rightly expected that the
Turkish authorities, as well as all Turkish citizens, in conformity with
the new political situation, would wish to play their part in soothing
the deep wounds inflicted on the body of the country by the reckless and
very mean behaviour of the new Government of the Young Turks and in
bringing about the financial revival of Turkey.
However, the attitude of the governing Turkish circles and of the
Turkish people was different. They hoped to cause trouble and turmoil,
by using terror and then profit, by applying plans designed beforehand.
Military convocations were held in secret. Policemen unreservedly spread
news of imminent extermination of the Christian population. Encouraged
Turkish thugs assailed passers-by at night, wounding and killing a good
many. Suburbs were submitted to particularly oppressive terror. Criminal
elements publicly insulted religion, Church and everything else and
threatened the Christians with a general massacre.
But luckily their some of their plans were frustrated. The victorious
armies of the Allied Powers, occupying different sections of the entire
administrative mechanism of the capital, have, day by day, in a short
time after the Armistice, brought about some tranquillity in the city.
DIOCESE OF DERKOS
Violence and terror were the chief means used in this diocese by Turks,
whether public functionaries of not. They were aided by a group of
Turkish Lazes, which grew stronger and stronger every day with the
enlistment of new recruits.
On October 30th, 1919 , some Turkish Laze fishermen, started an uproar
against the Greek fishermen of the community of Phanaraki ( Upper
Bosphorus ) and had the Greeks not fled, they would have been killed by
the rain of bullets fired at them by the Lazes'guns.
Mohammedan Lazes, inhabitants of Phanaraki, found their interests
impaired after the Armistice and entered into an understanding with
those living in Anatolian Phanaraki adherents of Kemal, to attack
together the community. Happily their evil designs collapsed.
On March 7th, 1919 , Stefos Cavacopoulos, a notable of St. George, was
killed by Turks of the village Samlar, on his way to the near-by forest
to get wood.
Toward the beginning of April, 1919, Constantine Demetriou, an
inhabitant of Arnaout-keuy, was killed by Emin oglou Hassan and Sabri
policemen of Ayasmataki, as he was coming back from the village of All
Saints . His corpse was found with hands cut off and with a broken head.
On August 28th, 1919 , two Greeks, retail merchants, going from Pyrgos
to the Turkish village Yenidze-keuy, were caught by a Turkish band and
taken to the neighbouring wood. One of them returned having escaped
death very closely, and the second was found dead in a ravine, stripped
of all his clothing.
About the beginning of October, 1919, a gang of 30 Albanian-Turks
savagely massacred Nicolas, a shepherd, native of St. Georg's village,
while he was working in the Dere-keuy farm near the Sparta-Koule
railroad station. On about the middle of the same month, Turkish
peasants and policemen entered the village Calis, shooting and stealing.
Their bullets killed a woman named Evghenia Anastasiou.
On November 23rd, 1919 , two merchants from Therapia, named Mark
Prodromou Vacalopoulos and Nicolas loannou, were as usual going to sell
cloths at Domouz-Dere. They were slain in the woods between Baghtche
Keuy and Domouz-Dere, having being robbed of all their money and goods.
The robbers were Turks of the Turkish villages near by.
On January 1920, a father and his son, living at Boghaz-Keui, were
killed at Alou Tepe of the Black Sea . On the same month, Anghelis
Theodorou, who went to get wood in a forest near Ermeni-keui, his native
village, disappeared. His body was found several days later, in the
Kiourt-keuy wood. On the 22nd, Michael Athanassiou from Neohoriou, was
killed by Osman, a Turkish guard, as he was returning home from his work.
On April 24th, 1920 , peasants from the village Zagar-keuy, transporting
flour from Castanea, were attacked by Turks, who kept firing at them for
hours. They saved themselves by running into a near-by wood. On the same
day, Peter, a cart-driver from Boghaz-Jceuy, was encountered by Turkish
soldiers near Ou-zoundjova. His money was stolen and his horse was killed.
On May 30th, 1920, a Turkish military detachment, consisting of a
captain, a lieutenant and 50 soldiers, entered Castanea and mercilessly
beat many of the inhabitants, wounding one of them with the bayonet. The
pretext was that they wanted to make an inquiry about some wood that had
been stolen from them.
In July, 1920, ten Turks went to the watermill near Ermeni-keuy and led
away 5 Greeks working in the mill. Two of them were killed, Anastasios
Ghristou from Ermeni-keuy and Demetrios Christodoulou from Phanari. In
the same month, Vassilios Demetriou, a native of the village Ak-Alan,
was killed by a Turkish robbers' band. Forty days before this insident,
another inhabitant of the same village, named Dimou, was slain.
On March 27th, 1919 , a public official of Boyalikeuy, accompanied by a
field-guard and three constables, all Turks, went to Moudra, where some
peasants from Tsiflikeuy were working. They bound 20 peasants by beating
them without pity, crying out in a bloodthirsty manner: “You are not
natives of Tsiflikeuy. One would do well to kill you!” One of the
victims, Pandelis Stravrou, died of his wounds, leaving a wife and five
children. A second one, Petros Adamandiou, fell heavily sick.
Towards the end of May, 1919, Vasilios G.Tsertsis was killed at Yaziler
on the Tchataldja fortifications and the shepherd Demos Leonidou was
killed near his native village Ak-Alan.
On June 1st, 1919 , a Greek, native of Ermeni-keuy, was robbed by a
Turkish soldier, outside of the village Exasteron, where he was going.
On June 2nd, a group of 20 Lazes surrounded the village Tzelep-keuy and
robbed many peasants. This village suffered a severer attack in October
of the same year. A girl died then of fear. At about the middle of the
same month, Natsos, a coal-merchant from Ak-Alan, was caught together
with his wife and were released, only after giving 300 gold liras and
his wife's jewels as a ransom to the robbers.
In July of the same year, armed Turks, fleeing before the Greek troops
that landed at Heraclea , passed by Ermeni-keuy. They were hospitably
received in a mill near-by and yet they wanted to slay the Greeks they
found there. Three men escaped, but the fourth, named Antonios Christou,
was mutilated savagely and the fifth man, Dimitrios Christodoulou
received three bullets in his thigh.
On August 31st, 1919 , Sotirios Demetriou from Ak-Alan and Stavros
Demetriou from Oklali, were attacked by three Turks natives of
Indze-Yioz. The fist man was cut to pieces.
DIOCESE OF METRAE
From the Armistice till recently, anarchy and terror reigned over the
entire independent district of Metrae. The activity of the Turkish bands
was daily intensified and there was no security.
The coasts of the Euxine from Ascos down to Neohoriou, were the landing
places of Lezes coming from the Eastern shores. These bands, organized
by the Metral constabulary, were sent to different places in the
vicinity, to practice their criminal designs. Parallel to this, the
Turkish inhabitant's temperament began to grow wild. Their provocations
and menaces increased every day. When ordered by local authorities to
drive away every single Christian out of every village, the Turks and in
particular the peasants, executed these orders by conducting mainly
Acts of violence by the Turks in general against Christians became the
order of the day and attempts of murders and slaughters were often.
In March, 1919, an inhabitant of the village St. George was slain by
Turks in the woods, where be had gone to gather wood.
In April, 1919, Constantine Mimicou from Arna-out-keuy, was cut to
pieces by Turks as he was coming back from Constantinople . It must be
noted that the Turks in the vicinity and chiefly in the Turkish villages
Samlar-keuy and Haratsi, were openly armed by the Turkish Government.
Toward the end of the same month, a Greek Youth, 17 years of age, was
found strangled on the Bouyouk Tchekmedje shore. In spite serious
suspicions falling on the son of Said Agha, a Turkish notable, the
authorities took no action on the matter.
On June 1st, 1919 , the son of Lazaros, a native of Petrohori, was
beaten very hard by two constables, who robbed him of all the money and
goods he had with himself. On the 25th of the same month, George,
Kehaghias from Elbasan, was murdered by Turks on his way home from
Metrae. On the same day 4 Greeks from Arson, returning home from
Constantinople , were robbed by some constables at Bouyouk-Tchekmedje
and narrowly escaped murder.
On September 25th, 1919 , Turkish constabulary killed a shepherd, named
Peter, a native of Loule-Bourghaz.
DIOCECE OF SILIVRlA
Order and security were greatly impaired. Turkish notables of Silivria
and of Tyroloi, who had had taken a leading part in the persecutions of
Christians, organized armed bands, which cooperating with the
constabulary, the regular army and detachments of Lazes, terrorized this
On May 18th, 1919 , Nicolas Pichios from the town of Silivria , was
beaten by Turks while going to Tyroloi. On the 23rd, a shepherd, named
Philippos Gabriel, who was on his way from Bassakli, near Phanarion, to
Psado, was killed on the road by Turks. On the 30th, fifty-two Turkish
constables and soldiers attacked the town of Phanarion . The inhabitants
defended themselves and caught three of them, carring hand-grenades, as
prisoners When they were questioned by the two French policemen at
Phanar, they gave testimony that the attack had been planned by a
Turkish captain, who had come from Constantinople at the head of a
number of soldiers.
On June 3rd, 1919 , the bodies of two Turks from Kadikeuy, were found
mutilated outside Ermenikeuy, near the place called Kara-Mourat.
On the 19th, four constables entered the village Kadikeuy at night and
breaking into the house of Alexander Georghiou, sought to conduct him
away. They were ready to fire at him, when the villagers, awakened by
the toll of the church-bell rushed out of their homes and then the
At about the end of September, 1919, three men, inhabitants of
Phanarion, disappeared. The community addressed itself to the Ministry
of War and to the Chief Inspector of the Turkish Constabulary, General
Foulon and pleaded for the immediate and severe punishment of the
criminals, for material support to the families of the victims and for
guarantees of the safety of their lives in the future.
On January 2nd, 1920 , George Ananstasiou and Stavros Yannacou of
Kourfali Village , were on their way to Vetsileria. They were fired at,
by two Turks. The first was killed on the spot, while the second reached
Bassakli, where he told his story and fell down dead.
DIOCESE OF HERACLES
It must be particularly noted, that from the conclusion of the Armistice
to the present day, the Turks of Rodosto maintained a provocative and
menacing attitude toward the Christian population of the city. There
even came a time, when the Christians shut their shops up early and
confined themselves at home, fearing assaults from the Turks.
At the end of May, 1919, three Albanian-Turks, guarding the Tsikili
Farm, on the Tsads-Tyroloe road, killed two young Christian men from
Tsads, whose clothes and ears they sent to this town, to frighten the
peasantry and whose corpses they gave to the dogs of the farm for food.
On the first days of September, 1919, three shepherds from the same
town, named Stavros Lazou, Autholohos Apostolou and Anastasios
Kehaghias, returning from Tsado to their sheep pen near Skerekl, were
arrested by 16 constables, who took them to the forest. The first
managed to escape, but the other 2 men disappeared. On the 11th of the
month, they were found killed, the belly of the one had been torn open
with a bayonet and the body of the other was mangled.
In the region of Malghara there was never a state of order and of
security. Since the first days after the Armistice, the Turks of this
district were seen preparing several fanatics of their own group and
forming bands, which would soon fall on the Christians. One Albanian,
called Moustapha, recruited twenty individuals from Constantinople , who
were known for their fierceness and led them to Malgara to serve his
At about the middle of April, 1919, four Turkish constables entered the
village of Calyvia at night and surrounded Evanghelos Kehayias's home,
and asked him to give them whatever he possessed. The man was compelled
to hand them 200 liras in gold. A little later, gun-shots were heard in
the village. Next morning the peasants found Evanghelos’ house
thoroughly pillaged and him, his wife Helen and his son-in-law,
Yannakis, mangled and gashed most tragically.
On July 10th, 1919 , armed Turks from the villages Tsaousli, Harmanlij
Halitsi and Demirdjili, seized whatever they could of the belongings of
their Christian fellow-inhabitants. The value of the articles stolen
amounted to several thousand liras.
DIOCESE OF GANOS AND CHORA
All the Greek communities of this district, with out any exception, were
much tormented by the local Turks, particularly by three fanatical
officials of the Government, i.e. the tax-collectors Ibrahim and Behdjet
and the Customs official at Chora Youssouf. Beating, imprisonment and
violence of all sorts, were every-day occurrences. Communications
between the villages were often suspended for days and weeks on end,
owing to the appearance of marauding bands, which robbed every one who
dared pass through their quarters. It should be particularly
remembered that almost all of these bands consisted of soldiers and
The Turkish peasants' fanaticism, provocations and threatening attitude
toward the Greeks had grown so violent, that they openly declared, even
in presence of Government officials, that they would quite soon
annihilate them. This state of things paralyzed the will of the Greeks
and prevented them from attending to their business.
At about the end of April 1919, Anagnostis Georgiou disappeared on his
way back from Malgara to his home in the village of Sanduk . A short
time later he was found literally butchered between the villages
Valikeuy and Mustedjeb near the place Tokar Tchesme. At about the same
time, Constantinos Zambetok from the village of Avdimi was murdered by
Turks from the village of Derekeuy .
On the 25th of September, Anestis Djelepis and Yovanis Papa-Joannou of
Avdimi were cruelly beaten by Turks from Neokhori.
At about the middle of December, 1919, Periclis Prodromou from Avdini,
was slaughtered like a lamb, near Atelthini.
On the 11th of February, the shepherd Antonios Georgiou Tsitsona, from
the village of Palamout , was murdered near the Turkish village of Saile
. The villagers from Palamout: Theodoros Constandi, Georgios Damianou,
Haralambos Georgiou and Kyriakos Chrisovergis were badly beaten until
blood came from their mouth.
DIOCESE OF MYRIOPHYTON
This diocese was at first victimised in various ways by the fifth
Turkish Division, whose soldiers ruined buildings, destroyed vineyards,
felled trees, pulled down part of the church of Kalamise and burnt its
holy icons. This state of affairs continued for a long time, in spite of
complaints of the Metropolitan of Myriophyton and of the community
protests to the local and central government. To its formal grievances,
the Patriarchate received a “tezkereh” of the Ministry of Justice and
Culture, dated March 3, 1335 (1919), in which practically all the above
complaints were denied.
After the Division left, the oppression continued from officials,
gendarmes and private Turkish individuals. Practically no day went by
without some robbery or beating or shooting taking place. The folder of
this diocese in the Patriarchate is full of reports to that effect. To
these ill treatments should be added the forcible gathering of taxes for
the up-keep of the Turkish schools and the exile of all the returning
Greeks, who have been deported.
On account of the prevailing oppressions, especially in the countryside,
the farmers could no longer go without danger to their fields or move
from village to village. In the meanwhile, the government went on
systematically arming the Musulmans and furthering Djafer Tayar's
insurrection. On July 2nd, 1920 , Hussein Hassan from the village
Peristassis, killed Michal Haralambos. He would have killed the victim's
son Zacharia also, had the latter not escaped in time.
DIOCESE OF CALLIOUPOLIS
It is well known that this diocese had for several reasons been almost
entirely evacuated. The inhabitants who gradually returned to their
houses began their usual work. The murders, however, which were
committed by Turkish bands and the oppression of the officials,
seriously impeded their occupations.
On September 4th, 1919 robbers went to the sheep-pen of Ibrahim
Tchaoush, beat his shepherd Panayotelli from Yeni-keuy and scattered his
sheep. The authorities on being informed by Ibrahim, sent gendarmes, who
meeting the shepherd and his son Constantine, began shooting at them,
killing the son and seriously wounding the father, who later died from
the wounds he received. No steps were taken by the authorities against
On September 24th, Demosthenes Dem. Koutzaris from Anghellohori, was
found dead. He had been murdered by the notorious brigand Tahir, who
being well connected to the local authorities, dared informing them
himself of Demosthene's murder and afterward he did not even permit the
wife of the victim to see the dead body of her husband. Tahir was the
terror especially of the Greek farmers and was often employed by the
local authorities in scaring the Christians. Forming a volunteers'
corps, he went about plundering, beating and murdering. In Taifur he
robbed Evanghelos Photius of 100 paper and 30 gold liras. The Moudir of
Yalova forced through Tachir the Turkish villagers to drive away all the
Christians living in their villages. Tahir formally declared that he
would massacre those Christians, should they not leave the Turkish
villages in three days.
On December 6th, Dem. Karafotakis and Char. Foundas went from
Dardanelles to Lampsakos to buy cattle. On the way between Moussakeuy
and Okchilar they were met by 3 Turkish brigands, who robbed them of
everything killing Karafotakis.
DIOCESE OF AENOS
The homonymous district of the diocese, which had so much suffered
during the war, fared no better after the conclusion of the Armistice.
The life of the Christians was continually at stake. Robberies,
committed by Turkish soldiers and emigrants aided by Bulgarian regulars,
who crossed over the Maritza frontier, line took place regularly.
Amiroundi Kirkalis, Photius Stamatiou and George Nicolaou disappeared in
the month of May 1919 while on their way to Hypsala, to present
themselves before the court.
On January 21st , 1920 , Greek merchants going to Keshan on business,
were killed by Turkish robbers. Two Turks also killed the shepherd
Panayotis from Amygdalia.
DIOCESE OF DIDYMOTECHON
The Christian villages in Easter Thrace were oppressed in various ways.
On May 21st, 1919 , a double murder of two Greeks took place in the
village Tchanakli. These two farmers coming to Ouzoun Kioprou, were on
the way attacked by four soldiers. The head of one victim, Athanassius,
was cut off, while the other victim, though seriously wounded, was able
to creep as far as Eski-keuyto. The wounded reported the crime to the
authorities and after a few hours succumbed to his wounds.
On June 6th, Constantine Christou was murdered by the tax-collector
Hafiz and his soldiers. Angelo Demetriou was beaten, for resisting a
gendarme who tried to violate her.
On June 7th, St. Karyophylis and Con. Katzikarakis were murdered on
their way from Ouzoun-Kioprou to Psathades.
On June 12th, fifteen armed Turks, of whom two gendarmes and the Hodja
of the village Rahmadi, went to the village Yaouts and attacked St.
Photiou's house. They beat the master of the house, wounded his daughter
Marica and his grand-son George and robbed them of all the money they
possessed. This village was on February 3rd, 1920 , attacked once more
by a band of 40.
On May 18th, sixty soldiers, led by an officer, asked the inhabitants of
the above village to supply them with provisions. The villagers did as
they were told. The officer then asked for a saddle. On the villager’s
reply that there was no saddle in the village fit for an officer's
horse, he and his soldiers commenced shooting. A panic followed. The
villagers ran away to the fields. Kassellis Moshou, Ap. Gheorghiou and
Kerasia Athanassiou were killed, several others were wounded. The
soldiers, after plundering the village, went away. Toward the end of the
month Ch. Yanacoulis was killed by Turks in Kavakli. On the same day one
Greek was killed in Zaloufi and another in Kavakli.
DIOCESE OF TYROLOE
The state of affairs in this diocese proves that Turkish officials and
private individuals did not intend even after the Armistice to change
their attitude toward the Christians. The latter were in constant terror
for their lives, honour and property.
On June 17th, 1919 , a villager from Kermenit and another two from
Djaddo went to the wood near-by, to pick up sticks and there were killed
On July 2nd, a Turkish band cut to pieces Yannako Deligheorghi from
Karaja-keuy, as he was making coal in the wood. The murdered man was
among the refugees who had returned from Salonica. Here it must be said
that the authorities of Tchataldja on no account allowed those returning
from Greece to be re-established in their homes,
Towards the middle of August, 1919, Petros, Stamatios and Stratos from
Shanja, were slaughtered between Koush-keuy and Gumush Bunar; John
Saplamoglou of Karaja-keuy was carried away by Turks and later ransomed
for 2000 liras.
DIOCESE OF KIRK-KILISSE
This diocese was terrorised by a secret organization, for the purpose of
annihilating the Greek elements, especially those in the open country.
There was no security of life and property for the Greeks within and
outside Kirk-Kilisse. The nationalist animosity of the Turkish elements
for the Greeks, often manifested itself in a ferocious manner, while
systematic robbing and compulsory contributions were the least, that the
Greeks had to suffer.
A pretty large sum of money was forcibly taken from Karakatchans, living
in the neighbourhood of Kirk-Kilisse and from 12 inhabitants of Petra .
5 Greeks returning from Bulgaria fell into an ambush near the Turkish
village of Ezekler and were mortally wounded.
In April 1919, Constine Ap. Voutzas was badly beaten in the very town of
Kirk-kilisse . At Skopo, the situation of the Christians was growing
worse and worse, on account of the appearance of Turkish bands, which
tyrannized them to such a degree, that the poor people could not go out
of from their houses.
A band of 15 members under Captain Zakeria terrorised the districts of
Skopo, Skepastos, Petra and Skopelo. On October 11th, 1919 , George and
Paul Papastathi were robbed outside Skopo. On October 15th two gendarmes
under Hassan Tchaoush took all they found in a coffee-shop and carried
Kyriako bleeding to jail. In spite of all this the Turkish authorities
forced the community of Skopo to sign a document expressing their thanks
to the central government.
On November 20th, at 10 o'clock p.m. , a band of 15 entered the
flour-mill of Ch. Skoulidis, arrested the workers, beat them, locked
them up in one of the rooms and then proceeded to the plunder of the
mill. They carried the spoils to the Turkish village of Keremedin . -
On January 15th, 1920 , seven sportsmen, five Greeks and two Turks, were
met by a numerous band, which robbed the Christians, but spared their
lives, only for the sake of their Turkish friends.
The robberies and violations were intensified in the districts of Xenna,
Skopo, Skepasto and Petra during the insurrection of Jafer Tayar and
uwith the support of the Thracian Comittee.
On April 20th, 1919 , while the notable of Kirk-Ki-lisse John Pavlakides
was walking in the market place, he was approached by the fanatical Turk
Salih Effendi, warden of the prisons under the Young Turkish regime.
Salih said: “Your name and the names of those like you have been taken
note of. We shall not let you live here. We shall kill you. You are
“ghiavours”. I shall destroy your house with a bomb and after
annihilating your family, I shall run away to Bulgaria .” He went on
threatening and insulting without anyone, either Greek or Turk, daring
to reproach him.
On May 1919, George Karaghiozoglou and Dem. Loulebourghazli were first
robbed and then murdered.
On August 20th, Dem. Michael from Samakov and George Adamandiou from
Skepasto, left Kirk-Klisse in the morning and spent the night in the
Turkish village of Kizilgik Dere . At daybreak they started for home.
The band, however, which was pursuing them fell upon them, killed the
former by shooting him with a Mauzer rifle, felled the latter with an
axe and chopped to pieces both of them.
On December 3rd Yannakis Papadopoulos from Euasion, was shot dead while
on his way to Kirk-Kilise.
On December 13th, Turks killed the notable and Mouhtar of the village of
Koyoun Dere Ap. Mihaloglou . The body bore marks of several knife wounds.
In the morning of January 11th, Ath. K. Katchavounis was found dead in
the room next to his grocery, bearing marks of 40 axe wounds.
On May 15th Anast. Mavringos and Angh. Sterghiou from Skopos, were
attacked by Turks. The former took to his heels and was thus saved. The
latter, wounded in the stomach, fell on the ground and was at once
finished with a knife.
DIOCESE OF ADRIANOPLE
The special attention of the Turks was drawn by the Greek element of the
city and diocese of Adrianople . They had noted that Hellenism stood
steady, even after the persecution of 1914 and was facing all adverse
circumstances, hoping in the years to come. That is the reason why they
applied all such measures, as their perversion led them to use. The
tendency to take away from the Greeks all business, to prevent them from
returning to their homes and to terrorise the remaining population, were
not among the least ignominious of their ways.
On March 16th, 1919 , Turkish gendarmes entered the house of Pavlazoglou
from Karayoussouf and robbed it clean. On March 18th two shepherds were
attacked by five Turks near Soulioglou and after a sound thrashing, they
were robbed of 1000 liras. On March 23rd, St. Basil, Hap. Troumzoukis
and Athanassius Gheorghiou were beaten and robbed by Turks under the
leadership of Kutchuk Ahmed.
On March 31st, Hussein Hazioglou plundered Verghi Photiou's grocery in
On April 16th, the committee which had been formed under Prince
Djemaleddin for the purpose of advising and conciliating the dissenting
elements, reached Adrianople . The Greeks, having before their eyes the
daily persecutions and remembering those of the past, submitted their
complaints to the Prince through their Metropolitan. The Prince proved
rich of promises, but poor of deeds, since even in the days of his stay
in Adrianople , pamphlets and proclamations of the committee “Trakia
Pasha ili” were distributed, and after his departure the Turks ceased
all contact with the Greeks. Thus the committee, whose aim was the
conciliation of the two opposed elements, not only utterly failed in its
attempt, but even brought about the opposite result.
This state of affairs grew worse every day. The Turks of the city became
more menacing and those of the country rendered the position of the
Christians exceedingly precarious. A Turkish band appearing in the
neighbourhood of the village Gherdely in the first days of April 1913,
robbed and ill treated all the Greeks that passed by. In addition to
that, the Police drove away the Greeks, who returned from Greece , and
especially those who were repatriated with the Prefect's permission.
Something similar took place in the case of the refugees of the village
of Abalar , of the Kaza of Havza. The Metropolitan of Adrianople Mgr.
Polycarpos reported the events in a “takrir” to the Prefect of
Adrianople Djemal Bey, adding that the authorities at Hafza openly
proclaimed that the persecution and deportation of the Greeks would
continue, as it really did.
The Prefect answering in a “tez-kere”, dated December 5th, gave certain
resoning, seeking always to justify the attitude of the authorities and
proceeded to say: “We remind your Eminence, that the last paragraph in
Your “takrir” is not fitting to your quality of an Ottoman. It is
contrary to the prerogatives of the Patriarchate and to the courtesy of
correspondence. The Prefecture therefore being, unable to accept your
“takrir”, returns it to Your Eminence, and recommends that you should
not to step over the limits set by the Privileges.” The Metropolitan
hastened to refute the above. The act nevertheless was a proof of the
Prefect's intentions. He continued to have the same tyrannical
mentality, even after the Armistice, which promised liberty to the
Nations under the Turkish yoke. In addition to all this, the systematic
arming of the Turks commenced, first in the villages and later in the
city. Furthermore, there was military activity of these who had adopted
Moustafa Kemal's program. All such preparations, taking place under the
leadership of Djafer Tayar, Military Governor of Adrianople , were
undertaken for the purpose of resisting the expected advance of the