Discussion:
Turkish Aegean terrorism continues unabated
(too old to reply)
Agamemnon
2005-01-12 10:26:14 UTC
Permalink
Turkish warplanes violate Greece's national air space

Athens, 11/1/2004 (ANA)

The Turkish Air Force yet again resorted on Monday in violating Greece's
national air space over the Aegean.

According to press reports, nine formations of Turkish warplanes entered
the entire Aegean region on Monday and in 14 cases violated the national
air space in the southern, central and northern Aegean.

The 20 Turkish warplanes were recognized and intercepted by corresponding
Greek fighter jets.

It was reported that six of the Turkish aircraft were armed.
m***@yahoo.com
2005-01-12 16:26:09 UTC
Permalink
Talk is cheap. What the Greek hommos do is what counts.
m***@yahoo.com
2005-01-12 17:34:09 UTC
Permalink
http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_azerbaijan/karabakh1.htm


History of the Nagorno-Karabakh Region of the Republic of Azerbaijan

The history of Karabakh is rooted in antiquity, and it is one of the
historic provinces of Azerbaijan, an important political, cultural, and
spiritual center.

Territorial claims of the Armenians against the Azerbaijani people and
Azerbaijan are the main reasons for the so-called "Karabakh problem".

Karabakh (Arsakh) was inalienable part to all the state formations that
have existed on the territory of northern Azerbaijan.
From 4th century B.C. to 8th century A.D. the territory of the current
Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan was one of the provinces of
Caucasian Albania, the most ancient state of Northern Azerbaijan. After
the fall of the independent Albanian state, Arsakh being inseparable
from Azerbaijan both geographically and politically, was a part to the
Azerbaijani state of Sajids, in 10th century - to the state of
Salarids, and in 11-12th centuries - to the state of Sheddadids. During
12-13th centuries Karabakh constituted part of the Atabey-Ildenizids
state, in the second half of 13th century - beginning of 15th century,
during the existence of the Mongolian Khulagouid state - part of the
Jalairids' state. In the 15th century it existed within the states of
Gharagouynlou and Aghgouynlou, and during 16th and 17th centuries
Karabakh, as a part of the Karabakh beylerbeyyat (duchy), was within
the Sefevi state. The latter consisted of 4 beylerbeyyats: Shirvani,
Karabakhi (also known as Ganja), Chukhursaadi (or Erivan) and
Azerbaijani (or Tebriz). Karabakh, being a part of the Karabakhi
beylerbeyyat, was ruled by the representatives of the Turkic Zyiad-oglu
tribe, subordinated to Kajars from 16th till 19th century. In the
second half of the 18th century Karabakh belonged to the Karabakh
khanate (principality) and along with the latter was incorporated into
Russia.

Thus, Karabakh has never been a part of the Armenian state, which was
established in Asia, far from South Caucasus.

In the antiquity the population of Karabakh consisted of Albans, and in
the early medieval period - of Albans and Turkic-speaking tribes of
Barsil, Savir, Hunn, Khazar, which lived on this territory. These
tribes were joined by other Turkic-speaking tribes, in particular,
Roumlou, Shoumlou, Bakharlou, Kangary and etc. Language of the Albans
belonged to northeastern-Caucasian family. As it has been established
as a result of most recent research, tribes of that family have
inhabited the territory, at least, since the mesolithic period, no less
than ten thousand years ago.

Arabic conquest of the lowlands of Albania, as well as valleys of Kura
and Araz in 7th century, resulted in islamization of the population of
the plains and it merging with the Turkic-speaking population of the
country. However, Albanian population, ruled by Albanian Mikhranid
princes, remained in the mountainous Arsakh along with the Turkic
tribes. Descendants of the Mikhranid clan restored the Albanian kingdom
in Arsakh in the 9th century. This kingdom was ruled by the Jalalids,
descendants of Hassan-Jalal, until 15th century.


General appearance of Gandzasar cloister, center of Alban church

After losing political and secular power in the 15th century,
representatives of the clan of Jalal became the spiritual leaders of
the country. They became Patriarch-Catolicos of the Albanian autonomous
church, until 1836, when independence of the Albanian church was
abolished and subordinated to the Armenian church as a result of
intrigues of the Armenian clergy.

In the 15th century the Jalalids were granted the title of Melik
(count) by Jahanshah. After that the clan broke up and five melikates
(smaller autonomous county) appeared in Karabakh: Goulistan, Jraberd,
Khachen, Varanda and Dizak. The title of Melik was conferred upon the
ruling families of the Melikates. Meliks of Karabakh in their letters
to the Russian czar call themselves "descendants of the Albanian
Arshakids". The Albanian princes had a title of melik, differing from
Armenian titles: ishkhan, tar etc. None of the Albanian Melik families
was of Armenian descent.

Thus, the historical Albanian province of Arsakh until 19th century had
been an important political, cultural, spiritual center of the
remaining Albanian Christian population which managed to preserve its
territorial, political, confessional unity and, importantly, - its
Albanian self-conscience.

Appearance of the first ethnic Armenian on the territory of Azerbaijan,
in particular, in Karabakh, should be viewed through the prism of the
Armenian people's history.

As it is known, Armenians are not aboriginal neither in the territory
of Asia Minor (historical Turkey), nor in the Caucasus. According to
Armenologists, the Armenians, who belonged to the Frigian tribes,
originally inhabiting the Balkans, following the Cimmerian resettlement
appeared in Asia Minor in the 7th century B.C. They have further spread
to the east, reaching Euphrates. The latest edition of "The history of
the Armenian people" states that in the 12th century B.C. groups of
Hindo-European Armenian-speaking tribes penetrated territories of the
Khurrites and Louvian Khetts in the upper reaches of the Euphrates.
These tribes were called as "moushku" and "urumu" by Assirian cuneiform
texts, "arims" by the Greek sources, and later "Armenians".

The first Armenian state, established in Asia Minor in the 6th century
B.C., lasted until 428 and was only nominally a state being de-facto a
province of the Persian and Roman Empires. Attempts to restore the
Armenian kingdom were made in 9th-11th centuries and in 12th-14th
centuries. Thus, in 9th-11th centuries Armenian Bagratid state, with
the capital of Ani, was established in the vicinity of Kars and
Erzurum. Later, in 12th-14th centuries, an Armenian Kilikian kingdom
was founded in a totally different location on the northeastern shore
of the Mediterranean.

Since the 15th century the Armenian history is closely linked to the
Armenian church. Significance and influence of the church have
especially grown after the Catolicos' seat was moved in 1441 from
Kilikia to Echmiadzin, in the vicinity of Yerevan. Since that time
Echmiadzin assumed both political and general leadership in the life of
the Armenians. It became the consolidating and organizing force of the
Armenian people scattered across many countries.

Thus, Azerbaijani regions of Arsakh and Sounik, partly populated by
Christian Albans, had preserved confessional unity with Armenians while
maintaining territorial and political unity with Azerbaijan.

With the emergence of the Ottoman Empire Armenians lost hope to create
their state in Asia Minor. This is when the Armenians turned to the
Caucasus and historical Azerbaijan with the idea of forcing
Azerbaijanis out of the Caucasus. Authors of "The history of the
Armenian people" introduce into scientific circles the term "Eastern
Armenia", by which they from 16th to 20th century mean exclusively
Azerbaijani lands: Karabakh, Erevan, Ganja, Sounik-Zangezur. Thus,
"Eastern Armenia" shifts both in time and space from east of the
Euphrates to the Caucasus.

Beginning from the 18th century the Armenians penetrating Russia were
trying to gain favor of the Russian court, first - of the Emperor Paul
I, then - Empress Catherine II by all means. Attracting them by the
necessity of liberating the so-called "Eastern Armenia" from Turkish
and Persian "yoke", Armenians practically aimed at cleansing Karabakh
and the lands of Zangezur from Azerbaijanis, who co-existed with the
fragments of Albanian Christians. Another goal was the Russian conquest
of these territories. Undoubtedly, Armenian intended, by separating
these lands from Azerbaijan and joining them with Russia, to continue
presenting them as "Eastern Armenia", this time within Russia. In 1805
by peace negotiations Azerbaijani khanates of Karabakh (founded by
Azerbaijani Panakh Ali-khan, fortress of Shusha which he erected to
make the capital of the khanate, was called Panakhabad), Sheki and
Shirvan were forced to accept the Russian rule. During the period of
1806-1813 through embittered wars and campaigns by Tsitsianov,
Goudovich and general Kotlyarovsky the rest of the Azerbaijani khanates
- principalities of Talysh, Baki, Gouba, Ganja, Derbent were conquered.
Later, in 1826, Russia annexed the khanates of Nakhchivan and Yerevan,
populated mostly by Turkic Azerbaijanis.

According to official documents, Kharabakh khanate had 90,000
residents, one town and more than 600 villages, only 150 of them were
Armenian. There were 1048 Azerbaijani and 474 Armenian resident
families in Shusha. In villages: 12,902 and 4,331 accordingly. However,
already by the end of the 19th century Nagorny Karabakh had Armenian
majority of 58%, while Azerbaijanis constituted 42% of population.
Influx of Armenian population in Azerbaijan, especially into Karabakh,
was significant during and after World War 1.

Increase of Armenian population in the Caucasus and concentration of
predominantly pro-Russian Christian Armenians in the areas bordering
Turkey and Persia was dictated by interests of Russia. In addition,
this way Russia won sympathies of Armenians in Turkey and secured
support in Asia Minor.


Memorial "Maraga - 150" mounted in 1978 on the occasion of 150
anniversary of arrival of Armenians from Persian region Maraga to
Karabakh. In 1988 as the Armenians in Nagorny Karabakh began
"realisation of right of the nation for self-determination" inscription
on the memorial "Maraga - 150" immediately disappeared

Both Turkmanchay and Adrianopol treaties included special clauses
allowing for migration of Armenians into the Caucasus, into the lands
of Azerbaijan and Georgia. This is when first compact Armenian
settlements appeared in Zangezur and Karabakh. In the years 1828-1830
alone 130,000 Armenians migrated. Following signing of Turkmanchay
treaty in 1828 Tsarist government created new, previously non-existent
political entity - the Armenian oblast (district). This district
consisted of Azerbaijani lands of Erivan, Nakhchivan and Ordubad
districts and was governed by Czarist bureaucrats. This was the first
attempt to create an Armenian political entity on the territory of
Azerbaijan. In 1849 the Armenian district was abolished and Erivan
governorship created instead.

In 1836, in order to secure support of Armenians in Turkey and trying
to subordinate them to pro-Russian oriented Armenian Patriarchy in
Echmiadzin, Tzarist government made a number of concessions to the
Armenian Echmiadzin Church. These concessions included abolition the
Albanian Patriarchy, the independent Albanian church, and subordination
of it to the Armenian Gregorian church. Later, in 1909-1910, the
Armenian Gregorian church with permission of the Russian Sinod
destroyed archives of the Albanian church and eliminated samples of the
Albanian literature. Russian historian V.L.Velichko wrote that the
Armenian clergy had used similar approach to Albanian Christian
shrines, the same way the Georgian monuments were treated. After
abolition of the Albanian Church Albans of Karabakh became
Gregorianized and some of the Albans of Karabakh migrated to the left
bank of the Kura river, preserved their identity and still live in the
Azerbaijani village of Nij.

The issue of so-called "Western Armenia" is related to the
situation of Turkey's Armenian population and following 1878 talks held
in Berlin and San-Stefano became "the Armenian question", which
implied Turkey undertaking introduce reforms in the Armenian-populated
vilayets (regions). In reality, only Tzarist Russia was pushing for
realization "the Armenian question". Two political parties,
"GNCHAK" (1887) and "DASHNAKTSUTYUN" (1890) were created for
that purpose. These parties developed ideological justification for
Armenian territorial claims in the Caucasus. "DASHNAKTSUTYUN" used
terrorism and armed rebellion to achieve its goal of unifying
territories with Armenian migrant population from Iran and Turkey.
"DASHNAKTSUTYUN" party frequently changed its orientation from
pro-Russian to pro-European and then from supporting Turkish
revolutionary movement back to supporting Russia.

During the Balkan war of 1912-1914 Russia proposed creation of an
autonomous Armenian district in Turkey, so-called "Western Armenia"
from vilayets of Erzurum, Van, Bitlis, Diyarbakir, Harput, Sivas. This
proposal was not supported by the European states. The Armenian
political parties mentioned above and authorities of the Russian Empire
in an attempt to contain national-liberation movement in the Caucasus
provoked first clashes between Armenians and Azerbaijanis. As a result,
between 1907 and 1912 about 500,000 Armenians from Iran and Turkey
migrated into Kars, Erivan and Yelizavetpol districts, most of
population of which were Azerbaijanis. This took place with assistance
of Russian authorities in order to make inter-ethnic situation even
more tense and strengthen Russia's dominance in the region.

February and October Revolutions of 1917 marked a new stage in "the
Armenian question". In October 1917 Armenian Congress convened in
Tiflis and demanded Russian annexation of East Turkey's territory
occupied by the Russian Army during WW1. On December, 31 the Council of
Commissars adopted a decree signed by Lenin and Stalin on free
self-determination of "Turkish Armenia".

Following collapse of the Transcaucasus Parliament the Azerbaijan
Democratic Republic (ADR), the first democratic state in the Muslim
world, was established on May, 28 1918. One of the first steps of the
ADR's government was to yield on May, 29 1918 town of Erivan
(Yerevan) to Republic of Armenia, which had declared independence but
had no political center. Territory of Armenian Republic was limited to
Erivan and Echmiadzin districts with 400,000 residents. Later, all
means were employed to implement policies aimed at changing demography
of Erivan and Zangezur in favor of Armenians.

Azerbaijan's foreign policy objectives at that period included
developing friendly and neighborly relationship with Armenia.
Unfortunately, "DASHNAKTSUTYUN" government of Armenia had
expansionist plans and laid claims on Nakhichevan, Zangezur and
Karabakh, all of which were parts of Azerbaijan. This led to the war
between Armenia and Azerbaijan in 1918-1920. According to available
data, during summer of 1918 alone 115 Azerbaijani villages were
destroyed, 7,000 people killed and 50,000 Azerbaijanis left Zangezur.

US President Wilson accepted instructions from the League of Nations,
which stated that Armenia "cannot exist without support" and that
its borders must be defined. However, the Senate decided that "the
Armenian question" is a European issue and rejected the "mandate on
Armenia".

The French Government acted similarly towards Armenians regarding
Kilikia, which had been occupied by France in 1919. In 1921 France
concluded peace treaty with Turkey, and gave up Kilikia.

Thus, the Armenian issue concentrated in the South Caucasus. In March -
July 1920 clashes with Dashnak forces took place in Karabakh,
especially in Shusha, Nakhchivan, Ordoubad. Hostilities took place in
Khankendy, Terter, Askeran, Zangezur, Jebrail, Nakhchivan, Ganja, and
dozens of Azerbaijani villages were destroyed.

Independence of Azerbaijan was crushed after the Bolshevik 11th Red
Army had invaded the country and the Soviet Socialist Republic of
Azerbaijan was proclaimed on April 28, 1920. Soviet Russia decided not
to allow turning Armenian Republic into anti-Russian bridgehead. It
became a mediator in settling the border disputes between Armenia and
Azerbaijan. In July 1920 Dashnak government in Erivan gave a secret
order to the Dashnak military forces to begin guerilla punitive
activities in Karabakh, Nakhchivan, and Zangezur. The same summer the
Bolsheviks have crushed the Dashnak troops that had invaded Karabakh,
and established Soviet rule here. Later, in November 1920, the Dashnak
regime was overthrown in Armenia.

The letter written in 1920 by chairman of the Revolutionary Committee
of Azerbaijan N.Narimanov, member of the Caucasus regional committee of
the Communist Party B.Mdivani, member the Central Committee of the
Communist Party (CCCP) of Azerbaijan A.Mikoyan and member of the CCCP
of Armenia A.Nourijanian, the people's commissary (minister) of foreign
affairs G.Chicherin and G.Orjonikidze stated: "As far as supposedly
disputed territories of Zangezur and Karabakh, that have already joined
Soviet Azerbaijan, are concerned, we categorically state, that there
can be no dispute about these places and they must stay within
Azerbaijan. The regions of Djulfa and Nakhchivan are populated solely
by Moslems... and must join with Azerbaijan".

G.Orjonikidze, who in his telegrams to V.Lenin, I.Stalin, G.Chicherin
has been underlining economic bent of Karabakh and Zangezur for Baku
and Azerbaijan, was of the same opinion. I.A.Mikoyan said that "agents
of the Armenian government, the Dashnaks, are striving for joining
Karabakh with Armenia, but for the population of Karabakh it would mean
to be deprived of their life-line, which is Baku, and to be connected
to Erivan, with which it hasn't ever been linked in any way. "

Responding to the territorial claims of the Armenian SSR the Caucasus
bureau of the Central Committee of the Russian Communist Party at its
meeting dated July 5, 1921 decided: "Proceeding from the necessity to
maintain ethnic peace between Moslems and Armenians, economic ties
between Highland and Lowland Karabakh, its uninterrupted ties with
Azerbaijan, Nagorny Karabakh is to be left within (underlined by the
edit.) the Azerbaijan SSR and to be granted broad regional autonomy
with the administrative center in Shusha, which is a part of the
autonomous region." Establishment of the autonomous region was not
artificial, though it contradicted historic right of Azerbaijan for its
own lands. It was a result of complicated situation in Nagorny Karabakh
and around it.

In 1922 the Azerbaijan SSR was included into the USSR. Within the
latter the attributes of republics' independence were a formality. On
July 7, 1923 the Central Executive Committee of Azerbaijan issued a
decree "On the establishment of Nagorno-Karabakh autonomous region".
Thus, the government of the Azerbaijan SSR by the act of law created an
autonomy on the territory of Azerbaijan in the interests of its
Armenian citizens. At the same time, three hundred thousands of
Azerbaijanis who have lived in compact settlements in Armenia were
refused even cultural autonomy by the governments of both the USSR and
the Armenian SSR. That violated their rights and had eventually led to
multiple deportations in 1948-1950 and to more than one dramatic forced
resettlement from Armenia, including more than 200, 000 in 1988-1989
alone.

It is necessary to emphasize that after the establishment of Soviet
rule all over the South Caucasus in 1921, the territories that had been
captured and separated from the Republic of Azerbaijan weren't claimed
by the government of the Azerbaijan SSR. On the contrary, the next,
"peaceful" stage of separation started with the assistance of communist
leadership of Russia and the Soviet Union. In 1921 "acquisition" of the
province of Zangezur by Armenia was legalized, which led to complete
isolation of Nakhchivan from Azerbaijan. In 1922 the Bolsheviks dealt
with Azerbaijani territories of Dilijan and Geycha in a similar manner.
In 1929 several villages were separated from Nakhchivan and transferred
to Armenian SSR. In 1969 the Armenian SSR again extended its territory
by acquiring Azerbaijani lands, this time - in the Kedabey district. In
1984 under the pressure from central authorities, as it had been in the
previous years, Azerbaijan handed a number of villages in the district
of Gazakh to Armenia.

Taking into account the above, it's crucially important to underline
that as of January 1, 1920 the territory of the Democratic Republic of
Azerbaijan was 113,900 square km. Now the territory of the Republic of
Azerbaijan is 86,600 square km. According to the population census of
1989, the population of the Autonomous Region of Nagorny Karabakh
(ARNK) was 186,100. 138,600 of them were Armenians (73,5%) and 47,500
Azerbaijanis (25,3%).

The new stage of the Armenian-Azerbaijan confrontation at the end of
the 1980s was caused not by the far-fetched suppositions about
"discrimination of the Armenian minority" in Azerbaijan and economic
hardships, but by the beginning of implementation of long-conceived
plans of expansion. The most favorable conditions for that were created
in the period of collapse. Beginning in February 1988, Armenia, with
the connivance of the leadership of the USSR, instigated
anti-constitutional activities by the administrative structures of the
ARNK. Those steps became the prologue of the wide-scale armed
aggression of Armenia against Azerbaijan.



++++++++++++++



http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_azerbaijan/karabakh2.htm


The process of the settlement of the Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict
(information)

Chronology of the conflict from 1988 up to present days.

History of the second Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict throughout the 20th
century takes its beginning from February, 1988, when the session of
the Council of Oblast (local legislature) of the Nagorno-Karabakh
Autonomous Oblast (NKAO) of the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic
adopted decision to secede from Azerbaijan and to unite with Armenia.
Not a confessional and ethnic factors are the basis of the conflict
which started as local clashes and turned into one of the most
long-standing and bloody conflicts in post-war Europe. Its roots are in
the expansionism and policy of territorial aggression aimed at the
expansion of the territory of a state by means of the armed abruption
and forceful seizure of a part of the territory of another sovereign
state, which is a member of the UN, OSCE and other international
organisations.

A prologue of a full-scale armed aggression against Azerbaijan became
anti-constitutional actions by separatist groups in the
Nagorno-Karabakh region, supported by and controlled from outside
completely contradicting International Law and the Soviet legislation
in vigour that time.

Having begun with organising of the illegal meetings, strikes and
actions of disobediences, the Republic of Armenia started to establish
the unconstitutional power institutions in the Nagorno-Karabakh region
of Azerbaijan. The military formations as well as a huge amount of
weapons and ammunitions were shipped on the territory of Azerbaijan. A
military bridgehead was set up to conduct an armed aggression against
Azerbaijan.

Full-scale hostilities in the zone of the Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict
triggered at the end of 1991 - early 1992. Armenian armed formations,
using the most modern weapon systems, deployed combat operations in the
Nagorno-Karabakh region, culmination of which became a seizure of the
city of Khodjali in February, 1992 resulted in nearly 800 peaceful
inhabitants, including the olds, women and children, brutally killed,
and occupation of the Shusha rayon in May, 1992. Thereupon, armed
actions were beyond the administrative boundaries of the region and
expanded to the rest of Azerbaijan and the Armenia-Azerbaijani border,
including its Nakhchivan zone. Pending the period from May, 1992 until
May, 1994 6 more rayons of Azerbaijan were occupied.

Thus, as a result of aggression against the Republic of Azerbaijan,
more than 17.000 km2 were occupied that constitute about 20% of the
whole territory of the Azerbaijan Republic, more than 18 000 persons
were killed, over 50 000 are wounded or invalidated, more than 877
settlements, 100 thousand dwellings, more 1 thousand economic objects,
more than 600 schools, 250 medical institutions looted or ruined.
Internally displaced persons exceeded 800 000 persons and plus nearly
200 000 refugees from Armenia representing disastrous figures for the
country with 8 mln. population.
Humanitarian situation. As a result of ethnic cleansing, a dramatic
humanitarian situation in Azerbaijan produced. The most of refugees and
IDPs were accommodated in the tent camps, schools and student's
hostels. In spite of undertaking efforts, they constantly threaten to
perish with chill and epidemics due to the insufficient level of
shelter and sanitary living conditions. The problem is aggravated by
the presence of children and the olds. Although the total humanitarian
aid sent to Azerbaijan in 1997 has formed 60 mln. US dollars, for a
present day that falls short of a minimum need of the people affected
by the conflict.

Arms supply to Armenia. Illegal supplies of the Russian weapon to
Armenia from 1994 to 1996, including 84 tanks T-72, 50 ACVs, 32
operative-tactical missiles R-17 with range of up to 300 km, capable to
carry nuclear warheads, and other arms worth of 1 billion US dollars,
as well as the resent supply by Russia to Armenia of upgraded aircrafts
MiG-29 and anti-aircraft systems S-300 worth of 2 billion US dollars,
cause a particular concern of Azerbaijan. These supplies violate norms
of International Law, principles of the peaceful settlement of the
Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict, upset military political balance in the
region and threaten the security of all states of the region. Such
illegal actions are in the contradiction with the UN Security Councils
Resolution 853, Statement of Chairman of Security Council as of August
18 1993, and decision of a OSCE Committee of Senior Officials as of 28
February and March, 14 1992, which require to cancel a military
supplies to the states, involved to the conflict, as promoting the
escalation of the conflict and continuation of the occupation of the
Azerbaijani territories.
Illegal supplies are also in the direct contradiction with provisions
of CFE Agreement.

Agreement between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Armenia
on the friendship, co-operation and mutual assistance. Signed on August
29, 1997. Practically, it constitutes a military alliance between two
states. A signing of such Agreement testifies that, on the one hand,
the Republic of Armenia is not going to solve the Armenian-Azerbaijani
armed conflict by the political means, but sees a further development
of situation in the region as a continuation of armed confrontations
with the Azerbaijan Republic, and on the another hand, Russian
Federation falls short with its obligations as a state of Co-Chairman
of the OSCE Minsk Conference.

Azerbaijan considers this Agreement as a factor that aggravates, in a
considerable extent, tense situation in the armed conflict, and weakens
hopes of region's peoples for the peaceful settlement of the
Armenian-Azerbaijan conflict, normalisation of relations between the
Azerbaijan Republic and the Republic of Armenia and establishment of
peace and security in the region.

It is already 4,5 years as cease-fire regime, reached on May 12, 1994,
has been operating. However, recently, a provocative activity of the
Armenian armed units, deployed along the Line of Contact, gains more
impudent nature and pursues a purpose to compel Azerbaijan to drop into
the new turn of combat actions. It is worthwhile to note that an
Armenian party broke an Agreement on cease-fire regime 1271 times since
it was reached on May, 1994, up to May, 1998. Altogether, for this
period of time 188 persons were killed, 366 wounded.

The liberation of prisoners of war (POW). Activities with the mediation
ICRC on the liberation POWs and hostages are continuing. From 1993 up
to May, 1998, there were exchanges between parties, as a result of
which 357 persons were liberated - 102 Armenians and 255 Azerbaijanis.
However, according to the Ministry of National Security of the Republic
of Azerbaijan, more than 800 Azerbaijanis are remaining in Armenia and
the Nagorno-Karabakh region.

On November 23-26, 1998 during a visit of OSCE Chairman-in-Office
Bronislav Geremek to the region as action for strengthening of
confidence the agreement on exchange of all POWs was reached between
the Parties.

Chronology of the negotiation process. International mediation on the
settlement of the conflict takes its beginning from February, 1992,
within the framework of so called OSCE Minsk process, which is the only
forum on the elaboration of comprehensive model of settlement of the
Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict.

Minsk Group - a forum on preparation of Minsk conference- was
established aiming at political settlement of this issue, which
comprises Azerbaijan, Armenia, Russia, USA, France, Poland, Germany,
Turkey, Belarus, Finland, Sweden, Italy.

After the beginning of hostilities and seizure of Azerbaijani cities,
UN Security Council adopted Resolutions 822, 853, 874, 884, that
stipulate immediate and unconditional withdrawal of the Armenian armed
formations from the territory of Azerbaijan and returning of refugees
and internally displaced persons to their homes.

Main landmarks in the negotiating process have become the Helsinki
Additional meeting CSCE Council on March 24, 1992, the OSCE Budapest
and Lisbon Summits.

In accordance with decision of the OSCE Budapest Summit, 1994, the
institute of Co-Chairmen of the Minsk conference was created, which
were entrusted "to conduct speedy negotiations for the conclusion of a
political agreement on the cessation of the armed conflict ("Big
Political Agreement"), the implementation of which will eliminate major
consequences of the armed conflict for all parties and permit the
convening of the Minsk Conference".

Thereby, as a result of the Budapest Summit, the legal two-stage
framework of the settlement process was completely composed:

1) First stage - elimination of the consequences of the armed conflict
by the implementation of the Agreement, which means a full liberation
of all occupied territories and ensuring a return of IDPs to their
homes;

2) Second stage - elaboration and adoption of a comprehensive peace
settlement at the Minsk conference.

There was also a decision agreed upon at the Budapest Summit to
establish the OSCE peacekeeping operation after the conclusion of the
political Agreement. After Budapest, 17 rounds and many consultations
with participants of the conflict were organised and conducted by the
Co-Chairmen (Russia-Finland).

During that time, 75% of the Agreement's draft and its Annexes were
agreed upon. Yet, a consent on the principal issues such as full
liberation of all territories, including Shusha and Lachin rayons,
security of parties to the conflict and withdrawal of units of armed
forces of Armenia from the territory of Azerbaijan has not been
achieved.

Three principles of the settlement of the Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict
were formulated in the Statement of the OSCE Chairman-in-Office at
Lisbon Summit, 1996. They are following:

- territorial integrity of the Republic of Armenia and the Azerbaijan
Republic;

- legal status of Nagorny Karabakh defined in an agreement based on
self-determination which confers on Nagorny Karabakh the highest degree
of self-rule within Azerbaijan;

- guaranteed security for Nagorny Karabakh and its whole population,
including mutual obligations to ensure kipping by all the Parties of
the provisions of the settlement.

These principles were supported by 53 the OSCE state-participants,
except Armenia.

Since November, 1996, Armenia unilaterally has broken direct
consultations between Advisers of Presidents of Armenia and Azerbaijan.


After Lisbon Summit and establishing of an institute of the triple
Co-Chairmanship (Russia-France-USA), only one round of negotiations (in
April, 1997) was conducted, which ended without particular results.

On June-September, 1997, the Co-Chairmanship elaborated and submitted a
new document for consideration of the Parties envisaging two-staged
conflict settlement according to the following scheme:

On the first stage - a liberation of 6 rayons, occupied in the course
of the conflict that are outside of the former NKAO (except Lachin
rayon), return of civil population and restoration of the main
communications in the region of conflict.

On the second stage - a resolution of the situation around Lachin and
Shusha rayons and adoption of the main principles of the status of the
Nagorno-Karabakh region.

The final comprehensive settlement of the conflict, including an
Agreement on the status of self-rule of NK within Azerbaijan, will be
reached at the Minsk conference.

On October 1, 1997, Azerbaijan officially informed Co-Chairmanship on
its consent with the document as basis for the upcoming negotiations.

On October, 1997, in Strasbourg, the Presidents of Azerbaijan and
Armenia made a Joint Statement on readiness to resume negotiations on
the basis of Co-Chairmen's proposals.

On December, 1997, in Copenhagen, a Report of Co-Chairmen, emphasizing
a need to continue efforts on the settlement of conflict on the basis
of Lisbon principles and proposals of Co-Chairmanship, was distributed
at the OSCE Ministerial Council's meeting.

On May 13-17, 1998, during a visit of Co-Chairmen to the region,
Armenia officially stated about the recall of consent of former
President of Armenia with proposals on stage-by-stage settlement, and
spoke for a package settlement without preconditions.

On November 9, 1998, Co-Chairmen introduced new proposals on package
settlement of conflict based on a concept of "common state". Azerbaijan
from the very beginning during the consultations of November 9 refused
to accept these proposals, and on November 19 sent written response to
Co-Chairmen, officially informing the mediators on unacceptability of
proposals of November 9. Azerbaijan confirmed its readiness to resume
negotiations within the OSCE Minsk Group on the basis of Co-Chairmen's
proposals of September 19, 1997.

On November 20, 1998, the Delegation of Azeri community of NK
officially rejected proposals of November 9, and on November, 25
Armenia and Armenians of NK have stated on acceptability for them of
the mentioned proposals.

On December 2-3, 1998, in the course of meeting of the OSCE Ministers
of Foreign Affairs in Oslo a special paragraph on the Minsk process was
included in to Chairman-in-Office's Summary, that consists an appeal to
the parties of the conflict to resume immediately the negotiations in
the framework of MG and to Co-Chairmen to continue their efforts to
promote negotiations and quest of resolution.

On April, 1999 during CIS summit in Moscow there was held meeting
between the presidents of Azerbaijan and Armenia, where arrangement
about holding of further meetings for discussions of peace settlement
of Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict was reached. Opinion and positions
exchange between the parties was continued at the meetings between the
presidents in Washington on April, 24, in Geneva on August, 16 and 22
and in Yalta on September, 10. In the course of these meetings
arrangements for cease-fire strengthening and resumption of negotiation
process within the framework of OSCE Minsk Group were reached.


++++++++++++++++





http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_azerbaijan/karabakh3.htm



CHRONOLOGY OF THE ARMENIAN -AZERBAIJANI CONFLICT (1988-1999)

- 1987 -

October - First meeting in Yerevan (Armenia) took place with challenges
to annex the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous region (NKAR) of the
Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic to the Armenian Soviet Socialist
Republic (SSR).

- 1988 -

January 25 - Exodus of Azerbaijanis living in the Armenian SSR began.

February 22-23 - The first meetings in Baku and Sumgait took place with
a slogan: "NKAR is the integral part of Azerbaijan".

February 24 - For the first time, in the course of the
Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict blood was shed: in NKAR two Azerbaijanis
were killed.

February 27 - Strikes started in NKAR with the demand to be separated
from Azerbaijan.

February 28-29 - Pogroms and massive disorders in Sumgait took place.
There were people, among the organisers of pogroms, of Armenian
Nationality.

March 18 - Plenary Session of NKAR's regional Committee adopted a
decision on annexation of NKAR to Armenia.

March 24 - Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party and Council
of Ministers adopted a resolution "On measures for speeding up the
social-economic development of NKAR of the Azerbaijan SSR in
1988-1995".

The first decade of May - More than one thousand Azerbaijani refugees,
deported from Armenia, came to Azerbaijan.

May 18 - Meetings took place in Baku as a sign of protest against
ejection of Azerbaijanis from Armenia.

The first decade of June - Discrimination acts against Azerbaijanis in
NKAR broke out. In a few days about 2.000 people were ejected.

June 14 - According to State Committee on Statistics of Azerbaijan four
more thousand refugees fled to the Republic.

The last decade of June - Ejection of Azerbaijanis from Armenia is
going on.

July 12 - The Session of People's Deputies of the Regional Soviet in
NKAR adopted an anti-constitutional decision on separation from the
Azerbaijani SSR.

July 13 - Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijani SSR
considered the decision of the session of the Regional Soviet from July
12, 1988, as an illicit act.

July 18 - The enlarged meeting of the Presidium of the USSR's Supreme
Soviet endorsed NKAR as belonging to the Azerbaijani SSR.

September 3-21 - Series of terrorist acts against Azerbaijanis in NKAR,
setting out fire to houses and killing peaceful Azerbaijani population
in Stepanakert.

November 18 - December 5 - Meetings took place in Baku with the demand
to put an end to terrorist acts against Azerbaijanis in NKAR.

November 24 - The State of Emergency was announced in Baku, Nakhchivan,
Ganja.

November 27-29 - As a result of anti-Azerbaijani massacres 33
Azerbaijanis were killed in the cities of Gugark, Spitak and Stepanavan
of the Armenian SSR.

The second part of December - Exodus of Azerbaijanis from Armenia. More
than 105 thousand refugees fled to Azerbaijan from the Armenian SSR.

- 1989 -

January 12 - In the territory of NKAR of Azerbaijan SSR a form of
ruling was applied: Committee of special ruling was set up.

May-June - The First Congress of the People's Deputies decided to form
a Commission of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on Nagorny Karabakh

July 7 - The Azerbaijani village of Karkijahan in NKAR was fired.

July 11 - The escalation of the situation in NKAR. An armed assault on
Azerbaijanis in Stepanakert. People were killed.

July 29 - The traffic of trains from Azerbaijan to Armenia was cut
short because of the attacks to the trains in the territory of Armenia.
The beginning of the blockade of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic of
Azerbaijan by Armenia.

August 16 - There was the congress of the authoritative representatives
of Armenian population of NKAR in Stepanakert, those refused to
recognise the status of NKAR, as an autonomous region of Azerbaijan.

August 27 - The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijani
Republic declared as illegal the decision of the congress of
authoritative representatives of the Armenian population of NKAR from
August 16, 1989.

The last decade of September - Strikes of the Azerbaijani railroaders
in connection with the attacks to the trains in the territory of
Armenia.

The second decade of October - The beginning of the blockade of Shusha
region of NKAR, majority of the population of which is Azerbaijanis
(91,7%).

The second decade of November - Assaults on Azerbaijani trains in the
territory of the Armenian SSR, caused the stopping rail road traffic
between the Azerbaijani SSR and the Armenian SSR.

November 28 - The Supreme Soviet of the USSR passed a resolution "on
measures for normalising the situation in NKAR". It was decided to form
the republican organisational committee on NKAR and to restore the
activity of the regional council of the people's deputies, by
abolishing the Committee of special rule of NKAR.

December 1 - The Supreme Soviet of the Armenian SSR passed an
anti-constitutional resolution "On reunification of the Armenian SSR
and Nagorny Karabakh".

The first and second decades of December - Number of attacks from the
territory of Armenia to the border villages of Azerbaijan were
registered. The Infantry brigands from the territory of Armenia were
landed in the regions of Khanlar and Shaumyan of Azerbaijan.

December 7 - The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijani SSR
assessed this resolution of the Armenian Supreme Soviet from December
1, 1989 as inadmissible interference in the affairs of the Azerbaijani
SSR, encroachment on its territorial integrity.

- 1990 -

January 9 - The session of the Armenian Supreme Soviet, considering the
issues of planning and budget for 1990, included in its sphere of
influence the plans of social-economic development of NKAR.

January 9 - Seizure of the Azerbaijani hostages by Armenians in the
region of Shaumyan of Azerbaijan SSR.

January 4-10 - An illegal supply of about 100 tanks, artillery and
anti-aircraft weapons by the Soviet Army to Armenia.

January 11 - The Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet condemned the decision of
the Armenian Supreme Soviet to include NKAR in its economic sphere and
assessed it as a grave violation of the sovereignty of the Azerbaijan
Republic.

January 13 - As a result of the armed attacks Armenians occupied the
village of Karki in Nakhchivan AR.

January 15 - An armed Armenian infantry were landed in the village of
Gushchu of Khanlar region.

January 19 - Armenians assaulted on the settlement of Sadarak in
Nakhchivan AR.

January 20 - The Soviet troops entered Baku, as a result 124 people
were killed, 737 people were wounded. The State of emergency was
declared in Baku and in other cities of Azerbaijan.

January 21 - The Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijani SSR demanded the
immediate withdrawal of the Soviet troops from Baku

February 13 - The Supreme Soviet of the Armenian SSR passed a
resolution "On admission as illegal the decision of the Caucasian
Bureau of the Central Committee of the Russian Communist Party of July
5, 1921", which left NKAR as part of the Azerbaijani SSR.

March 6 - The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijani SSR
passed a resolution "On inadmissibility of territorial claims by the
Armenian SSR".

March 7 - The Supreme Soviet of the USSR passed a resolution "On the
situation in the Azerbaijani SSR and Armenian SSR and on the measures
for normalising the situation in this region".

March 24 - The attack of the armed thugs of the Armenian SSR to the
villages of the Gazakh region of the Azerbaijani SSR. All civilians of
these villages were killed.

May 22 - The attempts to organise elections of the people's deputies of
the Armenian SSR in the territory of the NKAR failed.

May 25 - The resolution of the Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijan SSR "On
anti-constitutional decision of the Supreme Soviet of the Armenian SSR
and its Presidium concerning NKAR of the Azerbaijani SSR."

June 25 - Decree of the President of the USSR "On prohibition to form
armed forces which are not envisaged in the legislation of the USSR and
confiscation of illegally kept weapons".

June 29 - The Council of Ministers of the Azerbaijani SSR passed a
resolution "On resumption of sovereign rights of the Azerbaijani SSR in
NKAR and measures for social economical development of the region".

September 23 - The People's deputies of the USSR from Azerbaijan
appealed the Supreme Soviet of the USSR "On forcible deportation of the
Azerbaijani population of Armenia".

- 1991 -

January-May - The Armenian thugs committed terrorist acts against the
leadership of the Committee of the special directorate of NKAR, the
armed attacks and firing of the Azerbaijani villages.

May 9 - The USSR Ministry of the Internal Affairs, KGB and Ministry of
Defence take measures for disarmament of the illegal Armenian armed
forces and confiscation of weapons in the districts near the border of
Azerbaijan and Armenia, as well as in NKAR of the Azerbaijani SSR.

June 29 - The Session of the Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijani Republic
draws the attention of the USSR President and the Supreme Soviet of the
USSR to the new stage of escalation of Armenian thugs groups attacks in
NKAR, as well as passes a decision to mom up the territory of NKAR from
the thugs groups dispatched from Armenia and finish the measures of the
USSR presidential decree banning the formation of armed forces.

September 2 - The Armenian separatists declared the establishment of so
called "Nagorno-Karabakh Republic (NKR)" in the territory of Nagorny
Karabakh region of the Azerbaijani Republic. All the armed groups of
about 15.000 were formed as "self-defence forces of NKR" and
subordinated to the Committee of Defence.

The middle of September - The Armenian armed forces began attacks the
western part of Goranboy district of Azerbaijan and occupied number of
inhabited settlements.

September 23 - Meeting of Presidents of Azerbaijan and Armenia in
Zheleznovodsk (Russia) mediated by the Russian and Kazakhstan
Presidents. There was reached an agreement on peaceful settlement of
the conflict.

October-November - The Armenian armed forces launched hostilities to
drive the Azerbaijani population out from the territories of Martuni
and Hadrut districts of the NKAR. The USSR air forces took part in the
hostilities supporting the Armenian forces. The Armenian forces
occupied about 30 settlements.

November 20 - Near the village of Garakend of the Khojavand district of
the Azerbaijan Republic the helicopter "MI-8" was shot down, in which
there was the peacemaking group of the Russian, Kazakhstan
representatives and the senior leadership of Azerbaijan. The murder of
22 people, including the state figures of the 3 countries put an end
the first attempt for peaceful settlement of the Armenian-Azerbaijani
conflict, undertaken in Zheleznovodsk and gave an impetus to the
escalation of violence in the region.

The middle of December - The forces of the Ministry of Internal Affairs
of the USSR were withdrawn from the territory of Nagorny Karabakh.
Illegal transfer of weapons to Armenia by the Ministry of Internal
Affairs of the USSR.

December 30 - The leaders of CIS countries called on Azerbaijan and
Armenia to resume the negotiation process.

- 1992 -

January - The armed forces of Armenia relying on the support of rifle
regiment 366 of the Russian armed forces, launched the occupation of
the last Azerbaijani settlements of Karabakh which were in a complete
isolation.

January 30-31 - The second meeting of the Council of CSCE (Prague).
Azerbaijan and Armenia got the membership of CSCE. It was decided to
send a mission of rapporteurs to the region of conflict.

The first half of February - Occupation of the suburb of Stepanakert
(Karkijahan), as well as the Azerbaijani settlements along the road of
Shusha-Khojaly and around Shusha.

February 12-18 - First visit of the CSCE mission of rapporteur to the
region.

February 25-26 - Assault and seizure of the city of Khojaly
(Nagorno-Karabakh region, Azerbaijan) by military forces of Armenia and
with the participation of 366 Infantry regiment of the Russian military
forces, as a result 800 civilians were brutally killed.

The end of February - Evacuation of the staff of the 366 Infantry
regiment of the Russian military forces from Stepanakert and illegal
transfer of 25 tanks, 87 armoured infantry fighting vehicles, 28
armoured vehicles, 45 artillery mortar systems to Armenians.

March 24 - Additional Helsinki meeting of the CSCE Council, decision to
convene a conference on Nagorny Karabakh under the aegis of the CSCE.
Chairman-in-Office designated Mr. Rafaelli as a Chairman of the Minsk
Conference.

April - Beginning of the activity of Russia as mediator.

May 7 - Meeting of the Heads of Armenia and Azerbaijan in Tehran
through the mediation of Iran (meeting was devoted to the normalisation
of the situation in Nagorny Karabakh and to the peaceful settlement of
the conflict).

May 8 - Military Forces of the Russian Army occupied azerbaijani city
Shusha and Shusha region (Nagorny Karabakh) that led to the breakdown
of agreements reached in Tehran. As the result of the occupation of
Shusha region 23156 Azerbaijanis were driven out from their permanent
residences. Thus, there was finished ethnic cleansing in Nagorny
Karabakh.

May 18-19 - Military forces of the Republic of Armenia occupied Lachin
region, which was outside Nagorny Karabakh. As the result of this
occupation 63341 Azerbaijanis were banished from their homes. At the
same time military forces of the Russian Army attacked strategically
important part of the Azerbaijani-Turkish border in Sadarak region
(Nakhchivan).

May 18-19 - In connection with the occupation of Lachin district of
Azerbaijan decision making on an extraordinary preparing meeting of the
CSCE participating states at the Conference on Nagorny Karabakh which
was held under the aegis of CSCE was failed.

June-September - Rounds of negotiations were held within the framework
of the CSCE Minsk group on the cessation of the offensive operations,
de-escalation of the conflict and normalisation of the life of ordinary
citizens.

September 19 - Agreements on cessation of all military actions in 2
months period reached by Defence Ministers of Armenia and Azerbaijan
with the participation of the Ministers of defence and Security of
Russia (Sochi).

September-November - Visits and consultations of the Russian mediator
mission in the region.

November 26-December 1 - Meeting of the CSCE Ad-hoc group with the
competence of advanced group of observes (Vienna).

December 7-9 - Unofficial meeting of the personal representatives of
the Presidents of Azerbaijan, Armenia, Russia, USA and Turkey (Geneva).


December 9-12 - Violation of the agreement reached between Defence
Ministers of Armenia and Azerbaijan in Sochi, Armenia occupied 8
villages of Zangelan district of Azerbaijan.

- 1993 -

February 5 - Beginning of the large-scale attacks of the military
forces of the Russian Army in the northern part of the front.

March 17-21 - Meeting of Personal Representatives of Armenia,
Azerbaijan, Russia, USA, Turkey and chairman of the CSCE Minsk group.

March 27-April 3 - Occupation of Kalbadjar district of Azerbaijan by
the armed forces of Armenia, which is situated outside of Nagorny
Karabakh, as a result of this 60698 Azerbaijanis were driven out from
their permanent residences.

March 31 - Resumption of the meeting in Geneva. Personal Representative
of the President of USA is breaking off the negotiations because of the
occupation of Kalbadjar district of Azerbaijan by Armenia.

April 6 - The Statement of the Chairman of the UN Security Council,
condemning the occupation of the district of Kalbadjar.

April 30 - The adoption of the resolution 822 by UN Security Council,
demanding "the immediate withdrawal of all occupying forces from the
district of Kalbadjar and other recently occupied districts of
Azerbaijan".

June 3-4 - The Consultations of "the Minsk Nine". Adoption of "Schedule
of urgent measures on implementation of the resolution 822 of the UN
Security Council".

June 17 - The arrangement through the mediation of Russia on ceasing of
bombardment of Aghdam and Stepanakert.

June 26-28 - The armed forces of the Republic of Armenia captured the
city of Aghdara of the Republic of Azerbaijan.

June 27 - The arrangement through mediation of Russia on ceasing
hostilities, shelling and air bombardment for one week in the districts
of Mardakert and Aghdam.

July 12 - The visit of Mr. Rafaelli to Baku, Yerevan and Stepanakert
aiming at adoption of the schedule of the Minsk Group.

July 18-20 - The visit of the mediator mission of Russia to Baku.

July 23-24 - The occupation of the district of Aghdam of Azerbaijan,
which is situated outside of Nagorny Karabakh, by the armed forces of
Armenia, as a result 158000 Azerbaijanis were driven out from their
permanent residences.

July 29 - The adoption of the resolution 853 by the UN Security
Council, "demanding the immediate, complete and unconditional
withdrawal of occupation forces involved in the conflict from the
district of Aghdam and all other recently occupied districts of the
Azerbaijan Republic.

July 21-August 12 - Consultations of OSCE Minsk Group. It was adopted
"the schedule of urgent measures for implementing of the resolution 822
and 853 of the UN Security Council".

August 11 - Beginning of attacks of the Armenian armed forces to the
district centers of Fizuli and Jabrail of Azerbaijan.

August 18 - The statement of the UN Security Council's Chairman on
immediate, complete and unconditional withdrawal of the occupation
forces from the districts of Fizuli, as well as Kalbadjar and Aghdam
and other recently occupied districts of the Azerbaijan Republic.

August 23 - The occupation of the district of Fizuli of Azerbaijan,
situated outside of Nagorny Karabakh by the Armenian armed forces, as a
result 152860 Azerbaijanis were driven out from their permanent
residences.

August 25-26 - The Armenian armed forces occupied the district of
Jabrail, situated outside of Nagorny Karabakh, as a result 57125
Azerbaijanis were driven out from their permanent residences.

August 31 - The Armenian armed forces occupied the district of Gubadly
of Azerbaijan, situated outside of Nagorny Karabakh, as a result 31364
Azerbaijanis were driven out from their permanent residences.

September 21-28 - Negotiations within the OSCE Minsk Group were held in
Paris.

October 14 - The UN SC passed a resolution 874, calling on the parties
"to abstain from any hostile acts and any interference or invasion,
which could led to escalation of the conflict and undermine peace and
security in the region".

October 18-21 - Negotiations within the framework of the Minsk Group.

October 23 - Part of the military forces of the Armenian Republic
assaulted the settlement of Horadiz with tanks. Having occupied this
important transport unit, the Armenians cut off the district of
Zangelan and part of none-occupied territory of Jabrail and Gubadly
from the remaining part of the Republic.

October 28 - The military forces of the Armenian Republic occupied the
rail road station of Minjivan.

October 28-November 1 - The occupation of the district of Zangelan,
Azerbaijan, situated outside of Nagorny Karabakh, as a result, 34924
Azerbaijanis were driven out by the armed forces of Armenia from their
permanent residences.

November 11 - The UN SC passed a resolution 884, demanding "immediate
cease fire and hostility, unilateral withdrawal of occupation forces
from the district of Zangelan and the city of Horadiz and withdrawal of
occupation forces from other districts of Azerbaijan, captured
recently".

November 20 - Firing of the mediator mission of Russia by the Armenian
side. The statement of the former Russian Foreign Minister A.Kozirev on
this matter.

December 10 -The Armenian military forces launched an assault in the
direction of district center of Beylagan.

- 1994 -

January-March - Series of negotiations and consultations to reach an
agreement on cease fire through the mediation of Russia and CSCE.

March 3 - Having broken off the next cease fire agreement, the Armenian
troops resumed the hostilities.

March 31-April 3 - Visit of the peacemaker group of the
Inter-parliamentary Assembly of CIS headed by Speaker of Kyrgizstan
Supreme Council, together with Russian President's representative, to
Baku, Yerevan, and Nagorny Karabakh.

April 9-10 - The command of the Armenian Military Forces launched large
scale assault in the direction of Terter during 33 days.

May 4-5 - The Bishkek meeting of the parliamentary leaders of
Azerbaijan and Armenia and the representatives of the both communities
from Nagorny Karabakh. The "Bishkek protocol" was adopted.

May 9 - The defence ministers of Azerbaijan, Armenia and the
representatives of the Armenian separatist regime from Nagorny Karabakh
signed a cease fire agreement.

May 12 - In the zone of conflict the regime of cease fire started
functioning. Active hostilities on the line of the front came to an
end.

May 19 - The CSCE Permanent Committee. It was passed a statement as a
support for the agreement to strengthening of the cease fire regime.

June 27 - An agreement was signed by the parties as confirmation of
their commitments on cease fire regime up to conclusion of the
political agreement. The joint statement for to support this agreement
was made by the leader of mediator mission of Russia and the chairman
of the Minsk Conference.

August 28 - Unilateral statement of all sides involved in the conflict
and confirmation of the commitments on observation of cease fire regime
until the political agreement to be concluded.

September-November - Continuation of the negotiations between the
competent representatives of the leaders of sides involved in the
conflict in Moscow.

December 5-6 - Meeting of Heads of CSCE member states and governments
in Budapest ("Budapest Decision"). In accordance with the decision of
the summit, it was established an institute of Co-Chairmen of the Minsk
Conference; two stage structuring of the settlement process was
completed; decision was taken on the OSCE peacekeeping operations after
achievement of the political agreement. - 1995 -

May-December - Series of negotiations within the framework of OSCE
Minsk Group on elaboration of agreement for cession of the military
conflict.

- 1996 -

January-November - Series of negotiations within the framework of OSCE
Minsk Group on elaboration of agreement for cessation of the military
conflict.

December 2-3 - Meeting of the Heads of OSCE States and governments in
Lisbon. In the statement of the OSCE Chairman-in-Office three
principles of the settlement of the Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict were
formulated:

- territorial integrity of the Republic of Armenia and the Republic of
Azerbaijan;

- legal status of Nagorny Karabakh defined in the agreement based on
self-determination which confers on Nagorny Karabakh the highest degree
of self rule within Azerbaijan;

- guaranteed security for Nagorny Karabakh and its whole population,
including mutual commitments to ensure compliance by all parties with
the provisions of the settlement.

These principles were supported by 53 OSCE participating states, except
Armenia.

- 1997 -

February 13 - A. Tuleyev, the Minister on cooperation with CIS states
made a statement on the facts of illegal supply of the Russian weapons
to Armenia worth of 270 billion of rubles

February 14- An institute of "triple" Co-Chairmanship of the OSCE Minsk
Conference (Russia, USA and France) was established.

March 4-7 - The Azerbaijani parliamentary delegation headed by Arif
Rahimzadeh, the first deputy chairman of the Azerbaijani Milli Majlis
(Parliament) stayed in Moscow in order to find out the circumstances on
the fact of supply of the Russian weapons to the Republic of Armenia.

March 14 - Appeal of the Azerbaijani Milli Majlis to B.Yeltsin, the
President of Russia, E.Stroyev, the Chairman of the Council of
Federation of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation,
G.Seleznyev, the Chairman of the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of
the Russian Federation.

April 2 - The report of Lev Rokhlin, the Chairman of the Defence
Committee of the State Duma, on delivery of the Russian weapons to the
Republic of Armenia worth of one billion US dollars.

April 4 - Appeal of the Azerbaijani Milli Majlis to B.Yeltsin,
E.Stroyev and G.Seleznyev.

April 1-5 - The next round of the negotiations within the framework of
OSCE Minsk Group was held, after it the Armenian side refused to hold
further negotiations on the basis of proposals made by the Co-Chairmen,
worked out according to the principles of the OSCE Lisbon Summit.

April 4-8 - The Azerbaijani parliamentary delegation headed by Arif
Rahimzadeh, the first deputy Chairman of the Azerbaijani Milli Majlis
(Parliament) stayed in Moscow in order to find out the circumstances on
the facts of supply of the Russian weapons to the Republic of Armenia.

April 15 - The OSCE delegation headed by A.Kasprzyk, the Personal
Representative of the Chairman-in-Office of OSCE, was fired by the
Armenian side.

April 24 - The statement of the OSCE Chairman-in-Office in connection
with the fire of A.Kasprzyk, the Personal Representative of the
Chairman-in-Office in the zone of conflict.

June 23 - The Denver Statement of the Presidents of the US, Russia and
France, supporting the search of ways for the settlement on the basis
of the Lisbon principles.

September 1 - Illegal so-called "presidential elections" in Nagorny
Karabakh, which was condemned by the world Community.

September 23-24 - Visit of the delegation of Co-Chairmen of the OSCE
Minsk Group to Baku. Proposal on the stage-by-stage settlement.

October 10 - Strasbourg Joint Statement of the Presidents of Azerbaijan
and Armenia on supporting plan of the stage-by-stage settlement of the
conflict.

December 17-19 - The Meeting of the OSCE Ministers of Foreign Affairs
in Copenhagen. The Chairman-in-Office requested the Co-Chairmen of
Minsk Group "to continue their work and urged all sides to resume the
negotiations without delay on the basis of the proposal of the
Co-Chairmen".

- 1998 -

April - The refusal of Armenia from the early reached agreements on the
stage-by-stage settlement of the conflict.

May 13-17 - Visit of the Co-Chairmen to the region. Armenia officially
declared about the renunciation of the consent of the former President
of the Republic of Armenia with the proposal on the stage-by-stage
settlement and supported the package settlement without any preliminary
conditions.

July 14-15 - Visit of I.Sergeyev, the Russian Defence Minister, to
Armenia, in the course of which an agreement on supply of anti-aircraft
weapons S-300 was reached.

November 8-10 - The OSCE Minsk Group Co-Chairmen offered a new plan of
settlement of the conflict, based on the principle of "common state".
The Azerbaijani side refused to accept this proposal as a basis of
resumption of negotiations. Azerbaijan confirmed its readiness to
resume negotiations within the framework of the OSCE Minsk Group on the
basis of the proposals of the Co-Chairmen of September 19, 1997, on the
stage-by-stage settlement of the conflict.

December 2-3 - The meeting of the OSCE Ministers of Foreign Affairs in
Oslo, where the Chairman-in-Office called upon the sides involved in
the conflict to resume the negotiations within the framework of the
Minsk Group without delay.

December 16 - Deliver of 5 Russian MiG-29 fighter aircrafts to Armenia.


- 1999 -

February 26 - Additional deliver of 5 MiG-29 fighter aircrafts and
surface-to-air missile systems S-300 to Armenia.

March 11 - It was adopted the resolution on "Support of peace process
in Caucasus" on the plenary meeting of the European Parliament for
supporting of the peace plan offered by Minsk Group and continuation of
the efforts for long-termed settlement of the conflict.

March 19 - Milli Majlis (Parliament) of the Republic of Azerbaijan
appealed to the European Parliament, criticizing some provisions of the
resolution on "Support of peace process in Caucasus".

April, 2 - Meeting between the presidents of Azerbaijan and Armenia H.
Aliyev and R. Kocharian was held in Moscow. The arrangement about
intensification of contacts and opinion exchange for seeking of ways
for conflict settlement was reached between the presidents.

April, 24 - Meeting between the presidents of Azerbaijan and Armenia H.
Aliyev and R. Kocharian was held in Washington through mediation M.
Albright. There was put proposals for development of regional
cooperation and measures for strengthening of confidence. As a result,
Washington declaration was adopted.

May - Delivery 8 rockets "Tayfun" with range 60-80 km by China to
Armenia

May, 25 - Hearings on Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict settlement at the
meeting of EC PA Commission on political issues. Speaker of Azerbaijan
parliament M. Aleskerov and leader of Azerbaijani population of
Nagorniy Karabakh N. Bakhmanov addressed the meeting, stating position
of Azerbaijan.

June, 3 - Statement of Foreign Ministry of the Azerbaijan Republic in
connection with delivery of "Tayfun" rockets by China to Armenia

June, 14 - Units of armed forces of Armenia violated cease-fire regime
and attacked positions of Azerbaijani troops along the Contact line in
Negorno-Karabakh region. In connection with this incident UN
Secretary-General, OSCE Chairman-in-Office, US State Department and
Foreign Ministry of Russian Federation issued statements.

June, 18 - Additional delivery of 4 fighters MiG-29 by Russia to
Armenia. Foreign Ministry of Georgia made a protest in connection with
violation of airspace of the country by these fighters.

June, 28 - July, 1 - There was adopted two statements at the XXVI
conference of foreign ministries of OIC member-states:
1. About aggression of Republic of Armenia against Republic of
Azerbaijan
2. About demolition and destruction of Islamic historic and cultural
monuments in the occupied territories of the Azerbaijan Republic as a
result of aggression of the Republic of Armenia against the Republic of
Azerbaijan

July, 16 - Meeting of the presidents of Azerbaijan and Armenia in
Geneva. Opinion exchange on conflict settlement.

August, 22 - Meeting between the presidents of Azerbaijan and Armenia
in Geneva. Consultations for seeking of ways for the conflict
settlement were contiued. As a result of negotiations, instructions on
providing the measures for strengthening of cease-fire regime and
resumption of negotiations within the frames of OSCE Minsk Group was
given to foreign and defense ministries of two countries.

September, 1-2 - Visit of OSCE Minsk Group co-chairmen representing USA
and Russian Federation K. Kavanaugh and N. Gribkov to Baku with the aim
to study the situation in the region.

September, 10 - During the international conference "Baltic-Black Sea
Cooperation: Towards an Integrated 21st Century Europe Without Dividing
Lines" in Yalta, meeting between the presidents of Azerbaijan and
Armenia was held, and opinion exchange on issues of strengthening of
existing cease-fire regime and seeking of the ways of peace settlement
conflict was continued. The parties agreed to resume negotiation
process within the framework of OSCE Minsk Group.



++++++++++++++




http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_azerbaijan/karabakh4.htm

Facts on the illegal transfer of arms, equipment and military property
by Russian Federation to the Republic of Armenia

1. The illegal transfer of weapons by Russian Federation to Armenia
from January 1993, to December 1996, i.e., after the completion of
military property parcelling belonged to the former USSR:

N Name Quantity Total cost (in US dollars)

1 R-17 missile systems
R-17 missiles
8 32 1.680.000 6.720.000

2 "Krug" surface-to-air systems
Missiles for them
27 349 8.100.000 104.700.000

3 Missiles for the "Osa"
Surface-to-air systems
40 8.000.000

4 T-72 tanks 84 100.800.000
5 BMP - 2 Armoured
Combat Vehicles
50 14.000.000
6 122 mm D-30 howitzers 36 1.372.000
7 152 mm D-20 howitzers 18 720.000
8 152 mm D-1 howitzers 18 900000
9 "Grad" multiple missile systems 18 4.500.000
10 Mortars 26 312.000
11 Portable "Igla" anti-aircraft systems Missiles for them 40 200
1.600.000 8.000.000
12 Grenade launchers 20 50.000
13 Machine-guns 306 122.400
14 Assault rifles 7910 949.200
15 Pistols 1847 110.820
16 Shells for ACV (BMP-2) 478480 14.354.400
17 Shells (various) 489160 195.664.000
18 BM anti-tank self-targeting missiles
Anti-tank self-targeting missiles
4 945 1.320.000 7.938.000
19 Hand grenades 345800 10.374.000
20 Different types of bullets 227253000 227.253.000
21 Among other types of a arms, engineering and military property
belong: transporting and weapon-loading machines, various types of
movable on-wheels radio (including space communications stations), sets
of communications equipment, field communications cables, targets
detection stations, tanking equipment, fuel, accumulators of various
types (including battle tank ones), oil barrels, spare to tanks,
cannons and BMP's, tank engines etc. 720.039.000
TOTAL - 1.000.000.000

The indicated data are not complete and not final.

The whole process of weapon, engineering and military property transfer
was implemented without any bilateral agreement.

Parts of weapons and engineering were transferred according Directives
of General Staff, signed by the former Chief of General Staff of the
Armed Forces, General Army I.Kolesnikov:

- Directive of General Staff No.316/3/0182 of 29.09.94, on transfer
from 102nd military base located in Gumry 25 T-72 tanks with spares of
13 kinds;

- According Directive No.316/3/0220 of August 18, 1995 and 8/824 of
September 25, 1995, 55 T-72 tanks were granted to Armenia;

- Directive of General Staff No.316/3/048 dated 26.02.1996, on transfer
of 4 T-72 tanks and 50 BMP-2.

Moreover, the Republic of Armenia has received missile-artillery
complex, air-defence systems, missiles, ammunition and other military
property.

Particularly, according to the Directive No.561/16/831 of August 8,
1995, of Russian Federation GS of the Armed Forces 50 MP-38, 20 82 mm
AGS-17 grenade launchers, 300 PK machine-guns, 10000 submachine-guns
were transferred to Ministry of Defence of Armenia.

According Directive No.16/338 of November 23, 1995, the followings were
transferred from the Group of Russian troops in Transcaucasus (GRVZ) to
the Defence Ministry of Armenia: 12 D-30 howitzers, 4 BM-21, 50 (14,5
mm) KPVT machine-guns, 3 (12,7 mm) NSVT machine-guns, 40000 (14.5 mm)
B-32 bullets, 64000 BZTA bullets, 110000 MDZ bullets, 10000 (12.7 mm)
B-32 bullets as well as 7 fifth category howitzers.

On the basis of the encoded telegram No.2234 of November, 23 1995,
signed by Kolesnikov, the followings were transferred from GRVZ to
Armenia: 100 (14,5 mm) KPVT machine-guns, 20 (12,7 mm) NSVT
machine-guns, 20 (12,7 mm) DSK machine-guns, 30 (12,7 mm) NCV
machine-guns, 4 BM-21, 12 D-30 as well as third category of ammunition:
50000 (12,7 mm) bullets, 260000 (14,5) bullets, 2420 (125 mm) shells
for tank cannon D-81.

In accordance with Directive No. 561/16/457 of March 11, 1996, 4 mln.
bullets and 5000 MRV-U fuses were transferred from GRVZ to Armenia.

By the Directive of General Staff No.503/23-26 of July 20, 1996, 85
tons of spares were transported by 5 IL-76 planes from airport of
Chkalovskaya.

Azerbaijan has also reliable information that Armenia possess R-17
operative-tactical missile complexes able to carry nuclear warheads. In
order to prepare specialists, 20 officers and ensigns from Military
Unit No.51556 of the MoD of Armenia, names of whom are known, had a
training for practical learning to work with these complexes in the
Training Center "Kapoustin Yar" of Russian MoD. After the completing
the course one missile was launched.

Big amount of transfers were carried out even without relevant
Directives of Russian GS AF.
From August 1992 to January 1994 66 IL-76 flights and two AN-12 flights
transported about 1300 tons of ammunition from airport of Mozdok to
Yerevan.
From November 8 to November 28, 1995, and from June 28 to August 6,
1996, 31 AN-124 flights and 13 IL-76 flights have transferred 50 T-72
tanks, property and spares to them, 36 D-CI howitzers, 18 D-20
howitzers, 18 D-1 howitzers, 18 "Grad" multiple missiles systems, 40
portable "Igla" anti-aircraft systems and 200 missiles for them, 12600
shells for the mentioned guns, including 1440 for "Grad" systems from
airport "Jasmine" (Akhtubinsk, Russia) to airport of Zvartnots
(Yerevan, Armenia).

The property was shipped to Akhtubinsk by six troop-trains: tanks from
Omsk, ammunition from Volgograd, artillery from Irkutsk, Sverdlovsk,
Perm oblast (areas).

Delivered weapons were transferred further to Nagorny Karabakh where
the acceptance of the armoured vehicles, optic and electronic equipment
and other weapons was done by Colonel Slava Ucnunts, Deputy MoD of so
called "Nagorno-Karabakh Republic" and Marat Garibian, Head of antitank
unit at the armament factories in Nijniy Tagil, Sankt-Peterburg and
other cities of Russia. During the indicated period the most updated
military engineering were delivered to Armenia. In 1994 Armenians
received surface-to-air system "Tunguska" which was installed in
Khankendi, Nagorny Karabakh. All these explains the reason of
appearance of magnificent amount of weapon and engineering on the
occupied by Armenia territories of Azerbaijan:

No. Military Units Location Battle tanks ACV AP
1. 538 Independent Infantry Regiment Aghdaban 13 15 15
2. 2 Independent Infantry Brigade Karakhanbeyli 29 23 36
3. 83 Independent Infantry Brigade Dashkesan 20 27 22
4. Mardakert Infantry Division Mardakert 76 79 74
5. Askeran Infantry Regiment Aghdam 32 43 42
6. Martuni Infantry Regiment Martuni 40 60 40
7. Gadrut Infantry Regiment Gadrut 20 32 22
8. Stepanakert Infantry Regiment Stepanakert 18 28 22
9. Khodjaly Training Unit Khodjaly 52 7 39
10. Shusha Infantry Regiment Shusha 16 10 10



Thus, there are:

Battle Tanks - 316
Armoured Combat vehicles - 324
Artillery Pieces - 322
on the occupied territories of Azerbaijan which exceed the envisaged
for Azerbaijan maximum level for CFE TLE.
At the end of 1993 and beginning of 1994 T-72 battle tanks and ACVs
transferred to Armenia by Russian Federation were captured in the
course of combat activities on the territory of Azerbaijan:

1. BATTLE TANKS T-72
T02BT7975
X06AT3007
E04BT9276
E04BT9264
T02BT7979
E04BT9314
E03BT4785
T02BT7945
K03BT7524
E04BT9261
T02BT7963
E03BT4793
a04ag9250
o06sg3021
a04ag9257
g02ag7940
g02ag8000
a04ag9271
a04ag9317
a03ag4777
g02ag7938
g02ag7961
a04ag9273




ACV (BMP-1) ACV (BMP-2)
u10OO762
u01OO612
u01OO591
A08AO0663
A08AO0683
n01oT3596
X01oT7522
o11oT3236
n01oT6279
n11og3652
n12oT5806
E09oT4046


Arms supply by Russia to Armenia in 1998

On December 15-16, 1998, during a visit of Colonel-General A.Kornukov,
Russia's Air Force Comander-in-Chief, to Armenia there were agreements
reached in the field of Russian-Armenian Military Cooperation. In
particular, they agreed on:

- the concrete technical issues to strengthen Russian Military base
No.102. located in Armenia, and to establish within it a new
air-groups;

- further updating of air-defence system's work, including equipment by
using modern types of weapons, for example, S-300 surface-to-air
systems;

- permanent basing of Russian MiG-29 on the territory of Armenia.

Ten MiG-29 fighter aircrafts were delivered to Armenia in December 1998
and February 1999. At the same time, a anti-aircraft missile systems
S-300 were delivered to Armenia.

Approximate cost of MiG-29 in world weapon market is more than 10 mln.
US dollars.


+++++++++++++++++++++++++





http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_azerbaijan/the_war_in_azerbaijan.html


THE WAR

This site is dedicated to all those who lost their lives in the
massacres commited by Armenians in Anatolia and Azerbaijan


The latest conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan started in February
of 1988 and lasts already for more than a decade. In a short time this
conflict was aggravated and turned a real war. Azerbaijani Republic
plunged into the war when it still was a constituency of the Soviet
Union and keeps struggling as an independent state now. From the
viewpoint of International Law the conflict is the result of aggression
of neighboring Armenian Republic, who made timely preparations for the
war in military, political, economic, propagandist, ideological,
psychological and other spheres. And the command for aggression was the
actions of Armenian separatist groups in Karabakh, who declared
separation of this region from Azerbaijan. The tasks of Armenian
agressors in the conflict, carried out by force, are the following:
alteration of existing borders, occupation and subsequent annexation of
Karabakh and adjacent Azeri territories.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The first clashes between Armenians and Azeris took place in February
of 1988, when Armenian separatists demanded eviction of Azeris from
just the very Azeri villages and when leaders of Nagorno-Karabakh
Autonomous Oblast (NKAO) attempted to separate this province from
Azerbaijan and join Armenia. In a number of regions these clashes
turned into large-scale civil disorders, resulting by death of many
innocent Azeris. In late November of 1988 military detachments of
Armenian Republic conducted the first in this conflict and the forth in
the 20th century large-scale ethnic cleansing deporting over 200,000
Azeris (including women, children, the old) from the places of compact
living of Azeris in Armenia.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Incompetent actions of Moscow and the general crisis of USSR persuaded
the leaders of separatist movement in NKAO and nationalistic
organizations of Armenia in possibility and necessity to carry out the
plan of forceful separation of Karabakh from Azerbaijan. And the
ultimate goal was ousting the Azeri population from Karabakh, forming a
new ethnic situation, and subsequent annexation of Karabakh by Armenia.
Since 1988 all political activities of Armenia in all regional and
international levels were aimed to realization of these goals. After
Armenia actually escaped the control of Moscow, they managed to shift a
number of industrial plants to production of primitive models of
weapons. These arms and ammunition were secretly transferred to
Karabakh; secret military formations of Armenian Republic tried to
occupy other territories of Azerbaijan.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The aggressive policy of Armenian Republic resulted by occupation of
over 20% of Azerbaijani territory. 120,000 people perished, over
250,000 wounded, 4,000 POWs or missing without trace. Over 1,100,000
Azeris left their homes and became refugees. The material damage, made
by Armenian forces, is estimated for $60 billions. During the
aggression 10 towns (Khankendi, Shusha, Lachin, Kelbejar, Agdam,
Fizuli, Gubadli, Zangilan, Jabrayil, Agdere), 876 villages, 113,000
houses, 191 hospitals, 693 schools, 700 public building, 160 bridges
were destroyed; 5,446 children became orphans. 800 km of roads, 2,300
km of water pipelines was destroyed. Nevertheless this is the JUST WAR
for Azerbaijan.

By Ismayil Abdulazimov



+++++++++++++++++






http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_azerbaijan/khojaly_tragedy.html


KHOJALY TRAGEDY

Massacre of Khojaly

One of the most heinous crimes against the Azerbaijani people was
the massacre of hundreds of defenseless inhabitants of the town of
Khojaly, in the Nagorno Karabakh region of the Azerbaijan, which was
taken by armenian troops on the night of February 25-26, 1992 in what
was described by the Human Rights Watch as "the largest massacre to
date in the conflict".

Khojaly is an Azerbaijani town strategically located on the Agdam
- Shusha and Hankendi (Stepanakert) - Askeran roads in
Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan. The town' population was over
7,000 people.

The Armenian armed forces and mercenary units spared virtually none of
those who had been unable to flee Khojaly and the surrounding area. In
the words of the journalist Chingiz Mustafaev, among the dead were "...
dozens upon dozens of children between 2 and 15 years old, women and
old people, in most cases shot at point-blank range in the head. The
position of the bodies indicated that the people had been killed in
cold blood, calculatedly, without any sign of a struggle or of having
tried to escape.

Some had been taken aside and shot separately; many had been killed
as entire families at once. Some corpses displayed several wounds, one
of which was invariably in the head, suggesting that the wounded were
executed. Some children were found with severed ears; the skin had been
cut from the left side of an elderly woman's face; and men had been
scalped. There were corpses that had clearly been robbed. The first
time we arrived at the scene of the shootings of February 28,
accompanied by two military helicopters, we saw from the air an open
area about one kilometer across which was full with corpses almost
everywhere..."


***
An inhabitant of Khojaly, Djanan Orudjev, also provided information
on the many victims, mostly women and children. His 16-year-old son was
shot, and his 23-year-old daughter with her twin children and another
18-year-old daughter who was pregnant, were taken hostage. Sana
Talybova, who witnessed the tragedy as it unfolded, watched as four
Meskheti Turks, refugees from Central Asia, and three Azerbaijanis were
beheaded near the grave of an Armenian soldier; children were tortured
and killed in front of their parents; and two Azerbaijanis had their
eyes taken out with screwdrivers. The organized nature of the
extermination of the population of Khojaly was evident from the
killing, in previously prepared ambushes, of peaceful inhabitants who
fled the town in desperation to save their lives. For example, Elman
Mamedov, chief of administration in Khojaly, reported that a large
group of people who had left Khojaly came under intensive fire from
Armenian positions near the village of Nakhichevanik. Another resident
of Khojaly, Sanubar Alekperova, reported numbers of corpses of women,
children and old people near Nakhichevanik, where they fell into an
ambush. Her mother and her two daughters, Sevinzh and Khidzhran, were
killed and she herself was wounded. Faced with this mass shooting, some
of the group made for the village of Gyulably, but there Armenians took
some 200 people hostage. Among them was Dzhamil Mamedov; the Armenians
tore out his nails, beat him and took away his grandson. His wife and
daughter vanished without trace.



***

"I had heard a lot about wars, about the cruelly of the Fascists,
but the Armenians were worse, killing five and six-year-old children,
killing innocent civilians", said a French journalist, Jean-Yves Junet,
who visited the scene of this mass murder of women, old people,
children and defenders of Khojaly.

«Khojaly - The Last Day»,
Baku, Azrbaijan publishers, 1992.


***


The report of Memorial, a Moscow-based human rights group, on the
massive violations of human rights committed during the massacre of
Khojaly, says of the civilians flee in the town: "Efell into ambushes
set by the Armenians and came under fire. Some of them nonetheless
managed to gel into Agdam; others, mostly women and children, froze to
death while lost in the mountains; others still, according to testimony
from those who reached Agdam, were taken prisoner near the villages of
Pirdzhamal and Nakhichevanik. There is evidence from inhabitants of
Khojaly, who have already been exchanged, thai some of the prisoners
were shot ... Around 200 bodies were brought into Agdam in this space
of four days. Scores of the corpses bore traces of profanation. Doctors
on a hospital train in Agdam noted no less than Four corpses that had
been scalped and one that had been beheaded. State forensic
examinations were carried in Agdam on 181 corpses (130 male and 51
female, including 13 children); the findings were that 151 people had
died from gunshot wounds. 20 from shrapnel wounds and 10 from blows
inflicted with a blunt instrument... The records of the hospital train
in Agdam, through which almost all the injured inhabitants or defenders
of Khojaly passed, refer to 598 cases of wounds or frostbite E and one
case of live scalping." ("A tragedy whose perpetrators cannot be
vindicated. A report by Memorial, the Moscow-based human rights group,
on the massive violations of human rights committed in the taking of
Khojaly on the night of February 25-26, 1992 by armed units.)

«Svoboda» newspaper,
June 12, 1992.

***
The massacre of Khojaly set a pattern of destruction and ethnic
cleansing methodically carried out by the Armenian armed forces. On
November 29, 1993, Newsweek quoted a senior US Government official as
saying: "What we see now is a systematic destruction of every
village in their way. It's vandalism."
Every year religious leaders of Azerbaijan; Christian, Jewish and
Muslim communities issue appeals on the eve of commemoration of the
massacre of Khojaly. This year four leaders of Ashkenazi and Sephardic
Jewish communities, the Orthodox Bishop of Baku and Caspian region, and
the Spiritual Leader of Caucasus Muslims urged the international
community to condemn the February 26, 1992 bloodshed and facilitate
liberation of the occupied territories.
Religious leaders of Azerbaijan diverse communities stated their
rejection of extremism and policy of ethnic cleansing conducted by
Armenia. They see the future of Azerbaijan as beine a democratic
secular society based on humanistic values.



++++++++++++++++++++++



Pictures:

http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_azerbaijan/pictures_of_azerbaijan_massacre.html
Jason K. Lambrou
2005-01-12 18:19:44 UTC
Permalink
marktrivDear Mark Tsimpoyk*-Moronoglu does your mind sometimes seem to
have a mind of its own??
or the inner working of your mind seem like a dark ancient Mongol
mystery??

Dear Mark Manavoglu Kasap Where do you stand? How much mind power are
you using? How's your thought life? Are you enjoying peace of mind? Or,
are you mentally retarded, but don't know it?
Post by m***@yahoo.com
http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_azerbaijan/karabakh1.htm
History of the Nagorno-Karabakh Region of the Republic of Azerbaijan
The history of Karabakh is rooted in antiquity, and it is one of the
historic provinces of Azerbaijan, an important political, cultural, and
spiritual center.
Territorial claims of the Armenians against the Azerbaijani people and
Azerbaijan are the main reasons for the so-called "Karabakh problem".
Karabakh (Arsakh) was inalienable part to all the state formations that
have existed on the territory of northern Azerbaijan.
From 4th century B.C. to 8th century A.D. the territory of the current
Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan was one of the provinces of
Caucasian Albania, the most ancient state of Northern Azerbaijan. After
the fall of the independent Albanian state, Arsakh being inseparable
from Azerbaijan both geographically and politically, was a part to the
Azerbaijani state of Sajids, in 10th century - to the state of
Salarids, and in 11-12th centuries - to the state of Sheddadids. During
12-13th centuries Karabakh constituted part of the Atabey-Ildenizids
state, in the second half of 13th century - beginning of 15th century,
during the existence of the Mongolian Khulagouid state - part of the
Jalairids' state. In the 15th century it existed within the states of
Gharagouynlou and Aghgouynlou, and during 16th and 17th centuries
Karabakh, as a part of the Karabakh beylerbeyyat (duchy), was within
the Sefevi state. The latter consisted of 4 beylerbeyyats: Shirvani,
Karabakhi (also known as Ganja), Chukhursaadi (or Erivan) and
Azerbaijani (or Tebriz). Karabakh, being a part of the Karabakhi
beylerbeyyat, was ruled by the representatives of the Turkic Zyiad-oglu
tribe, subordinated to Kajars from 16th till 19th century. In the
second half of the 18th century Karabakh belonged to the Karabakh
khanate (principality) and along with the latter was incorporated into
Russia.
Thus, Karabakh has never been a part of the Armenian state, which was
established in Asia, far from South Caucasus.
In the antiquity the population of Karabakh consisted of Albans, and in
the early medieval period - of Albans and Turkic-speaking tribes of
Barsil, Savir, Hunn, Khazar, which lived on this territory. These
tribes were joined by other Turkic-speaking tribes, in particular,
Roumlou, Shoumlou, Bakharlou, Kangary and etc. Language of the Albans
belonged to northeastern-Caucasian family. As it has been established
as a result of most recent research, tribes of that family have
inhabited the territory, at least, since the mesolithic period, no less
than ten thousand years ago.
Arabic conquest of the lowlands of Albania, as well as valleys of Kura
and Araz in 7th century, resulted in islamization of the population of
the plains and it merging with the Turkic-speaking population of the
country. However, Albanian population, ruled by Albanian Mikhranid
princes, remained in the mountainous Arsakh along with the Turkic
tribes. Descendants of the Mikhranid clan restored the Albanian kingdom
in Arsakh in the 9th century. This kingdom was ruled by the Jalalids,
descendants of Hassan-Jalal, until 15th century.
General appearance of Gandzasar cloister, center of Alban church
After losing political and secular power in the 15th century,
representatives of the clan of Jalal became the spiritual leaders of
the country. They became Patriarch-Catolicos of the Albanian autonomous
church, until 1836, when independence of the Albanian church was
abolished and subordinated to the Armenian church as a result of
intrigues of the Armenian clergy.
In the 15th century the Jalalids were granted the title of Melik
(count) by Jahanshah. After that the clan broke up and five melikates
(smaller autonomous county) appeared in Karabakh: Goulistan, Jraberd,
Khachen, Varanda and Dizak. The title of Melik was conferred upon the
ruling families of the Melikates. Meliks of Karabakh in their letters
to the Russian czar call themselves "descendants of the Albanian
Arshakids". The Albanian princes had a title of melik, differing from
Armenian titles: ishkhan, tar etc. None of the Albanian Melik families
was of Armenian descent.
Thus, the historical Albanian province of Arsakh until 19th century had
been an important political, cultural, spiritual center of the
remaining Albanian Christian population which managed to preserve its
territorial, political, confessional unity and, importantly, - its
Albanian self-conscience.
Appearance of the first ethnic Armenian on the territory of Azerbaijan,
in particular, in Karabakh, should be viewed through the prism of the
Armenian people's history.
As it is known, Armenians are not aboriginal neither in the territory
of Asia Minor (historical Turkey), nor in the Caucasus. According to
Armenologists, the Armenians, who belonged to the Frigian tribes,
originally inhabiting the Balkans, following the Cimmerian resettlement
appeared in Asia Minor in the 7th century B.C. They have further spread
to the east, reaching Euphrates. The latest edition of "The history of
the Armenian people" states that in the 12th century B.C. groups of
Hindo-European Armenian-speaking tribes penetrated territories of the
Khurrites and Louvian Khetts in the upper reaches of the Euphrates.
These tribes were called as "moushku" and "urumu" by Assirian cuneiform
texts, "arims" by the Greek sources, and later "Armenians".
The first Armenian state, established in Asia Minor in the 6th century
B.C., lasted until 428 and was only nominally a state being de-facto a
province of the Persian and Roman Empires. Attempts to restore the
Armenian kingdom were made in 9th-11th centuries and in 12th-14th
centuries. Thus, in 9th-11th centuries Armenian Bagratid state, with
the capital of Ani, was established in the vicinity of Kars and
Erzurum. Later, in 12th-14th centuries, an Armenian Kilikian kingdom
was founded in a totally different location on the northeastern shore
of the Mediterranean.
Since the 15th century the Armenian history is closely linked to the
Armenian church. Significance and influence of the church have
especially grown after the Catolicos' seat was moved in 1441 from
Kilikia to Echmiadzin, in the vicinity of Yerevan. Since that time
Echmiadzin assumed both political and general leadership in the life of
the Armenians. It became the consolidating and organizing force of the
Armenian people scattered across many countries.
Thus, Azerbaijani regions of Arsakh and Sounik, partly populated by
Christian Albans, had preserved confessional unity with Armenians while
maintaining territorial and political unity with Azerbaijan.
With the emergence of the Ottoman Empire Armenians lost hope to create
their state in Asia Minor. This is when the Armenians turned to the
Caucasus and historical Azerbaijan with the idea of forcing
Azerbaijanis out of the Caucasus. Authors of "The history of the
Armenian people" introduce into scientific circles the term "Eastern
Armenia", by which they from 16th to 20th century mean exclusively
Azerbaijani lands: Karabakh, Erevan, Ganja, Sounik-Zangezur. Thus,
"Eastern Armenia" shifts both in time and space from east of the
Euphrates to the Caucasus.
Beginning from the 18th century the Armenians penetrating Russia were
trying to gain favor of the Russian court, first - of the Emperor Paul
I, then - Empress Catherine II by all means. Attracting them by the
necessity of liberating the so-called "Eastern Armenia" from Turkish
and Persian "yoke", Armenians practically aimed at cleansing Karabakh
and the lands of Zangezur from Azerbaijanis, who co-existed with the
fragments of Albanian Christians. Another goal was the Russian conquest
of these territories. Undoubtedly, Armenian intended, by separating
these lands from Azerbaijan and joining them with Russia, to continue
presenting them as "Eastern Armenia", this time within Russia. In 1805
by peace negotiations Azerbaijani khanates of Karabakh (founded by
Azerbaijani Panakh Ali-khan, fortress of Shusha which he erected to
make the capital of the khanate, was called Panakhabad), Sheki and
Shirvan were forced to accept the Russian rule. During the period of
1806-1813 through embittered wars and campaigns by Tsitsianov,
Goudovich and general Kotlyarovsky the rest of the Azerbaijani khanates
- principalities of Talysh, Baki, Gouba, Ganja, Derbent were conquered.
Later, in 1826, Russia annexed the khanates of Nakhchivan and Yerevan,
populated mostly by Turkic Azerbaijanis.
According to official documents, Kharabakh khanate had 90,000
residents, one town and more than 600 villages, only 150 of them were
Armenian. There were 1048 Azerbaijani and 474 Armenian resident
families in Shusha. In villages: 12,902 and 4,331 accordingly. However,
already by the end of the 19th century Nagorny Karabakh had Armenian
majority of 58%, while Azerbaijanis constituted 42% of population.
Influx of Armenian population in Azerbaijan, especially into Karabakh,
was significant during and after World War 1.
Increase of Armenian population in the Caucasus and concentration of
predominantly pro-Russian Christian Armenians in the areas bordering
Turkey and Persia was dictated by interests of Russia. In addition,
this way Russia won sympathies of Armenians in Turkey and secured
support in Asia Minor.
Memorial "Maraga - 150" mounted in 1978 on the occasion of 150
anniversary of arrival of Armenians from Persian region Maraga to
Karabakh. In 1988 as the Armenians in Nagorny Karabakh began
"realisation of right of the nation for self-determination" inscription
on the memorial "Maraga - 150" immediately disappeared
Both Turkmanchay and Adrianopol treaties included special clauses
allowing for migration of Armenians into the Caucasus, into the lands
of Azerbaijan and Georgia. This is when first compact Armenian
settlements appeared in Zangezur and Karabakh. In the years 1828-1830
alone 130,000 Armenians migrated. Following signing of Turkmanchay
treaty in 1828 Tsarist government created new, previously non-existent
political entity - the Armenian oblast (district). This district
consisted of Azerbaijani lands of Erivan, Nakhchivan and Ordubad
districts and was governed by Czarist bureaucrats. This was the first
attempt to create an Armenian political entity on the territory of
Azerbaijan. In 1849 the Armenian district was abolished and Erivan
governorship created instead.
In 1836, in order to secure support of Armenians in Turkey and trying
to subordinate them to pro-Russian oriented Armenian Patriarchy in
Echmiadzin, Tzarist government made a number of concessions to the
Armenian Echmiadzin Church. These concessions included abolition the
Albanian Patriarchy, the independent Albanian church, and subordination
of it to the Armenian Gregorian church. Later, in 1909-1910, the
Armenian Gregorian church with permission of the Russian Sinod
destroyed archives of the Albanian church and eliminated samples of the
Albanian literature. Russian historian V.L.Velichko wrote that the
Armenian clergy had used similar approach to Albanian Christian
shrines, the same way the Georgian monuments were treated. After
abolition of the Albanian Church Albans of Karabakh became
Gregorianized and some of the Albans of Karabakh migrated to the left
bank of the Kura river, preserved their identity and still live in the
Azerbaijani village of Nij.
The issue of so-called "Western Armenia" is related to the
situation of Turkey's Armenian population and following 1878 talks held
in Berlin and San-Stefano became "the Armenian question", which
implied Turkey undertaking introduce reforms in the Armenian-populated
vilayets (regions). In reality, only Tzarist Russia was pushing for
realization "the Armenian question". Two political parties,
"GNCHAK" (1887) and "DASHNAKTSUTYUN" (1890) were created for
that purpose. These parties developed ideological justification for
Armenian territorial claims in the Caucasus. "DASHNAKTSUTYUN" used
terrorism and armed rebellion to achieve its goal of unifying
territories with Armenian migrant population from Iran and Turkey.
"DASHNAKTSUTYUN" party frequently changed its orientation from
pro-Russian to pro-European and then from supporting Turkish
revolutionary movement back to supporting Russia.
During the Balkan war of 1912-1914 Russia proposed creation of an
autonomous Armenian district in Turkey, so-called "Western Armenia"
from vilayets of Erzurum, Van, Bitlis, Diyarbakir, Harput, Sivas. This
proposal was not supported by the European states. The Armenian
political parties mentioned above and authorities of the Russian Empire
in an attempt to contain national-liberation movement in the Caucasus
provoked first clashes between Armenians and Azerbaijanis. As a result,
between 1907 and 1912 about 500,000 Armenians from Iran and Turkey
migrated into Kars, Erivan and Yelizavetpol districts, most of
population of which were Azerbaijanis. This took place with assistance
of Russian authorities in order to make inter-ethnic situation even
more tense and strengthen Russia's dominance in the region.
February and October Revolutions of 1917 marked a new stage in "the
Armenian question". In October 1917 Armenian Congress convened in
Tiflis and demanded Russian annexation of East Turkey's territory
occupied by the Russian Army during WW1. On December, 31 the Council of
Commissars adopted a decree signed by Lenin and Stalin on free
self-determination of "Turkish Armenia".
Following collapse of the Transcaucasus Parliament the Azerbaijan
Democratic Republic (ADR), the first democratic state in the Muslim
world, was established on May, 28 1918. One of the first steps of the
ADR's government was to yield on May, 29 1918 town of Erivan
(Yerevan) to Republic of Armenia, which had declared independence but
had no political center. Territory of Armenian Republic was limited to
Erivan and Echmiadzin districts with 400,000 residents. Later, all
means were employed to implement policies aimed at changing demography
of Erivan and Zangezur in favor of Armenians.
Azerbaijan's foreign policy objectives at that period included
developing friendly and neighborly relationship with Armenia.
Unfortunately, "DASHNAKTSUTYUN" government of Armenia had
expansionist plans and laid claims on Nakhichevan, Zangezur and
Karabakh, all of which were parts of Azerbaijan. This led to the war
between Armenia and Azerbaijan in 1918-1920. According to available
data, during summer of 1918 alone 115 Azerbaijani villages were
destroyed, 7,000 people killed and 50,000 Azerbaijanis left Zangezur.
US President Wilson accepted instructions from the League of Nations,
which stated that Armenia "cannot exist without support" and that
its borders must be defined. However, the Senate decided that "the
Armenian question" is a European issue and rejected the "mandate on
Armenia".
The French Government acted similarly towards Armenians regarding
Kilikia, which had been occupied by France in 1919. In 1921 France
concluded peace treaty with Turkey, and gave up Kilikia.
Thus, the Armenian issue concentrated in the South Caucasus. In March -
July 1920 clashes with Dashnak forces took place in Karabakh,
especially in Shusha, Nakhchivan, Ordoubad. Hostilities took place in
Khankendy, Terter, Askeran, Zangezur, Jebrail, Nakhchivan, Ganja, and
dozens of Azerbaijani villages were destroyed.
Independence of Azerbaijan was crushed after the Bolshevik 11th Red
Army had invaded the country and the Soviet Socialist Republic of
Azerbaijan was proclaimed on April 28, 1920. Soviet Russia decided not
to allow turning Armenian Republic into anti-Russian bridgehead. It
became a mediator in settling the border disputes between Armenia and
Azerbaijan. In July 1920 Dashnak government in Erivan gave a secret
order to the Dashnak military forces to begin guerilla punitive
activities in Karabakh, Nakhchivan, and Zangezur. The same summer the
Bolsheviks have crushed the Dashnak troops that had invaded Karabakh,
and established Soviet rule here. Later, in November 1920, the Dashnak
regime was overthrown in Armenia.
The letter written in 1920 by chairman of the Revolutionary Committee
of Azerbaijan N.Narimanov, member of the Caucasus regional committee of
the Communist Party B.Mdivani, member the Central Committee of the
Communist Party (CCCP) of Azerbaijan A.Mikoyan and member of the CCCP
of Armenia A.Nourijanian, the people's commissary (minister) of foreign
affairs G.Chicherin and G.Orjonikidze stated: "As far as supposedly
disputed territories of Zangezur and Karabakh, that have already joined
Soviet Azerbaijan, are concerned, we categorically state, that there
can be no dispute about these places and they must stay within
Azerbaijan. The regions of Djulfa and Nakhchivan are populated solely
by Moslems... and must join with Azerbaijan".
G.Orjonikidze, who in his telegrams to V.Lenin, I.Stalin, G.Chicherin
has been underlining economic bent of Karabakh and Zangezur for Baku
and Azerbaijan, was of the same opinion. I.A.Mikoyan said that "agents
of the Armenian government, the Dashnaks, are striving for joining
Karabakh with Armenia, but for the population of Karabakh it would mean
to be deprived of their life-line, which is Baku, and to be connected
to Erivan, with which it hasn't ever been linked in any way. "
Responding to the territorial claims of the Armenian SSR the Caucasus
bureau of the Central Committee of the Russian Communist Party at its
meeting dated July 5, 1921 decided: "Proceeding from the necessity to
maintain ethnic peace between Moslems and Armenians, economic ties
between Highland and Lowland Karabakh, its uninterrupted ties with
Azerbaijan, Nagorny Karabakh is to be left within (underlined by the
edit.) the Azerbaijan SSR and to be granted broad regional autonomy
with the administrative center in Shusha, which is a part of the
autonomous region." Establishment of the autonomous region was not
artificial, though it contradicted historic right of Azerbaijan for its
own lands. It was a result of complicated situation in Nagorny Karabakh
and around it.
In 1922 the Azerbaijan SSR was included into the USSR. Within the
latter the attributes of republics' independence were a formality. On
July 7, 1923 the Central Executive Committee of Azerbaijan issued a
decree "On the establishment of Nagorno-Karabakh autonomous region".
Thus, the government of the Azerbaijan SSR by the act of law created an
autonomy on the territory of Azerbaijan in the interests of its
Armenian citizens. At the same time, three hundred thousands of
Azerbaijanis who have lived in compact settlements in Armenia were
refused even cultural autonomy by the governments of both the USSR and
the Armenian SSR. That violated their rights and had eventually led to
multiple deportations in 1948-1950 and to more than one dramatic forced
resettlement from Armenia, including more than 200, 000 in 1988-1989
alone.
It is necessary to emphasize that after the establishment of Soviet
rule all over the South Caucasus in 1921, the territories that had been
captured and separated from the Republic of Azerbaijan weren't claimed
by the government of the Azerbaijan SSR. On the contrary, the next,
"peaceful" stage of separation started with the assistance of communist
leadership of Russia and the Soviet Union. In 1921 "acquisition" of the
province of Zangezur by Armenia was legalized, which led to complete
isolation of Nakhchivan from Azerbaijan. In 1922 the Bolsheviks dealt
with Azerbaijani territories of Dilijan and Geycha in a similar manner.
In 1929 several villages were separated from Nakhchivan and transferred
to Armenian SSR. In 1969 the Armenian SSR again extended its territory
by acquiring Azerbaijani lands, this time - in the Kedabey district. In
1984 under the pressure from central authorities, as it had been in the
previous years, Azerbaijan handed a number of villages in the district
of Gazakh to Armenia.
Taking into account the above, it's crucially important to underline
that as of January 1, 1920 the territory of the Democratic Republic of
Azerbaijan was 113,900 square km. Now the territory of the Republic of
Azerbaijan is 86,600 square km. According to the population census of
1989, the population of the Autonomous Region of Nagorny Karabakh
(ARNK) was 186,100. 138,600 of them were Armenians (73,5%) and 47,500
Azerbaijanis (25,3%).
The new stage of the Armenian-Azerbaijan confrontation at the end of
the 1980s was caused not by the far-fetched suppositions about
"discrimination of the Armenian minority" in Azerbaijan and economic
hardships, but by the beginning of implementation of long-conceived
plans of expansion. The most favorable conditions for that were created
in the period of collapse. Beginning in February 1988, Armenia, with
the connivance of the leadership of the USSR, instigated
anti-constitutional activities by the administrative structures of the
ARNK. Those steps became the prologue of the wide-scale armed
aggression of Armenia against Azerbaijan.
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http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_azerbaijan/karabakh2.htm
The process of the settlement of the Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict
(information)
Chronology of the conflict from 1988 up to present days.
History of the second Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict throughout the 20th
century takes its beginning from February, 1988, when the session of
the Council of Oblast (local legislature) of the Nagorno-Karabakh
Autonomous Oblast (NKAO) of the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic
adopted decision to secede from Azerbaijan and to unite with Armenia.
Not a confessional and ethnic factors are the basis of the conflict
which started as local clashes and turned into one of the most
long-standing and bloody conflicts in post-war Europe. Its roots are in
the expansionism and policy of territorial aggression aimed at the
expansion of the territory of a state by means of the armed abruption
and forceful seizure of a part of the territory of another sovereign
state, which is a member of the UN, OSCE and other international
organisations.
A prologue of a full-scale armed aggression against Azerbaijan became
anti-constitutional actions by separatist groups in the
Nagorno-Karabakh region, supported by and controlled from outside
completely contradicting International Law and the Soviet legislation
in vigour that time.
Having begun with organising of the illegal meetings, strikes and
actions of disobediences, the Republic of Armenia started to establish
the unconstitutional power institutions in the Nagorno-Karabakh region
of Azerbaijan. The military formations as well as a huge amount of
weapons and ammunitions were shipped on the territory of Azerbaijan. A
military bridgehead was set up to conduct an armed aggression against
Azerbaijan.
Full-scale hostilities in the zone of the Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict
triggered at the end of 1991 - early 1992. Armenian armed formations,
using the most modern weapon systems, deployed combat operations in the
Nagorno-Karabakh region, culmination of which became a seizure of the
city of Khodjali in February, 1992 resulted in nearly 800 peaceful
inhabitants, including the olds, women and children, brutally killed,
and occupation of the Shusha rayon in May, 1992. Thereupon, armed
actions were beyond the administrative boundaries of the region and
expanded to the rest of Azerbaijan and the Armenia-Azerbaijani border,
including its Nakhchivan zone. Pending the period from May, 1992 until
May, 1994 6 more rayons of Azerbaijan were occupied.
Thus, as a result of aggression against the Republic of Azerbaijan,
more than 17.000 km2 were occupied that constitute about 20% of the
whole territory of the Azerbaijan Republic, more than 18 000 persons
were killed, over 50 000 are wounded or invalidated, more than 877
settlements, 100 thousand dwellings, more 1 thousand economic objects,
more than 600 schools, 250 medical institutions looted or ruined.
Internally displaced persons exceeded 800 000 persons and plus nearly
200 000 refugees from Armenia representing disastrous figures for the
country with 8 mln. population.
Humanitarian situation. As a result of ethnic cleansing, a dramatic
humanitarian situation in Azerbaijan produced. The most of refugees and
IDPs were accommodated in the tent camps, schools and student's
hostels. In spite of undertaking efforts, they constantly threaten to
perish with chill and epidemics due to the insufficient level of
shelter and sanitary living conditions. The problem is aggravated by
the presence of children and the olds. Although the total humanitarian
aid sent to Azerbaijan in 1997 has formed 60 mln. US dollars, for a
present day that falls short of a minimum need of the people affected
by the conflict.
Arms supply to Armenia. Illegal supplies of the Russian weapon to
Armenia from 1994 to 1996, including 84 tanks T-72, 50 ACVs, 32
operative-tactical missiles R-17 with range of up to 300 km, capable to
carry nuclear warheads, and other arms worth of 1 billion US dollars,
as well as the resent supply by Russia to Armenia of upgraded aircrafts
MiG-29 and anti-aircraft systems S-300 worth of 2 billion US dollars,
cause a particular concern of Azerbaijan. These supplies violate norms
of International Law, principles of the peaceful settlement of the
Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict, upset military political balance in the
region and threaten the security of all states of the region. Such
illegal actions are in the contradiction with the UN Security Councils
Resolution 853, Statement of Chairman of Security Council as of August
18 1993, and decision of a OSCE Committee of Senior Officials as of 28
February and March, 14 1992, which require to cancel a military
supplies to the states, involved to the conflict, as promoting the
escalation of the conflict and continuation of the occupation of the
Azerbaijani territories.
Illegal supplies are also in the direct contradiction with provisions
of CFE Agreement.
Agreement between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Armenia
on the friendship, co-operation and mutual assistance. Signed on August
29, 1997. Practically, it constitutes a military alliance between two
states. A signing of such Agreement testifies that, on the one hand,
the Republic of Armenia is not going to solve the Armenian-Azerbaijani
armed conflict by the political means, but sees a further development
of situation in the region as a continuation of armed confrontations
with the Azerbaijan Republic, and on the another hand, Russian
Federation falls short with its obligations as a state of Co-Chairman
of the OSCE Minsk Conference.
Azerbaijan considers this Agreement as a factor that aggravates, in a
considerable extent, tense situation in the armed conflict, and weakens
hopes of region's peoples for the peaceful settlement of the
Armenian-Azerbaijan conflict, normalisation of relations between the
Azerbaijan Republic and the Republic of Armenia and establishment of
peace and security in the region.
It is already 4,5 years as cease-fire regime, reached on May 12, 1994,
has been operating. However, recently, a provocative activity of the
Armenian armed units, deployed along the Line of Contact, gains more
impudent nature and pursues a purpose to compel Azerbaijan to drop into
the new turn of combat actions. It is worthwhile to note that an
Armenian party broke an Agreement on cease-fire regime 1271 times since
it was reached on May, 1994, up to May, 1998. Altogether, for this
period of time 188 persons were killed, 366 wounded.
The liberation of prisoners of war (POW). Activities with the mediation
ICRC on the liberation POWs and hostages are continuing. From 1993 up
to May, 1998, there were exchanges between parties, as a result of
which 357 persons were liberated - 102 Armenians and 255 Azerbaijanis.
However, according to the Ministry of National Security of the Republic
of Azerbaijan, more than 800 Azerbaijanis are remaining in Armenia and
the Nagorno-Karabakh region.
On November 23-26, 1998 during a visit of OSCE Chairman-in-Office
Bronislav Geremek to the region as action for strengthening of
confidence the agreement on exchange of all POWs was reached between
the Parties.
Chronology of the negotiation process. International mediation on the
settlement of the conflict takes its beginning from February, 1992,
within the framework of so called OSCE Minsk process, which is the only
forum on the elaboration of comprehensive model of settlement of the
Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict.
Minsk Group - a forum on preparation of Minsk conference- was
established aiming at political settlement of this issue, which
comprises Azerbaijan, Armenia, Russia, USA, France, Poland, Germany,
Turkey, Belarus, Finland, Sweden, Italy.
After the beginning of hostilities and seizure of Azerbaijani cities,
UN Security Council adopted Resolutions 822, 853, 874, 884, that
stipulate immediate and unconditional withdrawal of the Armenian armed
formations from the territory of Azerbaijan and returning of refugees
and internally displaced persons to their homes.
Main landmarks in the negotiating process have become the Helsinki
Additional meeting CSCE Council on March 24, 1992, the OSCE Budapest
and Lisbon Summits.
In accordance with decision of the OSCE Budapest Summit, 1994, the
institute of Co-Chairmen of the Minsk conference was created, which
were entrusted "to conduct speedy negotiations for the conclusion of a
political agreement on the cessation of the armed conflict ("Big
Political Agreement"), the implementation of which will eliminate major
consequences of the armed conflict for all parties and permit the
convening of the Minsk Conference".
Thereby, as a result of the Budapest Summit, the legal two-stage
1) First stage - elimination of the consequences of the armed conflict
by the implementation of the Agreement, which means a full liberation
of all occupied territories and ensuring a return of IDPs to their
homes;
2) Second stage - elaboration and adoption of a comprehensive peace
settlement at the Minsk conference.
There was also a decision agreed upon at the Budapest Summit to
establish the OSCE peacekeeping operation after the conclusion of the
political Agreement. After Budapest, 17 rounds and many consultations
with participants of the conflict were organised and conducted by the
Co-Chairmen (Russia-Finland).
During that time, 75% of the Agreement's draft and its Annexes were
agreed upon. Yet, a consent on the principal issues such as full
liberation of all territories, including Shusha and Lachin rayons,
security of parties to the conflict and withdrawal of units of armed
forces of Armenia from the territory of Azerbaijan has not been
achieved.
Three principles of the settlement of the Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict
were formulated in the Statement of the OSCE Chairman-in-Office at
- territorial integrity of the Republic of Armenia and the Azerbaijan
Republic;
- legal status of Nagorny Karabakh defined in an agreement based on
self-determination which confers on Nagorny Karabakh the highest degree
of self-rule within Azerbaijan;
- guaranteed security for Nagorny Karabakh and its whole population,
including mutual obligations to ensure kipping by all the Parties of
the provisions of the settlement.
These principles were supported by 53 the OSCE state-participants,
except Armenia.
Since November, 1996, Armenia unilaterally has broken direct
consultations between Advisers of Presidents of Armenia and Azerbaijan.
After Lisbon Summit and establishing of an institute of the triple
Co-Chairmanship (Russia-France-USA), only one round of negotiations (in
April, 1997) was conducted, which ended without particular results.
On June-September, 1997, the Co-Chairmanship elaborated and submitted a
new document for consideration of the Parties envisaging two-staged
On the first stage - a liberation of 6 rayons, occupied in the course
of the conflict that are outside of the former NKAO (except Lachin
rayon), return of civil population and restoration of the main
communications in the region of conflict.
On the second stage - a resolution of the situation around Lachin and
Shusha rayons and adoption of the main principles of the status of the
Nagorno-Karabakh region.
The final comprehensive settlement of the conflict, including an
Agreement on the status of self-rule of NK within Azerbaijan, will be
reached at the Minsk conference.
On October 1, 1997, Azerbaijan officially informed Co-Chairmanship on
its consent with the document as basis for the upcoming negotiations.
On October, 1997, in Strasbourg, the Presidents of Azerbaijan and
Armenia made a Joint Statement on readiness to resume negotiations on
the basis of Co-Chairmen's proposals.
On December, 1997, in Copenhagen, a Report of Co-Chairmen, emphasizing
a need to continue efforts on the settlement of conflict on the basis
of Lisbon principles and proposals of Co-Chairmanship, was distributed
at the OSCE Ministerial Council's meeting.
On May 13-17, 1998, during a visit of Co-Chairmen to the region,
Armenia officially stated about the recall of consent of former
President of Armenia with proposals on stage-by-stage settlement, and
spoke for a package settlement without preconditions.
On November 9, 1998, Co-Chairmen introduced new proposals on package
settlement of conflict based on a concept of "common state". Azerbaijan
from the very beginning during the consultations of November 9 refused
to accept these proposals, and on November 19 sent written response to
Co-Chairmen, officially informing the mediators on unacceptability of
proposals of November 9. Azerbaijan confirmed its readiness to resume
negotiations within the OSCE Minsk Group on the basis of Co-Chairmen's
proposals of September 19, 1997.
On November 20, 1998, the Delegation of Azeri community of NK
officially rejected proposals of November 9, and on November, 25
Armenia and Armenians of NK have stated on acceptability for them of
the mentioned proposals.
On December 2-3, 1998, in the course of meeting of the OSCE Ministers
of Foreign Affairs in Oslo a special paragraph on the Minsk process was
included in to Chairman-in-Office's Summary, that consists an appeal to
the parties of the conflict to resume immediately the negotiations in
the framework of MG and to Co-Chairmen to continue their efforts to
promote negotiations and quest of resolution.
On April, 1999 during CIS summit in Moscow there was held meeting
between the presidents of Azerbaijan and Armenia, where arrangement
about holding of further meetings for discussions of peace settlement
of Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict was reached. Opinion and positions
exchange between the parties was continued at the meetings between the
presidents in Washington on April, 24, in Geneva on August, 16 and 22
and in Yalta on September, 10. In the course of these meetings
arrangements for cease-fire strengthening and resumption of negotiation
process within the framework of OSCE Minsk Group were reached.
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http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_azerbaijan/karabakh3.htm
CHRONOLOGY OF THE ARMENIAN -AZERBAIJANI CONFLICT (1988-1999)
- 1987 -
October - First meeting in Yerevan (Armenia) took place with challenges
to annex the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous region (NKAR) of the
Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic to the Armenian Soviet Socialist
Republic (SSR).
- 1988 -
January 25 - Exodus of Azerbaijanis living in the Armenian SSR began.
February 22-23 - The first meetings in Baku and Sumgait took place with
a slogan: "NKAR is the integral part of Azerbaijan".
February 24 - For the first time, in the course of the
Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict blood was shed: in NKAR two Azerbaijanis
were killed.
February 27 - Strikes started in NKAR with the demand to be separated
from Azerbaijan.
February 28-29 - Pogroms and massive disorders in Sumgait took place.
There were people, among the organisers of pogroms, of Armenian
Nationality.
March 18 - Plenary Session of NKAR's regional Committee adopted a
decision on annexation of NKAR to Armenia.
March 24 - Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party and Council
of Ministers adopted a resolution "On measures for speeding up the
social-economic development of NKAR of the Azerbaijan SSR in
1988-1995".
The first decade of May - More than one thousand Azerbaijani refugees,
deported from Armenia, came to Azerbaijan.
May 18 - Meetings took place in Baku as a sign of protest against
ejection of Azerbaijanis from Armenia.
The first decade of June - Discrimination acts against Azerbaijanis in
NKAR broke out. In a few days about 2.000 people were ejected.
June 14 - According to State Committee on Statistics of Azerbaijan four
more thousand refugees fled to the Republic.
The last decade of June - Ejection of Azerbaijanis from Armenia is
going on.
July 12 - The Session of People's Deputies of the Regional Soviet in
NKAR adopted an anti-constitutional decision on separation from the
Azerbaijani SSR.
July 13 - Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijani SSR
considered the decision of the session of the Regional Soviet from July
12, 1988, as an illicit act.
July 18 - The enlarged meeting of the Presidium of the USSR's Supreme
Soviet endorsed NKAR as belonging to the Azerbaijani SSR.
September 3-21 - Series of terrorist acts against Azerbaijanis in NKAR,
setting out fire to houses and killing peaceful Azerbaijani population
in Stepanakert.
November 18 - December 5 - Meetings took place in Baku with the demand
to put an end to terrorist acts against Azerbaijanis in NKAR.
November 24 - The State of Emergency was announced in Baku, Nakhchivan,
Ganja.
November 27-29 - As a result of anti-Azerbaijani massacres 33
Azerbaijanis were killed in the cities of Gugark, Spitak and Stepanavan
of the Armenian SSR.
The second part of December - Exodus of Azerbaijanis from Armenia. More
than 105 thousand refugees fled to Azerbaijan from the Armenian SSR.
- 1989 -
January 12 - In the territory of NKAR of Azerbaijan SSR a form of
ruling was applied: Committee of special ruling was set up.
May-June - The First Congress of the People's Deputies decided to form
a Commission of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on Nagorny Karabakh
July 7 - The Azerbaijani village of Karkijahan in NKAR was fired.
July 11 - The escalation of the situation in NKAR. An armed assault on
Azerbaijanis in Stepanakert. People were killed.
July 29 - The traffic of trains from Azerbaijan to Armenia was cut
short because of the attacks to the trains in the territory of Armenia.
The beginning of the blockade of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic of
Azerbaijan by Armenia.
August 16 - There was the congress of the authoritative representatives
of Armenian population of NKAR in Stepanakert, those refused to
recognise the status of NKAR, as an autonomous region of Azerbaijan.
August 27 - The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijani
Republic declared as illegal the decision of the congress of
authoritative representatives of the Armenian population of NKAR from
August 16, 1989.
The last decade of September - Strikes of the Azerbaijani railroaders
in connection with the attacks to the trains in the territory of
Armenia.
The second decade of October - The beginning of the blockade of Shusha
region of NKAR, majority of the population of which is Azerbaijanis
(91,7%).
The second decade of November - Assaults on Azerbaijani trains in the
territory of the Armenian SSR, caused the stopping rail road traffic
between the Azerbaijani SSR and the Armenian SSR.
November 28 - The Supreme Soviet of the USSR passed a resolution "on
measures for normalising the situation in NKAR". It was decided to form
the republican organisational committee on NKAR and to restore the
activity of the regional council of the people's deputies, by
abolishing the Committee of special rule of NKAR.
December 1 - The Supreme Soviet of the Armenian SSR passed an
anti-constitutional resolution "On reunification of the Armenian SSR
and Nagorny Karabakh".
The first and second decades of December - Number of attacks from the
territory of Armenia to the border villages of Azerbaijan were
registered. The Infantry brigands from the territory of Armenia were
landed in the regions of Khanlar and Shaumyan of Azerbaijan.
December 7 - The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijani SSR
assessed this resolution of the Armenian Supreme Soviet from December
1, 1989 as inadmissible interference in the affairs of the Azerbaijani
SSR, encroachment on its territorial integrity.
- 1990 -
January 9 - The session of the Armenian Supreme Soviet, considering the
issues of planning and budget for 1990, included in its sphere of
influence the plans of social-economic development of NKAR.
January 9 - Seizure of the Azerbaijani hostages by Armenians in the
region of Shaumyan of Azerbaijan SSR.
January 4-10 - An illegal supply of about 100 tanks, artillery and
anti-aircraft weapons by the Soviet Army to Armenia.
January 11 - The Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet condemned the decision of
the Armenian Supreme Soviet to include NKAR in its economic sphere and
assessed it as a grave violation of the sovereignty of the Azerbaijan
Republic.
January 13 - As a result of the armed attacks Armenians occupied the
village of Karki in Nakhchivan AR.
January 15 - An armed Armenian infantry were landed in the village of
Gushchu of Khanlar region.
January 19 - Armenians assaulted on the settlement of Sadarak in
Nakhchivan AR.
January 20 - The Soviet troops entered Baku, as a result 124 people
were killed, 737 people were wounded. The State of emergency was
declared in Baku and in other cities of Azerbaijan.
January 21 - The Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijani SSR demanded the
immediate withdrawal of the Soviet troops from Baku
February 13 - The Supreme Soviet of the Armenian SSR passed a
resolution "On admission as illegal the decision of the Caucasian
Bureau of the Central Committee of the Russian Communist Party of July
5, 1921", which left NKAR as part of the Azerbaijani SSR.
March 6 - The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijani SSR
passed a resolution "On inadmissibility of territorial claims by the
Armenian SSR".
March 7 - The Supreme Soviet of the USSR passed a resolution "On the
situation in the Azerbaijani SSR and Armenian SSR and on the measures
for normalising the situation in this region".
March 24 - The attack of the armed thugs of the Armenian SSR to the
villages of the Gazakh region of the Azerbaijani SSR. All civilians of
these villages were killed.
May 22 - The attempts to organise elections of the people's deputies of
the Armenian SSR in the territory of the NKAR failed.
May 25 - The resolution of the Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijan SSR "On
anti-constitutional decision of the Supreme Soviet of the Armenian SSR
and its Presidium concerning NKAR of the Azerbaijani SSR."
June 25 - Decree of the President of the USSR "On prohibition to form
armed forces which are not envisaged in the legislation of the USSR and
confiscation of illegally kept weapons".
June 29 - The Council of Ministers of the Azerbaijani SSR passed a
resolution "On resumption of sovereign rights of the Azerbaijani SSR in
NKAR and measures for social economical development of the region".
September 23 - The People's deputies of the USSR from Azerbaijan
appealed the Supreme Soviet of the USSR "On forcible deportation of the
Azerbaijani population of Armenia".
- 1991 -
January-May - The Armenian thugs committed terrorist acts against the
leadership of the Committee of the special directorate of NKAR, the
armed attacks and firing of the Azerbaijani villages.
May 9 - The USSR Ministry of the Internal Affairs, KGB and Ministry of
Defence take measures for disarmament of the illegal Armenian armed
forces and confiscation of weapons in the districts near the border of
Azerbaijan and Armenia, as well as in NKAR of the Azerbaijani SSR.
June 29 - The Session of the Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijani Republic
draws the attention of the USSR President and the Supreme Soviet of the
USSR to the new stage of escalation of Armenian thugs groups attacks in
NKAR, as well as passes a decision to mom up the territory of NKAR from
the thugs groups dispatched from Armenia and finish the measures of the
USSR presidential decree banning the formation of armed forces.
September 2 - The Armenian separatists declared the establishment of so
called "Nagorno-Karabakh Republic (NKR)" in the territory of Nagorny
Karabakh region of the Azerbaijani Republic. All the armed groups of
about 15.000 were formed as "self-defence forces of NKR" and
subordinated to the Committee of Defence.
The middle of September - The Armenian armed forces began attacks the
western part of Goranboy district of Azerbaijan and occupied number of
inhabited settlements.
September 23 - Meeting of Presidents of Azerbaijan and Armenia in
Zheleznovodsk (Russia) mediated by the Russian and Kazakhstan
Presidents. There was reached an agreement on peaceful settlement of
the conflict.
October-November - The Armenian armed forces launched hostilities to
drive the Azerbaijani population out from the territories of Martuni
and Hadrut districts of the NKAR. The USSR air forces took part in the
hostilities supporting the Armenian forces. The Armenian forces
occupied about 30 settlements.
November 20 - Near the village of Garakend of the Khojavand district of
the Azerbaijan Republic the helicopter "MI-8" was shot down, in which
there was the peacemaking group of the Russian, Kazakhstan
representatives and the senior leadership of Azerbaijan. The murder of
22 people, including the state figures of the 3 countries put an end
the first attempt for peaceful settlement of the Armenian-Azerbaijani
conflict, undertaken in Zheleznovodsk and gave an impetus to the
escalation of violence in the region.
The middle of December - The forces of the Ministry of Internal Affairs
of the USSR were withdrawn from the territory of Nagorny Karabakh.
Illegal transfer of weapons to Armenia by the Ministry of Internal
Affairs of the USSR.
December 30 - The leaders of CIS countries called on Azerbaijan and
Armenia to resume the negotiation process.
- 1992 -
January - The armed forces of Armenia relying on the support of rifle
regiment 366 of the Russian armed forces, launched the occupation of
the last Azerbaijani settlements of Karabakh which were in a complete
isolation.
January 30-31 - The second meeting of the Council of CSCE (Prague).
Azerbaijan and Armenia got the membership of CSCE. It was decided to
send a mission of rapporteurs to the region of conflict.
The first half of February - Occupation of the suburb of Stepanakert
(Karkijahan), as well as the Azerbaijani settlements along the road of
Shusha-Khojaly and around Shusha.
February 12-18 - First visit of the CSCE mission of rapporteur to the
region.
February 25-26 - Assault and seizure of the city of Khojaly
(Nagorno-Karabakh region, Azerbaijan) by military forces of Armenia and
with the participation of 366 Infantry regiment of the Russian military
forces, as a result 800 civilians were brutally killed.
The end of February - Evacuation of the staff of the 366 Infantry
regiment of the Russian military forces from Stepanakert and illegal
transfer of 25 tanks, 87 armoured infantry fighting vehicles, 28
armoured vehicles, 45 artillery mortar systems to Armenians.
March 24 - Additional Helsinki meeting of the CSCE Council, decision to
convene a conference on Nagorny Karabakh under the aegis of the CSCE.
Chairman-in-Office designated Mr. Rafaelli as a Chairman of the Minsk
Conference.
April - Beginning of the activity of Russia as mediator.
May 7 - Meeting of the Heads of Armenia and Azerbaijan in Tehran
through the mediation of Iran (meeting was devoted to the normalisation
of the situation in Nagorny Karabakh and to the peaceful settlement of
the conflict).
May 8 - Military Forces of the Russian Army occupied azerbaijani city
Shusha and Shusha region (Nagorny Karabakh) that led to the breakdown
of agreements reached in Tehran. As the result of the occupation of
Shusha region 23156 Azerbaijanis were driven out from their permanent
residences. Thus, there was finished ethnic cleansing in Nagorny
Karabakh.
May 18-19 - Military forces of the Republic of Armenia occupied Lachin
region, which was outside Nagorny Karabakh. As the result of this
occupation 63341 Azerbaijanis were banished from their homes. At the
same time military forces of the Russian Army attacked strategically
important part of the Azerbaijani-Turkish border in Sadarak region
(Nakhchivan).
May 18-19 - In connection with the occupation of Lachin district of
Azerbaijan decision making on an extraordinary preparing meeting of the
CSCE participating states at the Conference on Nagorny Karabakh which
was held under the aegis of CSCE was failed.
June-September - Rounds of negotiations were held within the framework
of the CSCE Minsk group on the cessation of the offensive operations,
de-escalation of the conflict and normalisation of the life of ordinary
citizens.
September 19 - Agreements on cessation of all military actions in 2
months period reached by Defence Ministers of Armenia and Azerbaijan
with the participation of the Ministers of defence and Security of
Russia (Sochi).
September-November - Visits and consultations of the Russian mediator
mission in the region.
November 26-December 1 - Meeting of the CSCE Ad-hoc group with the
competence of advanced group of observes (Vienna).
December 7-9 - Unofficial meeting of the personal representatives of
the Presidents of Azerbaijan, Armenia, Russia, USA and Turkey (Geneva).
December 9-12 - Violation of the agreement reached between Defence
Ministers of Armenia and Azerbaijan in Sochi, Armenia occupied 8
villages of Zangelan district of Azerbaijan.
- 1993 -
February 5 - Beginning of the large-scale attacks of the military
forces of the Russian Army in the northern part of the front.
March 17-21 - Meeting of Personal Representatives of Armenia,
Azerbaijan, Russia, USA, Turkey and chairman of the CSCE Minsk group.
March 27-April 3 - Occupation of Kalbadjar district of Azerbaijan by
the armed forces of Armenia, which is situated outside of Nagorny
Karabakh, as a result of this 60698 Azerbaijanis were driven out from
their permanent residences.
March 31 - Resumption of the meeting in Geneva. Personal Representative
of the President of USA is breaking off the negotiations because of the
occupation of Kalbadjar district of Azerbaijan by Armenia.
April 6 - The Statement of the Chairman of the UN Security Council,
condemning the occupation of the district of Kalbadjar.
April 30 - The adoption of the resolution 822 by UN Security Council,
demanding "the immediate withdrawal of all occupying forces from the
district of Kalbadjar and other recently occupied districts of
Azerbaijan".
June 3-4 - The Consultations of "the Minsk Nine". Adoption of "Schedule
of urgent measures on implementation of the resolution 822 of the UN
Security Council".
June 17 - The arrangement through the mediation of Russia on ceasing of
bombardment of Aghdam and Stepanakert.
June 26-28 - The armed forces of the Republic of Armenia captured the
city of Aghdara of the Republic of Azerbaijan.
June 27 - The arrangement through mediation of Russia on ceasing
hostilities, shelling and air bombardment for one week in the districts
of Mardakert and Aghdam.
July 12 - The visit of Mr. Rafaelli to Baku, Yerevan and Stepanakert
aiming at adoption of the schedule of the Minsk Group.
July 18-20 - The visit of the mediator mission of Russia to Baku.
July 23-24 - The occupation of the district of Aghdam of Azerbaijan,
which is situated outside of Nagorny Karabakh, by the armed forces of
Armenia, as a result 158000 Azerbaijanis were driven out from their
permanent residences.
July 29 - The adoption of the resolution 853 by the UN Security
Council, "demanding the immediate, complete and unconditional
withdrawal of occupation forces involved in the conflict from the
district of Aghdam and all other recently occupied districts of the
Azerbaijan Republic.
July 21-August 12 - Consultations of OSCE Minsk Group. It was adopted
"the schedule of urgent measures for implementing of the resolution 822
and 853 of the UN Security Council".
August 11 - Beginning of attacks of the Armenian armed forces to the
district centers of Fizuli and Jabrail of Azerbaijan.
August 18 - The statement of the UN Security Council's Chairman on
immediate, complete and unconditional withdrawal of the occupation
forces from the districts of Fizuli, as well as Kalbadjar and Aghdam
and other recently occupied districts of the Azerbaijan Republic.
August 23 - The occupation of the district of Fizuli of Azerbaijan,
situated outside of Nagorny Karabakh by the Armenian armed forces, as a
result 152860 Azerbaijanis were driven out from their permanent
residences.
August 25-26 - The Armenian armed forces occupied the district of
Jabrail, situated outside of Nagorny Karabakh, as a result 57125
Azerbaijanis were driven out from their permanent residences.
August 31 - The Armenian armed forces occupied the district of Gubadly
of Azerbaijan, situated outside of Nagorny Karabakh, as a result 31364
Azerbaijanis were driven out from their permanent residences.
September 21-28 - Negotiations within the OSCE Minsk Group were held in
Paris.
October 14 - The UN SC passed a resolution 874, calling on the parties
"to abstain from any hostile acts and any interference or invasion,
which could led to escalation of the conflict and undermine peace and
security in the region".
October 18-21 - Negotiations within the framework of the Minsk Group.
October 23 - Part of the military forces of the Armenian Republic
assaulted the settlement of Horadiz with tanks. Having occupied this
important transport unit, the Armenians cut off the district of
Zangelan and part of none-occupied territory of Jabrail and Gubadly
from the remaining part of the Republic.
October 28 - The military forces of the Armenian Republic occupied the
rail road station of Minjivan.
October 28-November 1 - The occupation of the district of Zangelan,
Azerbaijan, situated outside of Nagorny Karabakh, as a result, 34924
Azerbaijanis were driven out by the armed forces of Armenia from their
permanent residences.
November 11 - The UN SC passed a resolution 884, demanding "immediate
cease fire and hostility, unilateral withdrawal of occupation forces
from the district of Zangelan and the city of Horadiz and withdrawal of
occupation forces from other districts of Azerbaijan, captured
recently".
November 20 - Firing of the mediator mission of Russia by the Armenian
side. The statement of the former Russian Foreign Minister A.Kozirev on
this matter.
December 10 -The Armenian military forces launched an assault in the
direction of district center of Beylagan.
- 1994 -
January-March - Series of negotiations and consultations to reach an
agreement on cease fire through the mediation of Russia and CSCE.
March 3 - Having broken off the next cease fire agreement, the Armenian
troops resumed the hostilities.
March 31-April 3 - Visit of the peacemaker group of the
Inter-parliamentary Assembly of CIS headed by Speaker of Kyrgizstan
Supreme Council, together with Russian President's representative, to
Baku, Yerevan, and Nagorny Karabakh.
April 9-10 - The command of the Armenian Military Forces launched large
scale assault in the direction of Terter during 33 days.
May 4-5 - The Bishkek meeting of the parliamentary leaders of
Azerbaijan and Armenia and the representatives of the both communities
from Nagorny Karabakh. The "Bishkek protocol" was adopted.
May 9 - The defence ministers of Azerbaijan, Armenia and the
representatives of the Armenian separatist regime from Nagorny Karabakh
signed a cease fire agreement.
May 12 - In the zone of conflict the regime of cease fire started
functioning. Active hostilities on the line of the front came to an
end.
May 19 - The CSCE Permanent Committee. It was passed a statement as a
support for the agreement to strengthening of the cease fire regime.
June 27 - An agreement was signed by the parties as confirmation of
their commitments on cease fire regime up to conclusion of the
political agreement. The joint statement for to support this agreement
was made by the leader of mediator mission of Russia and the chairman
of the Minsk Conference.
August 28 - Unilateral statement of all sides involved in the conflict
and confirmation of the commitments on observation of cease fire regime
until the political agreement to be concluded.
September-November - Continuation of the negotiations between the
competent representatives of the leaders of sides involved in the
conflict in Moscow.
December 5-6 - Meeting of Heads of CSCE member states and governments
in Budapest ("Budapest Decision"). In accordance with the decision of
the summit, it was established an institute of Co-Chairmen of the Minsk
Conference; two stage structuring of the settlement process was
completed; decision was taken on the OSCE peacekeeping operations after
achievement of the political agreement. - 1995 -
May-December - Series of negotiations within the framework of OSCE
Minsk Group on elaboration of agreement for cession of the military
conflict.
- 1996 -
January-November - Series of negotiations within the framework of OSCE
Minsk Group on elaboration of agreement for cessation of the military
conflict.
December 2-3 - Meeting of the Heads of OSCE States and governments in
Lisbon. In the statement of the OSCE Chairman-in-Office three
principles of the settlement of the Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict were
- territorial integrity of the Republic of Armenia and the Republic of
Azerbaijan;
- legal status of Nagorny Karabakh defined in the agreement based on
self-determination which confers on Nagorny Karabakh the highest degree
of self rule within Azerbaijan;
- guaranteed security for Nagorny Karabakh and its whole population,
including mutual commitments to ensure compliance by all parties with
the provisions of the settlement.
These principles were supported by 53 OSCE participating states, except
Armenia.
- 1997 -
February 13 - A. Tuleyev, the Minister on cooperation with CIS states
made a statement on the facts of illegal supply of the Russian weapons
to Armenia worth of 270 billion of rubles
February 14- An institute of "triple" Co-Chairmanship of the OSCE Minsk
Conference (Russia, USA and France) was established.
March 4-7 - The Azerbaijani parliamentary delegation headed by Arif
Rahimzadeh, the first deputy chairman of the Azerbaijani Milli Majlis
(Parliament) stayed in Moscow in order to find out the circumstances on
the fact of supply of the Russian weapons to the Republic of Armenia.
March 14 - Appeal of the Azerbaijani Milli Majlis to B.Yeltsin, the
President of Russia, E.Stroyev, the Chairman of the Council of
Federation of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation,
G.Seleznyev, the Chairman of the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of
the Russian Federation.
April 2 - The report of Lev Rokhlin, the Chairman of the Defence
Committee of the State Duma, on delivery of the Russian weapons to the
Republic of Armenia worth of one billion US dollars.
April 4 - Appeal of the Azerbaijani Milli Majlis to B.Yeltsin,
E.Stroyev and G.Seleznyev.
April 1-5 - The next round of the negotiations within the framework of
OSCE Minsk Group was held, after it the Armenian side refused to hold
further negotiations on the basis of proposals made by the Co-Chairmen,
worked out according to the principles of the OSCE Lisbon Summit.
April 4-8 - The Azerbaijani parliamentary delegation headed by Arif
Rahimzadeh, the first deputy Chairman of the Azerbaijani Milli Majlis
(Parliament) stayed in Moscow in order to find out the circumstances on
the facts of supply of the Russian weapons to the Republic of Armenia.
April 15 - The OSCE delegation headed by A.Kasprzyk, the Personal
Representative of the Chairman-in-Office of OSCE, was fired by the
Armenian side.
April 24 - The statement of the OSCE Chairman-in-Office in connection
with the fire of A.Kasprzyk, the Personal Representative of the
Chairman-in-Office in the zone of conflict.
June 23 - The Denver Statement of the Presidents of the US, Russia and
France, supporting the search of ways for the settlement on the basis
of the Lisbon principles.
September 1 - Illegal so-called "presidential elections" in Nagorny
Karabakh, which was condemned by the world Community.
September 23-24 - Visit of the delegation of Co-Chairmen of the OSCE
Minsk Group to Baku. Proposal on the stage-by-stage settlement.
October 10 - Strasbourg Joint Statement of the Presidents of Azerbaijan
and Armenia on supporting plan of the stage-by-stage settlement of the
conflict.
December 17-19 - The Meeting of the OSCE Ministers of Foreign Affairs
in Copenhagen. The Chairman-in-Office requested the Co-Chairmen of
Minsk Group "to continue their work and urged all sides to resume the
negotiations without delay on the basis of the proposal of the
Co-Chairmen".
- 1998 -
April - The refusal of Armenia from the early reached agreements on the
stage-by-stage settlement of the conflict.
May 13-17 - Visit of the Co-Chairmen to the region. Armenia officially
declared about the renunciation of the consent of the former President
of the Republic of Armenia with the proposal on the stage-by-stage
settlement and supported the package settlement without any preliminary
conditions.
July 14-15 - Visit of I.Sergeyev, the Russian Defence Minister, to
Armenia, in the course of which an agreement on supply of anti-aircraft
weapons S-300 was reached.
November 8-10 - The OSCE Minsk Group Co-Chairmen offered a new plan of
settlement of the conflict, based on the principle of "common state".
The Azerbaijani side refused to accept this proposal as a basis of
resumption of negotiations. Azerbaijan confirmed its readiness to
resume negotiations within the framework of the OSCE Minsk Group on the
basis of the proposals of the Co-Chairmen of September 19, 1997, on the
stage-by-stage settlement of the conflict.
December 2-3 - The meeting of the OSCE Ministers of Foreign Affairs in
Oslo, where the Chairman-in-Office called upon the sides involved in
the conflict to resume the negotiations within the framework of the
Minsk Group without delay.
December 16 - Deliver of 5 Russian MiG-29 fighter aircrafts to Armenia.
- 1999 -
February 26 - Additional deliver of 5 MiG-29 fighter aircrafts and
surface-to-air missile systems S-300 to Armenia.
March 11 - It was adopted the resolution on "Support of peace process
in Caucasus" on the plenary meeting of the European Parliament for
supporting of the peace plan offered by Minsk Group and continuation of
the efforts for long-termed settlement of the conflict.
March 19 - Milli Majlis (Parliament) of the Republic of Azerbaijan
appealed to the European Parliament, criticizing some provisions of the
resolution on "Support of peace process in Caucasus".
April, 2 - Meeting between the presidents of Azerbaijan and Armenia H.
Aliyev and R. Kocharian was held in Moscow. The arrangement about
intensification of contacts and opinion exchange for seeking of ways
for conflict settlement was reached between the presidents.
April, 24 - Meeting between the presidents of Azerbaijan and Armenia H.
Aliyev and R. Kocharian was held in Washington through mediation M.
Albright. There was put proposals for development of regional
cooperation and measures for strengthening of confidence. As a result,
Washington declaration was adopted.
May - Delivery 8 rockets "Tayfun" with range 60-80 km by China to
Armenia
May, 25 - Hearings on Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict settlement at the
meeting of EC PA Commission on political issues. Speaker of Azerbaijan
parliament M. Aleskerov and leader of Azerbaijani population of
Nagorniy Karabakh N. Bakhmanov addressed the meeting, stating position
of Azerbaijan.
June, 3 - Statement of Foreign Ministry of the Azerbaijan Republic in
connection with delivery of "Tayfun" rockets by China to Armenia
June, 14 - Units of armed forces of Armenia violated cease-fire regime
and attacked positions of Azerbaijani troops along the Contact line in
Negorno-Karabakh region. In connection with this incident UN
Secretary-General, OSCE Chairman-in-Office, US State Department and
Foreign Ministry of Russian Federation issued statements.
June, 18 - Additional delivery of 4 fighters MiG-29 by Russia to
Armenia. Foreign Ministry of Georgia made a protest in connection with
violation of airspace of the country by these fighters.
June, 28 - July, 1 - There was adopted two statements at the XXVI
1. About aggression of Republic of Armenia against Republic of
Azerbaijan
2. About demolition and destruction of Islamic historic and cultural
monuments in the occupied territories of the Azerbaijan Republic as a
result of aggression of the Republic of Armenia against the Republic of
Azerbaijan
July, 16 - Meeting of the presidents of Azerbaijan and Armenia in
Geneva. Opinion exchange on conflict settlement.
August, 22 - Meeting between the presidents of Azerbaijan and Armenia
in Geneva. Consultations for seeking of ways for the conflict
settlement were contiued. As a result of negotiations, instructions on
providing the measures for strengthening of cease-fire regime and
resumption of negotiations within the frames of OSCE Minsk Group was
given to foreign and defense ministries of two countries.
September, 1-2 - Visit of OSCE Minsk Group co-chairmen representing USA
and Russian Federation K. Kavanaugh and N. Gribkov to Baku with the aim
to study the situation in the region.
September, 10 - During the international conference "Baltic-Black Sea
Cooperation: Towards an Integrated 21st Century Europe Without Dividing
Lines" in Yalta, meeting between the presidents of Azerbaijan and
Armenia was held, and opinion exchange on issues of strengthening of
existing cease-fire regime and seeking of the ways of peace settlement
conflict was continued. The parties agreed to resume negotiation
process within the framework of OSCE Minsk Group.
++++++++++++++
http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_azerbaijan/karabakh4.htm
Facts on the illegal transfer of arms, equipment and military property
by Russian Federation to the Republic of Armenia
1. The illegal transfer of weapons by Russian Federation to Armenia
from January 1993, to December 1996, i.e., after the completion of
N Name Quantity Total cost (in US dollars)
1 R-17 missile systems
R-17 missiles
8 32 1.680.000 6.720.000
2 "Krug" surface-to-air systems
Missiles for them
27 349 8.100.000 104.700.000
3 Missiles for the "Osa"
Surface-to-air systems
40 8.000.000
4 T-72 tanks 84 100.800.000
5 BMP - 2 Armoured
Combat Vehicles
50 14.000.000
6 122 mm D-30 howitzers 36 1.372.000
7 152 mm D-20 howitzers 18 720.000
8 152 mm D-1 howitzers 18 900000
9 "Grad" multiple missile systems 18 4.500.000
10 Mortars 26 312.000
11 Portable "Igla" anti-aircraft systems Missiles for them 40 200
1.600.000 8.000.000
12 Grenade launchers 20 50.000
13 Machine-guns 306 122.400
14 Assault rifles 7910 949.200
15 Pistols 1847 110.820
16 Shells for ACV (BMP-2) 478480 14.354.400
17 Shells (various) 489160 195.664.000
18 BM anti-tank self-targeting missiles
Anti-tank self-targeting missiles
4 945 1.320.000 7.938.000
19 Hand grenades 345800 10.374.000
20 Different types of bullets 227253000 227.253.000
21 Among other types of a arms, engineering and military property
belong: transporting and weapon-loading machines, various types of
movable on-wheels radio (including space communications stations), sets
of communications equipment, field communications cables, targets
detection stations, tanking equipment, fuel, accumulators of various
types (including battle tank ones), oil barrels, spare to tanks,
cannons and BMP's, tank engines etc. 720.039.000
TOTAL - 1.000.000.000
The indicated data are not complete and not final.
The whole process of weapon, engineering and military property transfer
was implemented without any bilateral agreement.
Parts of weapons and engineering were transferred according Directives
of General Staff, signed by the former Chief of General Staff of the
- Directive of General Staff No.316/3/0182 of 29.09.94, on transfer
from 102nd military base located in Gumry 25 T-72 tanks with spares of
13 kinds;
- According Directive No.316/3/0220 of August 18, 1995 and 8/824 of
September 25, 1995, 55 T-72 tanks were granted to Armenia;
- Directive of General Staff No.316/3/048 dated 26.02.1996, on transfer
of 4 T-72 tanks and 50 BMP-2.
Moreover, the Republic of Armenia has received missile-artillery
complex, air-defence systems, missiles, ammunition and other military
property.
Particularly, according to the Directive No.561/16/831 of August 8,
1995, of Russian Federation GS of the Armed Forces 50 MP-38, 20 82 mm
AGS-17 grenade launchers, 300 PK machine-guns, 10000 submachine-guns
were transferred to Ministry of Defence of Armenia.
According Directive No.16/338 of November 23, 1995, the followings were
transferred from the Group of Russian troops in Transcaucasus (GRVZ) to
the Defence Ministry of Armenia: 12 D-30 howitzers, 4 BM-21, 50 (14,5
mm) KPVT machine-guns, 3 (12,7 mm) NSVT machine-guns, 40000 (14.5 mm)
B-32 bullets, 64000 BZTA bullets, 110000 MDZ bullets, 10000 (12.7 mm)
B-32 bullets as well as 7 fifth category howitzers.
On the basis of the encoded telegram No.2234 of November, 23 1995,
signed by Kolesnikov, the followings were transferred from GRVZ to
Armenia: 100 (14,5 mm) KPVT machine-guns, 20 (12,7 mm) NSVT
machine-guns, 20 (12,7 mm) DSK machine-guns, 30 (12,7 mm) NCV
50000 (12,7 mm) bullets, 260000 (14,5) bullets, 2420 (125 mm) shells
for tank cannon D-81.
In accordance with Directive No. 561/16/457 of March 11, 1996, 4 mln.
bullets and 5000 MRV-U fuses were transferred from GRVZ to Armenia.
By the Directive of General Staff No.503/23-26 of July 20, 1996, 85
tons of spares were transported by 5 IL-76 planes from airport of
Chkalovskaya.
Azerbaijan has also reliable information that Armenia possess R-17
operative-tactical missile complexes able to carry nuclear warheads. In
order to prepare specialists, 20 officers and ensigns from Military
Unit No.51556 of the MoD of Armenia, names of whom are known, had a
training for practical learning to work with these complexes in the
Training Center "Kapoustin Yar" of Russian MoD. After the completing
the course one missile was launched.
Big amount of transfers were carried out even without relevant
Directives of Russian GS AF.
From August 1992 to January 1994 66 IL-76 flights and two AN-12 flights
transported about 1300 tons of ammunition from airport of Mozdok to
Yerevan.
From November 8 to November 28, 1995, and from June 28 to August 6,
1996, 31 AN-124 flights and 13 IL-76 flights have transferred 50 T-72
tanks, property and spares to them, 36 D-CI howitzers, 18 D-20
howitzers, 18 D-1 howitzers, 18 "Grad" multiple missiles systems, 40
portable "Igla" anti-aircraft systems and 200 missiles for them, 12600
shells for the mentioned guns, including 1440 for "Grad" systems from
airport "Jasmine" (Akhtubinsk, Russia) to airport of Zvartnots
(Yerevan, Armenia).
The property was shipped to Akhtubinsk by six troop-trains: tanks from
Omsk, ammunition from Volgograd, artillery from Irkutsk, Sverdlovsk,
Perm oblast (areas).
Delivered weapons were transferred further to Nagorny Karabakh where
the acceptance of the armoured vehicles, optic and electronic equipment
and other weapons was done by Colonel Slava Ucnunts, Deputy MoD of so
called "Nagorno-Karabakh Republic" and Marat Garibian, Head of antitank
unit at the armament factories in Nijniy Tagil, Sankt-Peterburg and
other cities of Russia. During the indicated period the most updated
military engineering were delivered to Armenia. In 1994 Armenians
received surface-to-air system "Tunguska" which was installed in
Khankendi, Nagorny Karabakh. All these explains the reason of
appearance of magnificent amount of weapon and engineering on the
No. Military Units Location Battle tanks ACV AP
1. 538 Independent Infantry Regiment Aghdaban 13 15 15
2. 2 Independent Infantry Brigade Karakhanbeyli 29 23 36
3. 83 Independent Infantry Brigade Dashkesan 20 27 22
4. Mardakert Infantry Division Mardakert 76 79 74
5. Askeran Infantry Regiment Aghdam 32 43 42
6. Martuni Infantry Regiment Martuni 40 60 40
7. Gadrut Infantry Regiment Gadrut 20 32 22
8. Stepanakert Infantry Regiment Stepanakert 18 28 22
9. Khodjaly Training Unit Khodjaly 52 7 39
10. Shusha Infantry Regiment Shusha 16 10 10
Battle Tanks - 316
Armoured Combat vehicles - 324
Artillery Pieces - 322
on the occupied territories of Azerbaijan which exceed the envisaged
for Azerbaijan maximum level for CFE TLE.
At the end of 1993 and beginning of 1994 T-72 battle tanks and ACVs
transferred to Armenia by Russian Federation were captured in the
1. BATTLE TANKS T-72
T02BT7975
X06AT3007
E04BT9276
E04BT9264
T02BT7979
E04BT9314
E03BT4785
T02BT7945
K03BT7524
E04BT9261
T02BT7963
E03BT4793
a04ag9250
o06sg3021
a04ag9257
g02ag7940
g02ag8000
a04ag9271
a04ag9317
a03ag4777
g02ag7938
g02ag7961
a04ag9273
ACV (BMP-1) ACV (BMP-2)
u10OO762
u01OO612
u01OO591
A08AO0663
A08AO0683
n01oT3596
X01oT7522
o11oT3236
n01oT6279
n11og3652
n12oT5806
E09oT4046
Arms supply by Russia to Armenia in 1998
On December 15-16, 1998, during a visit of Colonel-General A.Kornukov,
Russia's Air Force Comander-in-Chief, to Armenia there were agreements
reached in the field of Russian-Armenian Military Cooperation. In
- the concrete technical issues to strengthen Russian Military base
No.102. located in Armenia, and to establish within it a new
air-groups;
- further updating of air-defence system's work, including equipment by
using modern types of weapons, for example, S-300 surface-to-air
systems;
- permanent basing of Russian MiG-29 on the territory of Armenia.
Ten MiG-29 fighter aircrafts were delivered to Armenia in December 1998
and February 1999. At the same time, a anti-aircraft missile systems
S-300 were delivered to Armenia.
Approximate cost of MiG-29 in world weapon market is more than 10 mln.
US dollars.
+++++++++++++++++++++++++
http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_azerbaijan/the_war_in_azerbaijan.html
THE WAR
This site is dedicated to all those who lost their lives in the
massacres commited by Armenians in Anatolia and Azerbaijan
The latest conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan started in February
of 1988 and lasts already for more than a decade. In a short time this
conflict was aggravated and turned a real war. Azerbaijani Republic
plunged into the war when it still was a constituency of the Soviet
Union and keeps struggling as an independent state now. From the
viewpoint of International Law the conflict is the result of aggression
of neighboring Armenian Republic, who made timely preparations for the
war in military, political, economic, propagandist, ideological,
psychological and other spheres. And the command for aggression was the
actions of Armenian separatist groups in Karabakh, who declared
separation of this region from Azerbaijan. The tasks of Armenian
alteration of existing borders, occupation and subsequent annexation of
Karabakh and adjacent Azeri territories.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The first clashes between Armenians and Azeris took place in February
of 1988, when Armenian separatists demanded eviction of Azeris from
just the very Azeri villages and when leaders of Nagorno-Karabakh
Autonomous Oblast (NKAO) attempted to separate this province from
Azerbaijan and join Armenia. In a number of regions these clashes
turned into large-scale civil disorders, resulting by death of many
innocent Azeris. In late November of 1988 military detachments of
Armenian Republic conducted the first in this conflict and the forth in
the 20th century large-scale ethnic cleansing deporting over 200,000
Azeris (including women, children, the old) from the places of compact
living of Azeris in Armenia.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Incompetent actions of Moscow and the general crisis of USSR persuaded
the leaders of separatist movement in NKAO and nationalistic
organizations of Armenia in possibility and necessity to carry out the
plan of forceful separation of Karabakh from Azerbaijan. And the
ultimate goal was ousting the Azeri population from Karabakh, forming a
new ethnic situation, and subsequent annexation of Karabakh by Armenia.
Since 1988 all political activities of Armenia in all regional and
international levels were aimed to realization of these goals. After
Armenia actually escaped the control of Moscow, they managed to shift a
number of industrial plants to production of primitive models of
weapons. These arms and ammunition were secretly transferred to
Karabakh; secret military formations of Armenian Republic tried to
occupy other territories of Azerbaijan.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The aggressive policy of Armenian Republic resulted by occupation of
over 20% of Azerbaijani territory. 120,000 people perished, over
250,000 wounded, 4,000 POWs or missing without trace. Over 1,100,000
Azeris left their homes and became refugees. The material damage, made
by Armenian forces, is estimated for $60 billions. During the
aggression 10 towns (Khankendi, Shusha, Lachin, Kelbejar, Agdam,
Fizuli, Gubadli, Zangilan, Jabrayil, Agdere), 876 villages, 113,000
houses, 191 hospitals, 693 schools, 700 public building, 160 bridges
were destroyed; 5,446 children became orphans. 800 km of roads, 2,300
km of water pipelines was destroyed. Nevertheless this is the JUST WAR
for Azerbaijan.
By Ismayil Abdulazimov
+++++++++++++++++
http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_azerbaijan/khojaly_tragedy.html
KHOJALY TRAGEDY
Massacre of Khojaly
One of the most heinous crimes against the Azerbaijani people was
the massacre of hundreds of defenseless inhabitants of the town of
Khojaly, in the Nagorno Karabakh region of the Azerbaijan, which was
taken by armenian troops on the night of February 25-26, 1992 in what
was described by the Human Rights Watch as "the largest massacre to
date in the conflict".
Khojaly is an Azerbaijani town strategically located on the Agdam
- Shusha and Hankendi (Stepanakert) - Askeran roads in
Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan. The town' population was over
7,000 people.
The Armenian armed forces and mercenary units spared virtually none of
those who had been unable to flee Khojaly and the surrounding area. In
the words of the journalist Chingiz Mustafaev, among the dead were "...
dozens upon dozens of children between 2 and 15 years old, women and
old people, in most cases shot at point-blank range in the head. The
position of the bodies indicated that the people had been killed in
cold blood, calculatedly, without any sign of a struggle or of having
tried to escape.
Some had been taken aside and shot separately; many had been killed
as entire families at once. Some corpses displayed several wounds, one
of which was invariably in the head, suggesting that the wounded were
executed. Some children were found with severed ears; the skin had been
cut from the left side of an elderly woman's face; and men had been
scalped. There were corpses that had clearly been robbed. The first
time we arrived at the scene of the shootings of February 28,
accompanied by two military helicopters, we saw from the air an open
area about one kilometer across which was full with corpses almost
everywhere..."
***
An inhabitant of Khojaly, Djanan Orudjev, also provided information
on the many victims, mostly women and children. His 16-year-old son was
shot, and his 23-year-old daughter with her twin children and another
18-year-old daughter who was pregnant, were taken hostage. Sana
Talybova, who witnessed the tragedy as it unfolded, watched as four
Meskheti Turks, refugees from Central Asia, and three Azerbaijanis were
beheaded near the grave of an Armenian soldier; children were tortured
and killed in front of their parents; and two Azerbaijanis had their
eyes taken out with screwdrivers. The organized nature of the
extermination of the population of Khojaly was evident from the
killing, in previously prepared ambushes, of peaceful inhabitants who
fled the town in desperation to save their lives. For example, Elman
Mamedov, chief of administration in Khojaly, reported that a large
group of people who had left Khojaly came under intensive fire from
Armenian positions near the village of Nakhichevanik. Another resident
of Khojaly, Sanubar Alekperova, reported numbers of corpses of women,
children and old people near Nakhichevanik, where they fell into an
ambush. Her mother and her two daughters, Sevinzh and Khidzhran, were
killed and she herself was wounded. Faced with this mass shooting, some
of the group made for the village of Gyulably, but there Armenians took
some 200 people hostage. Among them was Dzhamil Mamedov; the Armenians
tore out his nails, beat him and took away his grandson. His wife and
daughter vanished without trace.
***
"I had heard a lot about wars, about the cruelly of the Fascists,
but the Armenians were worse, killing five and six-year-old children,
killing innocent civilians", said a French journalist, Jean-Yves Junet,
who visited the scene of this mass murder of women, old people,
children and defenders of Khojaly.
«Khojaly - The Last Day»,
Baku, Azrbaijan publishers, 1992.
***
The report of Memorial, a Moscow-based human rights group, on the
massive violations of human rights committed during the massacre of
Khojaly, says of the civilians flee in the town: "Efell into ambushes
set by the Armenians and came under fire. Some of them nonetheless
managed to gel into Agdam; others, mostly women and children, froze to
death while lost in the mountains; others still, according to testimony
from those who reached Agdam, were taken prisoner near the villages of
Pirdzhamal and Nakhichevanik. There is evidence from inhabitants of
Khojaly, who have already been exchanged, thai some of the prisoners
were shot ... Around 200 bodies were brought into Agdam in this space
of four days. Scores of the corpses bore traces of profanation. Doctors
on a hospital train in Agdam noted no less than Four corpses that had
been scalped and one that had been beheaded. State forensic
examinations were carried in Agdam on 181 corpses (130 male and 51
female, including 13 children); the findings were that 151 people had
died from gunshot wounds. 20 from shrapnel wounds and 10 from blows
inflicted with a blunt instrument... The records of the hospital train
in Agdam, through which almost all the injured inhabitants or defenders
of Khojaly passed, refer to 598 cases of wounds or frostbite E and one
case of live scalping." ("A tragedy whose perpetrators cannot be
vindicated. A report by Memorial, the Moscow-based human rights group,
on the massive violations of human rights committed in the taking of
Khojaly on the night of February 25-26, 1992 by armed units.)
«Svoboda» newspaper,
June 12, 1992.
***
The massacre of Khojaly set a pattern of destruction and ethnic
cleansing methodically carried out by the Armenian armed forces. On
November 29, 1993, Newsweek quoted a senior US Government official as
saying: "What we see now is a systematic destruction of every
village in their way. It's vandalism."
Every year religious leaders of Azerbaijan; Christian, Jewish and
Muslim communities issue appeals on the eve of commemoration of the
massacre of Khojaly. This year four leaders of Ashkenazi and Sephardic
Jewish communities, the Orthodox Bishop of Baku and Caspian region, and
the Spiritual Leader of Caucasus Muslims urged the international
community to condemn the February 26, 1992 bloodshed and facilitate
liberation of the occupied territories.
Religious leaders of Azerbaijan diverse communities stated their
rejection of extremism and policy of ethnic cleansing conducted by
Armenia. They see the future of Azerbaijan as beine a democratic
secular society based on humanistic values.
++++++++++++++++++++++
http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_azerbaijan/pictures_of_azerbaijan_massacre.html
m***@yahoo.com
2005-01-12 18:06:35 UTC
Permalink
Terrorist Armenians raped, tortured, massacred millions of innocent and
defenceless Turks, Jews, Kurds, Arabs and other non-Armenians in
Ottoman Eastern Anatolia during WWI (with direct and generous support
from their allies, the victors of WWI including Czarist Russia which
also created the mess in the Middle East, including the fake state of
Iraq, millions of people are suffering from now) to ethnically cleanse
the area for an Armenian homeland which never existed. The rest of the
Ottoman Armenian population either very blindly followed their
terrorist leaders (who were ".. craven and mean-spirited and exel in
nothing except drinking ..imperfect Christians" - Marco Polo), or
remained totally complacent.



http://www.armenianreality.com/armenian_terror/diary.htm


OFFICIAL DIARY OF THE SECOND RUSSIAN GARRISON ARTILLERY REGIMENT IN
ERZERUM

The Russian Army of the Caucasus evacuated the stations they had
previously
occupied towards the middle of December 1917, and, without having
received
orders from G.H.Q. or any of the Army Commanders, began their
withdrawal.
The Garrison Artillery Regiment brought up the rear of the Army. Of the
detachments from the Deve-Boinu fortresses and the Artillery Regiment
from
Erzerum only 4° officers remained behind. Deserted by their men, they
remained by the guns from a feeling of duty. In the fortresses were
more
than 400 guns, left behind for lack of means of transport. The
officers,
inspired by feelings of honor and duty, waited permission from G.H.Q.
to
leave the guns or for reinforcements to carry on the defense. With the
officers of the first Regiment the cadre of the second Artillery
Regiment
was formed.

After the withdrawal of the Russian Army an Armenian Revolutionary
Committee
was set up in Erzerum, calling itself " The Armenian Military Union."
At the
same time the Army Commander sent to the Second Garrison Artillery
Regiment
400 untrained Armenians, of whom the majority deserted and the
remainder
could only be used to guard the batteries of the fortresses.

Shortly before the withdrawal of the Army, when touch had been lost
between
Russia and the Trans-Caucasus, a provisional Government had been formed
in
Tiflis, which was called "The Trans-Caucasian Commission." This
Commission
announced that there was no intention of instituting an independent
Trans-Caucasian Government, as before Trans-Caucasia belonged
absolutely to
Russia, but until the restoration of order the Commission would
undertake to
represent the central administration.

On the 18th December, 1917, the Commission issued a proclamation that
in
place of the scattered Russian Army, a new Army would be raised on a
national basis, consisting of three Army Corps-one Russian, one
Georgian,
one Mohammedan-and some detachments of smaller nationalities, such as
Cherkesses, Ossets, etc. Only the artillery in the fortresses of
Erzerum and
Deve-Boinu retained their old character (i.e., comprised troops of
various
nationalities) until a decision should be arrived at as to the
nationality
of this unit, consisting of Russian officers and Armenian men. It was
clear
that this unit, whose cadres and leaders were in Russian hands, could
not be
claimed as Armenian. Moreover, we had received no orders with regard to
the
Armenian character of the formation, which was still regarded as
Russian,
being led by Russian officers who had actually served in the Russian
Army
and drew their pay from the Russian Treasury. The fact that the Army
possessed no Armenian, but only a Russian church, conducted by Russian
priests, was a further proof of the complete Muscovite character of the
unit.
Since the withdrawal of the Army, begun some two months before, order
could
not be re-established among the soldiers, who deserted, looted, and
threatened their officers, and were in a state of complete mutiny.
Colonel
Torkum, alleged to be an Armenian Bulgar, was appointed Commandant of
Erzerum.

Towards the middle of January 1918, some Armenians of the infantry
detachment murdered a Turkish notable of Erzerum in his dwelling and
looted
the house. Commander-in-Chief Odichelidze mustered all detachment
commanders
and summoned them to discover the perpetrator of this horrible crime
within
three days at most. He then turned to the Armenian officers and told
them
that the honor of the Armenian nation was at stake in this matter; it
was
therefore their duty to leave no stone unturned to discover the guilty
person if they were to clear their reputation in the eyes of the world.

" If these outrages of which the Armenians are guilty do not cease, I
shall
find myself compelled to distribute arms to the Mohammedan population
so
that they can defend their lives and property," he added. To these
accusations Colonel Torkum retorted in an injured tone that it was
unjust to
lay the crimes of a few individuals at the door of a whole nation. The
detachment commanders proposed the setting up of a court martial, which
by
military law could punish murder with death. Odichelidze replied that
he had
already taken the necessary measures.

Colonel Torkum, if I am not mistaken, organized on 25th January a
review of
the troops and had twenty-one guns fired to impress the population with
his
military power. On this occasion he made a speech in Armenian. In this
speech, which is directed against General Odichelidze, he asserted
Armenian
independence, and mentioned that he was taking over the reins of
authority
as head of the new State. After hearing this grotesque statement the
General
had the new head of the State, Colonel Torkum, removed from Erzerum.

This measure was sufficient to show that the Russian Government
intended to
prevent at all costs the founding of an independent Armenian State. I
have
learnt that the Russian General Staff has reminded the Armenians
repeatedly
that all arms, ammunition, and other war stores, partly from the depots
at
Erzerum, partly from other depots, had only been handed over to them
provision- ally because no other troops were available. These arms,
therefore, were only loaned to the Armenian and had to be handed back
at any
time on request.

In these days the Armenians were perpetrating indescribably cruel
murders
among the poor Turkish inhabitants of the neighborhood of Erzindjan;
the
Turks were unarmed and without any means of self-defense. On hearing
that
the Turkish troops were approaching, the Armenians, committing fresh
crimes,
fled in the direction of Erzerum.

According to the reports of the Commander-in-Chief, confirmed by
officers
who were actually present at the scene of the crime, the Armenians slew
more
than 800 Turks in Erzindjan, and so avenged one of their miserable
accomplices who had been killed by a Turk in justified self-defense.
Furthermore, the Armenians massacred the unhappy Mohammedan population
of
Ilidja, in the neighborhood of Erzerum, without sparing the women and
children.

On February 7th the following incident came to my notice: I ascertained
that
the Militia and the Armenian soldiers of the town were carrying off
some
hundreds of Mohammedans to an unknown destination. When I inquired into
the
reasons for this, I received the answer that these men were being
recruited
to clear the railway of snow. I expressed myself satisfied with this
explanation.

The following story will prove how unsatisfactory it was:

About three o'clock 2nd Lieutenant Lipsky, an officer of my regiment,
reported to me over the telephone that some Armenian soldiers had
attacked
five Turks in the streets; they had driven them into a corner of the
barrack
yard, beaten them mercilessly, and would certainly kill them. The
intervention of the Russian officer in favor of the unfortunate men was
met
with threats, where-upon an Armenian officer, who was also present at
the
scene, took the part of the bandits and joined in preventing Lipsky
from
intervening. On hearing this I hurried, accompanied by three officers,
to
the scene of the outrage. On the way I met the officer who had
telephoned to
me and the Mayor of Erzerum, Stawrosky, looking for one of their
Turkish
friends who had been captured by the Armenians. Lipsky told me that the
soldiers were holding the entrance to the barracks by force of arms. I
went
on my way. As I came near the barracks I saw twelve Turks leaving; they
were
running away, obviously panic-stricken. I stopped one of them, but, as
I did
not understand his speech, it was impossible to know what he said.
Finally,
with great difficulty, I entered the barracks. I immediately inquired
about
the Turks who had been captured in the street. The soldiers affirmed
that
there was no civilian of the town in the barracks. I began a personal
search
of every nook and corner of the barracks, and finally discovered in the
bathroom seventy Mohammedans, victims of the most ghastly horrors. I
immediately instituted an inquiry and had six Armenians who were
responsible
for this crime arrested. I also learned in the course of the inquiry
that an
Armenian, whose identity I could not establish, had shot an unfortunate
Mohammedan who had shown himself on the roof of a house near the
barracks.

Naturally I at once set at liberty the unfortunate victim of this
horrible
outrage. The minutes of this inquiry, together with my own records,
including the list of the Mohammedans whom I had succeeded in rescuing,
were
lost during the reoccupation of Erzerum by the Ottoman troops on
February
27th. But the incident can be confirmed by questioning the Turks, who,
whenever we meet, are profuse in their gratitude. In addition, Ali Bey
Pepeoff, the Secretary of Mayor Stawrosky, who drew up the list and the
protocol, would certainly recognize the parties concerned.

The inquiry revealed that Karaguedoff, an Armenian cadet of the
artillery
regiment, was the instigator of the outrage. In the course of ruthless
house-searchings in Turkish homes, which he had conducted in the
company of
Armenian soldiers accustomed to such methods, he had appropriated
furniture
and other domestic property. Karaguedoff was arrested, together with
other
Armenian soldiers. The incidents were reported the same evening to the
Commander-in-Chief in the presence of Government Commissioner Zetaloff
and
his assistant. On the same day the Armenians murdered other Turks and
set
fire to the Turkish bazaar. It was generally known that during these
days
several murders were committed in Erzerum and its neighborhood. I
personally
arrested an Armenian who had killed Turks in the neighborhood of Tafta
and
handed him over to the Commandant. It was said in the town that the
Turk who
had been told off to work in the fields never returned from their work,
and
that nothing could be learnt as to their whereabouts. The magistrates
reported the disappearance of these men to the Commander-in-Chief.


In a report which we handed to the Commander-in-Chief on the occasion
of an
officers' conference we requested his permission to leave the fortress
of
Erzerum in view of our complete uselessness and the impossibility of
preventing the Armenian crimes. We were afraid of besmirching our
reputation. Odischelidze told us of the arrival of a wireless message
which
he had received from General Wehib Pasha, in command of the Ottoman
troops.
The General informed him that his troops had received orders to
garrison
Erzindjan and to advance until they had established touch with the
Russian
troops. Wehib Pasha further remarked that this was the only means of
paving
the way for the suppression of the barbarous cruelties practiced by the
Armenians upon the Turkish population.

After this the Trans-Caucasian Commission made offers of peace to the
Ottoman Government. In the telegram of reply the Commandant of the
Ottoman
troops expressed his readiness to accept the proposal, and added that
he had
communicated the proposal of the Trans-Caucasian Commission to his
Government, recommending its acceptance. In accordance with a petition
from
us, General Odichelidze got into communication with Gueguetschkoni, the
President of the Trans-Caucasian Commission, and General Lebedinsky,
the
Commander-in-Chief.


The reply contained the announcement that an ultimatum had been
dispatched
to the Armenian National Assembly, demanding the immediate cessation of
all
Armenian atrocities in order to put an end finally to these lamentable
occurrences, and that Dr. Zavrieff and Andranik had been sent as
delegates
to Erzerum. As to the request of the officers, the advice of the
Commissaries was that they should remain at their posts until the
expected
answer to the peace overtures had been received from the Ottoman
Government.
The Council expressed their thanks to the officers for the service they
had
rendered, and declared that if Russia were faced with any fresh danger
they
were sure that the officers would be found at their posts to the last
minute.

The Commander-in-Chief of the Army also issued an order of the day in
which
he recommended officers not to leave their posts, adding that to shield
their honor and protect their lives he would enforce the most stringent
measures against the Armenian criminals. On these conditions we
remained at
Erzerum with the sole object of safeguarding the interests of Russia,
and
under the sole command of the Commander-in-Chief. We learned that the
Ottoman Government had received the proposal of the Trans-Caucasian
Commission with favor and replied to this effect, and that peace
negotiations would be opened on February 17th in Trebizond.

Our Army Commander informed all officers that there was no intention of
stirring up enmity against the Ottoman troops in Erzerum and the
neighborhood and that accordingly they were to remain in Erzerum until
the
conclusion of peace, when arms and other war material, according to the
peace conditions, would cither be transported to Russia or handed over
finally to the Ottoman Government. In case of any attempt on the part
of the
Ottoman troops to occupy Erzerum before the signing of peace, all guns
were
to be put out of action and the troops and officers withdrawn to
Russia,
definite orders for which would be promulgated at least seven days in
advance.

The necessity for defending ourselves against the attacks of the Kurds
until
the final decision as to our remaining grew more and more obvious, for
during the Armistice the Ottoman Government had declared that the Kurds
were
subject to no orders and would act on their own initiative. The Army
Commander had, therefore, decided as early as the end of January to
strengthen the Erzerum-Erzindjan line-of-communication by an
appropriate
number of guns to keep off the attacks of the Kurds, who were trying to
loot
our line-of-communication depots. An officer and two guns were ordered
to
each strategic point. On the withdrawal of the Armenians from Erzindjan
and
Erzerum the guns were withdrawn with them. On February 10th two guns
were
placed in all the positions from Buyuk-Kiremidli along the road from
Trebizond as far as Erep-Michan, as at all other important strategic
points
of the town, with the same object in view. In view of the probability
of a
Kurdish attack from the direction of Palan-Dongno, guns were to be
placed
also between the Kars and Charput gates. These guns, which were only to
be
used against a possible attack by the Kurds, and were scarcely adequate
for
this object, would have been useless against a regular army with
artillery:
a few shots would suffice to put them out of action. Towards the middle
of
February the sights of the guns in the outlying positions were
collected and
delivered to the central depot; the same measure was now to be carried
out
also in the case of the guns in the nearer positions. This order was
also
given for the guns in Palan-Dongno, but was never carried out. Only the
guns, which remained in the positions to be used against the Kurds,
retained
their sights. However, no immediate offensive on the part of the
Ottoman
troops was expected, as the Turks were regarded as demoralized and not
in a
position to undertake any movements before the summer. On February 12th
some
Armenian bandits, armed to the teeth, had openly shot ten or twelve
Turks in
the neighborhood of the station. Two Russian officers, infuriated by
these
impudent outrages, had tried to interfere, but had been compelled to
give
way before armed threats and to leave the victims to their fate.

On February 13th the Commander-in-Chief proclaimed a state of siege and
convened a court martial, which was to enforce the death penalty
according
to the old regulations. Colonel Morel was appointed Commandant of the
fortress of Erzerum, and an Armenian as president of the court martial.
On
the same day the Commander-in-Chief and General Gerassimoff left the
town;
they wished to fix a rendezvous in case the artillery had to withdraw.
I
remained in Erzerum in command of the Garrison Artillery. Colonel
Morel's
staff consisted exclusively of Russian officers, and the Adjutant of
the
regiment was Staff-Captain Schnauer.

After the departure of the Commander-in-Chief, Colonel Morel at once
changed
his attitude. He declared that Erzerum was to be defended to the last
moment, and forbade all officers and inhabitants capable of bearing
arms to
leave the town. When I submitted to the court martial the wishes of
some of
the officers to avail themselves of this permission, one member, an
Armenian
named Sokhonnyan, replied brutally that he would himself cut down all
who
showed any intention of quitting the town, and would have any man who
should
dare to attempt flight seized by the Armenian forces in Kopri-Koj and
Hassan-Kale, and taken before the court martial unless they were
provided
with permits. These permits, however, were issued solely by him. I
realized
that we were in a trap, escape from which would be extremely difficult,
and
that the court martial and the state of siege were directed less
against the
bandits than against the Russian officers.

The outrages continued in the town, and the unhappy Turkish population,
unarmed and defenceless, was continually attacked by the Armenians.
Their
only refuge was the Russian officers, who, however, could only offer
them
very limited protection. A few officers under my command had been
obliged to
use force to save the lives of a couple of Turks who were being robbed
in
the street. A military engineer, Karaieff, shot down with his rifle an
Armenian who was taking to his heels after robbing a Turk in the street
in
the middle of the day. The promise to punish the bandits who murdered
peaceful, unarmed Mohammedans remained, as usual, a dead letter.
From fear of Armenian revenge, the court martial did not dare to
sentence
one single Armenian, in spite of the fact that it had been set up
chiefly at
Armenian request. The Turks, moreover, had prophesied that a court
martial
of Armenians would not condemn a single one of their compatriots. We
could
now see the truth of the proverb that the wolves do not prey on one
another.
All fit Armenians immediately escaped with their wives on the pretext
of
being obliged to protect them.

I learned that a non-commissioned officer, Karaguedoff, had been freed
from
prison without my permission. I made inquiries of Colonel Morel as to
the
reason for this, and was told in reply that Karaguedoff's innocence had
been
established at a new inquiry. In spite of the fact that two of my
officers
and I bad been the principal witnesses on this occasion, neither of us
had
been summoned to this very extraordinary inquiry. I expressed my
dissatisfaction with the reply received from Colonel Morel, reported
the
matter again, and handed over the minutes to Colonel Alexandroff. The
murderer I had captured in Tafta likewise went unpunished.

Colonel Morel feared a mutiny of the Turkish troops in Erzerum. On
February
I7th Andranik arrived in Erzerum, accompanied by Dr. Zavrieff,
Assistant
Commissioner for the occupied area. As we had not been instructed on
Armenian questions, we did not know that Andranik was one of the
criminals
condemned to death by the Ottoman Government. I first learned these
details
on March 7th, in a conversation with the Turkish Army Commander.
Andranik
appeared in the uniform of a Russian brigadier-general. He was wearing
the
Order of Vladimir, Fourth Class, and the Cross of St. George, Second
Class,
as well as the Military Cross of St. George, Second Class. He was
accompanied by his Chief-of-Staff, the Russian colonel, Zinkewitsch. In
the
evening before his arrival Colonel Morel informed us that, according to
a
telegram received from Andranik at Kopri-Koj, machine-guns were to be
employed to shoot down all cowards who attempted to escape from
Erzerum.
Immediately after his arrival Andranik took over the command of the
fortress; Colonel Morel was subordinate to him, and we to Morel.

On the day of Andranik's arrival the whole of the inhabitants of
Tepe-Koj,
which belonged to my command, were massacred-men, women, and children.
The
officer on duty in this section communicated the tragic news to me, and
I
immediately reported it to Andranik in our first conversation. In my
presence he gave orders for twenty horsemen to be dispatched to
Tepe-Koj to

bring back at least one of the criminals. Up to the present day I have
never
heard the result of this step.

Colonel Torkum turned up again in the town, and at the same time the
Armenian artillery colonel, Dolukhanoff, made his reappearance in
Erzerum.
His first announcement was that he, an Inspector of Artillery, would
henceforward rank as my superior officer. I replied that I held the
rank of
a Divisional Commander and did not require a superior officer;
otherwise, I
added, I should leave the service. It was thereupon announced that
Colonel
Dolukhanoff would carry on the administrative work of the Garrison
Artillery, and that consequently his instructions to me would not be
issued
under his own name, but, as before, under that of Andranik. One day the
Armenian lieutenant, Djanbuladion, who commanded the artillery
battalion
under my orders, also made an attempt to interfere with my affairs.
When I
directed that all guns, searchlights, and dynamos were to be
transported
towards the rear, he replied that he would not allow any withdrawal of
material, as the Armenians intended to take all the administrative
posts in
the command into their own hands, and might only use the Russian
officers as
executives; they also wished to use them, without their realizing it,
in
establishing Armenian independence. Had the Russian officers grasped
the
purpose they were intended to serve the majority of them would have
resigned, and the Armenians would have been left with an inadequate
number
of officers. The following statements of Captain Peliat, temporary O.C.
of
the 7th Battalion of Caucasian Mountain Artillery, show how gravely the
Armenians feared the resignation of the artillery officers. When the
Armenians learned that the 7th Battalion Mountain Artillery were
holding
themselves in readiness to withdraw to San Kamisch on February 7th,
they
seized the commanding officer on the 5th of that month; and although at
the
orders of the Army H.Q. they were obliged to set him at liberty, they
repeated the attempt three times.

The Armenians of Erzerum threatened H.Q. to drown the town in blood if
the
guns were withdrawn. The Army Commander was consequently forced to
cancel
the order for the withdrawal of the artillery. An attempt had to be
made to
come to an understanding with the officer commanding the 7th artillery
Battalion. We agreed secretly that, in case the Armenians should
attempt to
force the hands of the Russian artillery officers and officially
propose
that they should ally themselves with the Armenian cause, we would help
one
another mutually. We possessed considerable war material, guns,
machine-guns, and officers. The officers of the Mountain Artillery
tried to
find billets as near as possible to one another in the town, and we of
the
Garrison Artillery collected as far as possible in the Turkish quarter,
where our headquarters had been situated since the occupation of the
town.

Since Andranik's arrival at Colonel Morel's side the fears of a rising
of
the inhabitants of Erzerum had greatly increased. The Colonel ordered
that
an efficient Russian officer should be put in command of Fort Medjedie
to
direct the bombardment in the event of a rising, which might follow the
arrest of the instigator of the unrest. We all received the order to
leave
the Turkish quarter and transfer ourselves to the Armenian quarter. As
we
had lived in this quarter for two years, and were always in sympathy
with
the Mohammedan population, we thought this suggestion, to say the least
of
it, remarkable.

The Russian artillery officers unanimously declared that they had
remained
in the service to fight a worthy foe, and would never agree to fire on
women
and children, for it was quite clear that the Armenians would use a
threatened Turkish rising as a pretext to open a bombardment of the
Turkish
quarter. As to the transfer to the Armenian quarter, it was
impracticable
for three reasons: Firstly, it was impossible to effect the removal in
the
time given; secondly, the withdrawal of the Russian officers from the
Mohammedan quarter would of course, be followed by a fresh massacre;
and
thirdly, in view of the strained relations that had existed for some
time
between them and the Armenians, it would have been risky for the
Russian
officers to venture into their midst.

The officers of the Mountain Artillery Battalion who did not belong to
the
cadre of the Garrison Artillery also rejected the proposal. Finally the
Armenians, who were left with no choice but to do their own dirty work,
began to arrest some alleged agitators.

As Colonel Morel's proposal to bombard the town was very significant, I
considered it necessary to call together all the officers under my
command.
We met twice in the course of three days. The first meeting was
attended by
all artillery officers in Erzerum, as well as by two English officers
who
had arrived a few days before; also by Colonels Morel. Zinkewitsch,
Dolukhanoff and Torkum, Andranik and Dr. Zavrieff. Our object in
inviting
the English officers was to let them see the relations existing between
the
Russian officers and the Armenian Command. It would also give them an
opportunity of finding out what resources the Russians had at their
disposal
to prevent Armenian atrocities, so that on their return they might
support
their observations by tangible proofs. As I had no telephonic or
telegraphic
connections under my personal control, I was convinced that telegrams
sent
by me would never reach their destination. I therefore seized the
opportunity of this meeting to describe in the greatest detail all that
I
had myself observed and heard from reliable sources as to the
atrocities and
horrors perpetrated by the Armenians. I described to my hearers the
degree
of insubordination that prevailed among the Armenian troops, and cited
examples I had heard from the lips of General Odischlidze himself. I
concluded with the words: " We Russian officers who have remained in
Erzerum
have not done so with the object of placing our uniforms at the service
of
the Armenians as a cloak to conceal their ghastly crimes, but simply
and
solely in obedience to our superiors and to protect Russia. Unless the
Armenian atrocities are suspended during our stay in Erzerum," I added,
"
every Russian officer will insist on leaving the town and resigning his
post." Some other officers, speaking after me, emphatically confirmed
what I
had said.

In his reply Andranik intimated that the Armenians would be eternally
grateful to Russia, that the Armenians formed an integral part of the
population of Greater Russia, and that they had no other end in view
than
that of serving Russian interests. As to the so-called massacres
committed
by the Armenians, they were the result of the enmity existing between
Armenians and Turks. He added that the principal object of his mission
in
Erzerum was to put down such crimes, and, should he fail to bring the
Armenians to reason, he would be the first to leave the town. The
business
of the meeting was carried on through the medium of an interpreter.
Questioned as to his views on allowing officers who wished to do so to
leave
the town, Andranik replied that he considered it desirable that all
those
who were not too confident of their own courage should leave the town,
and
he would himself assist their departure as far as possible. Colonel
Zinkewitsch declared before the whole meeting that, once convinced that
the
continued presence of the Russian officers in Erzerum would serve the
interests of Russia, he would remain solely for that reason. In the end
all
officers decided to remain ten days longer and to regulate their
conduct by
the future course of events, according as these might confirm or refute
Andranik's pledges.

The meeting had been held on February 20th or 21st. Shortly afterwards
Colonel Dolukhanoff expressed to me and other Russian officers his
astonishment at the contempt and even horror with which the Russian
officers
regarded the Armenians. On the next day Andranik proclaimed, on large
wall-posters written in Turkish, that any man who killed either
Armenians or
Mohammedans would be arrested and punished by death; further, that the
Turks
might resume their occupations without fear, and that, in the event of
anyone of the Mohammedans engaged in labor in the fields failing to
return
from his work, he would hold the entire detachment in charge of the
supervision of the work responsible. As I was riding through the
streets the
following day, accompanied by the Armenian captain, Djanbuladian, we
noticed
many people reading the posters. Djanhuladian assured them in Turkish
that
provided the Mohammedan population refrained from revolt, they would
have
nothing to fear from the Armenians. The reply was that for two years
the
Mohammedans had committed no crimes, and that there was no intention of
doing so in the future; all they asked was that the Mohammedans, who
were
unarmed and without any means of defense, should not be killed, without
reason. I asked the captain to tell the people that I was the Russian
artillery commander, and to state that I and my Russian comrades were
sympathetic towards the Mohammedan population, and would continue, as
before, to look after these poor people, Some of the Turks present, two
or
three especially, confirmed my words, saying that I had with my own
hand
saved their lives during the massacre of February 7th. Djanbuladian,
who
acted as interpreter, was himself a member of the Armenian Committee.

At the second meeting Russian officers were present, the only foreigner
admitted being Dr. Zavrieff. The following points were discussed: That
an
attempt should be made to define clearly the status of the 2nd Garrison
Artillery Regiment of Erzerum, in the sense that this regiment was not,
as
the Armenians imagined, an Armenian artillery regiment, but a Russian
regiment; not one of its officers had voluntarily enlisted in Armenian
service, not one of us had made any agreement to do so. If the regiment
was
Russian we insisted on preserving Russian status; if Armenian, we
desired
the right to leave the town at will in order to serve with the Russian
Army.
The state of siege had only served to prevent the departure of those
officers who wished to leave in order to serve on another than the
Caucasus
front. If, on the other hand, the current rumor materialized and the
Trans-Caucasus had split off from Russia, it would certainly be
necessary to
grant leave of absence to the Russian officers if we were not to find
ourselves strangers in a foreign land.

After prolonged discussion we reached the conviction that, according to
the
circular we had received, every officer had the right to apply for
transfer
to a Russian Army Corps or to be placed at the disposal of the War
Ministry.
I therefore consented to forward all such applications to the proper
authorities.
During the meeting the experience of Lieutenant Yermoloff, of the 7th
Battalion Caucasus Mountain Artillery, was brought up as a striking
example.
He had asked to be transferred from the new Armenian battalion to which
he
had been assigned. Colonel Morel had first tried to dissuade him, then,
in
face of this officer's fixed determination, he had added to the written
form
of application that the officer in question had shown himself
incompetent
for his duties, that he would therefore be placed at the disposal of
the
General Staff of the Front, and would receive orders to leave Erzerum
within
twenty-four hours. Thus was the honor of an efficient officer attacked,
for
the sole reason that he refused to serve Armenian interests and had
been
indiscreet enough to declare that Colonel Morel had allied himself to
the
Armenian cause.

Dr. Zavrieff repeated word for word Andranik's statement given above.
He
said that by remaining in Erzerum until the conclusion of peace we
should be
serving Russian interests. Officers belonging to a civilized nation had
no
right to adopt such a line of reasoning as, for example: "Let the
Armenians
and Turks settle their own quarrel! Let them cut each other's throats!
Why
should we Russians interfere with their affairs? Let them go to the
devil!"

At the conclusion of his speech, which had not made the desired
impression,
Dr. Zavrieff said that if we wished to serve humanity it was our duty
to
remain in Erzerum to prevent butchery of the Turks.
Andranik's promises were not fulfilled, nor had the Mohammedan
population
ever placed any faith in them. Shops remained closed and terror
continued to
reign. Not a living soul showed himself in the Mohammedan quarters.
Only a
few shops in the neighbourhood of the Town Hall opened their shutters,
and
there a few Mohammedans collected during the day.

Not a single Armenian was punished. To keep up the pretence of Armenian
innocence the question was asked whether the innocent were to be
punished
for the sake of Andranik's promise. But when the Russian officers
replied
that they had themselves handed over various Armenian offenders and
accused
them before the authorities, this irrefutable argument was received in
silence. Murder still went on and was merely concealed. It was
practiced in
the more remote villages, no longer before the eyes of the Russian
officers.
The Turkish inhabitants of the villages round Erzerum disappeared, and
nothing was heard as to their fate.

Arrests in the town increased in number on the excuse of a possible
rising.
To my ironical question, what happened to the prisoners, and whether
they
all ran the risk of being slaughtered, Colonel Morel replied that some
would
be taken to Tiflis under adequate escort, others would be kept in
Erzerum as
hostages. In the streets Armenian bands, formed of Armenian deserters,
murdered the passers-by--partly from fear, partly to rob them of their
possessions; in any case, robbery was the chief motive. Before
Andranik's
arrival the companies refused to go into the front line. Afterwards
they
obeyed the order, but only to desert in the most craven fashion.
Andranik,
on horse-back, tried to drive them back with his sword and fists. To
have
him at their head was the dearest wish of all Armenians of the Russian
artillery. They were apparently incapable of grasping that the Garrison
Artillery required the services of trained artillerymen and an adequate
number of infantry. But it was easy to guess their secret thought: when
the
moment came for withdrawal, to escape under cover of the guns.
Subsequent
events have proved the truth of this.

The opening of peace negotiations at Trebizond was delayed. We learned
through the General Staff at Erzerum that the negotiations fixed for
February 17th had been postponed until the 20th or 25th. As my Staff
was
separated in opposite ends of the town, and the telephonic
communication was
in an inefficient state, I was compelled to make the journey twice a
day.

According to information I received from Colonel Morel and his Staff in
the
course of an official visit, there were no regular Ottoman troops in
the
neighborhood of Erzerum; we were fighting Kurdish bands and villagers,
together with a few regulars, relics of the Turkish Army of 1916. It
was
understood that these bands bad been raised by some Ottoman officers
who had
come to the neighborhood to protect the population. These troops had
only
two mountain guns, which had been left in Erzindjan by the Armenians.
They
could advance by the Erzindjan-Olti- Jeni road, or from the other side
from
Kars and Palan-Dogno. Colonel Morel, on what grounds I do not know,
assumed
that the attack would be made from Olti. The intelligence service was
conducted by the Armenians most inefficiently. They were chiefly
occupied in
murder in the villages and driving off any herds of cattle they came
across.
Their reports were lies from beginning to end. If they reported that
the
patrol had been attacked by an enemy force of 2,000 men, one could be
sure
that there had actually been 200 at most. They were not ashamed to
admit
having fled before an attack by 300-400 men, in which their sole loss
was
one killed and one wounded. One day an Armenian officer reported over
the
telephone that his detachment had been attacked by 400 of the enemy; it
transpired that two unarmed men had emerged from a neighboring village
and
immediately withdrawn into their houses. From the evacuation of Erzerum
until the Turkish occupation the Armenian Scout patrols only once
succeeded
in making a capture -a single Turkish horseman. He was probably
suffering
from frozen feet or was prevented by some other reason from escaping.

After our second officers' meeting some officers had applied for
transfer to
other posts. When these applications were submitted to Colonel Morel he
was
very angry, and said that he would refuse to permit their departure on
the
grounds of a court martial decision. When I pointed out that the guns
were
still in the hands of the Russian officers, who could reply to such
unjustified severity with artillery fire, and, moreover, that as the
applications were absolutely legal and could not be stigmatized as an
attempt at desertion, it was necessary to comply, he retorted that, if
the
officers insisted, he would give them, as he had done in the case of
Captain
Yermaloff, papers which would compromise their records. I replied to
Colonel
Morel that, as Colonel Dolukhanoff had justly declared in Tiflis and
Batum,
officers who were forced to remain at their posts against their will
could
not be expected to give good service. He replied that for this reason
he had
asked for sixty English officers to be sent to Erzerum, and had already
received formal consent. On this occasion I also heard of another
incident:
a Russian or Polish soldier who was acting as stationmaster in Erzerum
had
refused to continue his duties. He had been at once arrested and forced
to
carry on. Under the pretext of facilitating a more rapid circulation of
orders I ordered my officers to billet themselves as near to one
another as
possible; in reality my object was that we might be in a better
position to
help one another in case of need.

Captain Yermoloff had departed on February 25th. I had asked him to
break
his journey at Sari-Kamieko to inform Generals Wischinsky and
Gerassimoff,
artillery commanders. of the serious position in which we were placed
in
relation to the Armenians, and to urge him to free us as quickly as
possible
from this cul-de-sac.

On February 24th I sighted a Turkish aeroplane reconnoitering, and
concluded
that the enemy was at Erzindjan or even Mama-Khatum. The same day
Colonel
Morel informed me that he had received the Turkish proposal regarding
the
evacuation of Erzerum. After the Turkish occupation I learned from
Corps
Commander Krazim Bey that this proposal had not been a worthless scrap
of
paper, but an official document bearing his own signature, whereas
Colonel
Morel had deliberately led me to believe that this official ultimatum,
signed by the Officer Commanding the Army Corps, was mere bluff. The
General
Staff of the fortress announced on February 24th and 25th that no
danger was
imminent. Only a band of Kurds had been seen in the neighbourhood of
Teke-Deressi, and their advance had been checked by a detachment sent
out
against them. It was also stated that a detachment sent out from
Erzerum had
thrown back the enemy a few kilometers beyond Ilidja. Meanwhile we
heard
that on February 26th the Armenian detachment at Teke-Deressi had been
attacked, and that those who had been able to escape had fled like the
wind
to Erzerum; the Ilidja detachment, completely broken up, was also
running
away in the same direction.

I had received from Colonel Morel verbal orders to open artillery fire
on
the attacking enemy, but I could see no target. On the Charput road
only
fleeing Armenian soldiers were visible, and on the Trebizond road
Armenian
detachments retreating on Erzerum in close formation, as if on the
parade
ground. In the course of the afternoon it became known, also, that an
enemy
detachment was halted close to Guoz-Koj. I estimated it at 1,500 men;
it did
not look like Kurdish bands, but a properly led regiment.

Andranik attempted to muster the fugitives and send them against the
enemy,
but these cowards took to their heels as soon as they came into touch
with
the foe. The artillery fire, however, was maintained until midnight.
Immediately the Kurd offensive was opened and we had got to work, no
more
was heard of departure from the Russian officers, who carried out their
assigned duties honorably.

I could not induce the Armenian infantry attached to my batteries at
Buyuk-
Kiremidli to attack; instead they deserted the batteries and withdrew
persistently towards the Charput gate. The Armenians who had fled at
Teke-Deressi even carried off in their flight the herds of cattle and
slew
the defenseless isolated peasants they encountered on their way. The
Turkish
advance on Erzerum came as a complete surprise to the Russian General
Staff;
no battle orders had been issued, or, if they had, I, at any rate, had
heard
nothing of them. My task was very simple: it consisted of keeping the
enemy
under fire to prevent him from piercing the belt of forts, which
surrounded
the town. In the advanced positions were also infantry and mountain
artillery, which were not under my command.

On the same day the Armenian militia busied themselves in the town
until
evening in seizing all male Mohammedans, including old men and sick.
When
questioned as to the object of these measures, the reply was that men
were
being collected to clear the railway of snow. In the evening I learned
that
an Armenian student, with his band, had forced an entry into my house,
in
spite of my name on the door, on the excuse of searching it. As my wife
resisted this deliberate intrusion he did not succeed in his attempt,
and
was also prevented from carrying off the owner of the house, an old
Turk,
together with some Kurdish servants; he cursed roundly at this
thwarting of
his plan. The student declared that the searchings were being carried
out at
the order of Andranik. I at once had a communication door cut so that
the
old man could take refuge with us in case they came a second time to
fetch
him.

I had recently been in the habit, each time I visited Andranik and his
Staff, of taking with me Captain Yulkewitsch, the chief of the
Mobilization
Department, as a witness of my relations with these men. One evening he
accompanied me to an officers' meeting. When we entered the meeting had
already begun. Those present were Andranik, Dr. Zavrieff, Colonels
Zinkewitsch and Dolukhanoff, and a few others. On my arrival
Zinkewitsch
began to read aloud the following telegram from the Commander-in-Chief,
General Odichelidze: " I have received a wireless message from Wehib
Pasha,
commanding the Ottoman forces, in which he states that his troops have
orders to occupy Erzerum. Destroy the guns of the fortress and withdraw
with
the troops. (Sgd.) Odichelidze."

This belated order left us no time to destroy the guns. After Andranik
had
given vent to his fury, he announced his decision to hold Erzerum two
days
longer, to enable the destruction to be carried out, and then to
evacuate
the fortress. When Dr. Zavrieff pointed out that nothing was being done
to
suppress the firebrands who infested the town, and that the Mohammedan
aged
and sick had been seized and dispatched to an unknown destination, he
replied that orders had already been given to put down this disorder.
But,
as with all the others, these fine promises were never carried out.

After discussing the best way of carrying out Andranik's decision we
withdrew. As to the question of holding Erzerum for two more days,
considering the strength of the troops and of the advanced position,
the
town could have held out for another forty-two days, not only against
the
Kurds, but even against a regular army.

As Ottoman H.Q. had officially stated in the course of the armistice
negotiations that they could not be responsible for keeping the Kurds
in
order, it was our duty to take all necessary measures against a
possible
attack from them.

When I returned to my Headquarters I gave the necessary orders for the
destruction of the guns, which in any case could have been rendered
useless
within two days. I learned from the reports of my officers that the
infantry, under cover of darkness, had deserted the trenches and taken
to
flight. I communicated this news to Colonel Morel, who assured me that
it
would give rise to no danger at all, as reinforcements had been sent
up. I
returned home and went to bed about one o'clock.

Between one and three I heard isolated shots in the town, and soon
after I
could hear the voices of Armenians, the sound of doors being smashed in
with
axes, and the despairing cries of the poor unhappy Mohammedans, who had
been
attacked. Two thoughts gave me anxiety: In the first place, our honor
was
threatened, for anyone who had not witnessed personally the cowardly
cruelty
of the Armenians (fighting for freedom!) might assume that these
inhuman
brutalities were being perpetrated with the connivance of the Russian
officers, and we should have to share the blame with these wild beasts;
in
the second place, as it was not in accordance with the views of G.H.Q.
to
engage the regular Turkish forces, the result might be that the orders
of
the Commander-in-Chief would not be obeyed if a misunderstanding should
arise among the attackers. With regard to these two points I came to
the
following decision: To call on Colonel Morel first thing in the morning
and
suggest to him--first, that the Armenians must be prevented from
perpetrating fresh outrages, even if the only method of doing so were
to
turn part of our guns upon them and so control them to heed our orders;
secondly, envoys should be at once sent with a flag of truce to the
Turkish
troops to inform them that in two days the town would be ceded without
bloodshed. Moreover, it would be necessary to raise detachments,
excluding
Armenians, in order to suppress the disturbances by force of arms and
prevent the butchery of the Turks by the Armenians.

When, in the early morning, I went to see Colonel Morel, accompanied by
Captain Yulkewitsch, I met, near the artillery munition dump, the
Armenian
second lieutenant, Bagratonian, who was on duty at this depot. He told
me
that when the order came to withdraw he would like to blow up the dump,
but
would wait for orders from me. This statement astounded me, for the
ammunition depot was under the command of Colonel Dolukhanoff, and no
orders
had been received to blow it up. I gave him to understand that such an
explosion might cause injury to the Russian officers as well as to the
civilian population, advised him to abandon his project, and finally
succeeded in convincing him. In this way I saved the ammunition.

As I approached Colonel Morel's quarters I saw that everyone was taking
flight. The house of the American Consul, which stands opposite his
quarters, was in flames. Colonel Morel and Colonel Torkum were mounted
and
ready for flight; their baggage had been loaded on to a motorcar and
several
carriages. It was seven o'clock in the morning. I inquired as to the
situation. I was told that the order for withdrawal had been issued at
5
a.m., and astonishment was expressed that I had not received it. This
is
what I had feared: the Armenians succeeded in escaping under the
protection
of the Russian officers and the artillery. But while the Russian
officers
were working the guns single- handed and beating back the onslaught of
the
attackers, the Armenians were at full liberty to slaughter the
Mohammedans
and take to their heels. If I had not appeared no Russian officer would
have
known of the order for withdrawal. I thought for a moment of running to
Fort
Medjedie to send a farewell of shrapnel into the brave Armenians who,
clad
in bulletproof tunics, were fleeing unhindered along the Kars road. But
it
occurred to me that there might be one or two innocent men among them,
so I
abandoned the idea.

It was also a result of the cunning and cowardice of the noble Armenian
looters that the guns could not be put out of action. When I returned
to my
quarters I heard in an obscure street cries of pain and the crackle 'of
a
terrific rifle volley. As I was at a street corner I could not see what
was
happening, but the bloodstains in the snow showed that a fight had
taken
place. I got down from my carriage to continue my journey on foot; but
when
I saw the Armenian Commanding Officer of the Militia on horseback,
coming
out of a side street, I could imagine the scene of horror that had been
enacted.

When I was back in my quarters I gave orders to the batteries to sound
the
retreat at the same time as the infantry and to get the carriages ready
for
the artillery officers. I was told that the outriders had already
escaped in
the night. Armenian deserters, armed to the teeth, had taken the horses
belonging to the carriages, and galloped off two on each horse. As my
groom
had put up a resistance they had not been able to take my horses, but
they
wounded one of them with a shot. Of the fifty carriages we were left
with
only three, which some of the officers used. Soon afterwards we learnt
the
Turkish army had entered the town, and were at last able to ascertain
that
they did not consist of bands of Kurds collected together haphazard,
but
regular troops. The brave Armenian infantry took advantage of the night
to
dash off with all speed along the Erzerum-Kars road. A hurricane could
hardly have swept Erzerum so thoroughly of the Armenian dirt in so
short a
time.

Neither in the firing trenches nor in the town were there any wounded
Armenians to be found. This proves afresh with what courage and
audacity
they had defended Erzerum. The only prisoners were Russian officers, so
the
Armenians can boast of having taken a negative part in the defense of
the
town.
After receiving news of the occupation of the town by the Turks I went
with
my adjutant to headquarters to report.

As I passed along the streets, the Turks I met expressed in most moving
fashion their gratitude to me for saving their lives. This gratitude
included all the Russian officers, for if the Russian officers had not
been
there, the Turkish troops reoccupying Erzerum would not have found a
single
Turk alive.

The Russian author Petronius says of the Armenians: " The Armenians are
certainly human, but at home they go on all fours."

The Russian poet Lermontoff sings their praises in the following words:
"You
are a slave, you are a coward, for you are an Armenian."

ERZERUM, April 29th, 1918.
(Signed} LT.-COL. TVERDOKHLEBOFF,
Provisional Commandant of the Fortresses of Erzerum and Deveboynu,
Commanding the 2nd Garrison Artillery Regiment, Erzerum.


++++++++++++++++++++




http://www.armenianreality.com/armenian_terror/reward_to_armenian.htm


Reward to Armenian who saved Ataturk's life



In 1919, Armenian-origined Turkish citizen Berch Kerestecian Turker who
saved Ataturk's life, has been rewarded by Rotary 2420th Region
Governorship, after 50 years from his dead. Yesterday, at the ceremony
in Cemal Reshit Rey Concert Hall, attorney of Turkish Armenian
Patriarch Mesrob 2 th, Krikor Damadian took delivery of honour
certificate of Berch Kerestecian Turker, who informed that the ship
will be attacked by torpedos, which Mustafa Kemal Ataturk arrived to
Samsun in 19th May 1919. At the ceremony, historian, author Cemal Kutay
and American historian who known as Turkish friend, Prof. Dr. Justin
McCarthy been rewarded as ''Reward of faithful authors for history
makers''. Prof. Dr. McCarthy stated that against to supposedly
Armenian genocide, we must struggle for long-term. He said ''To
struggle with lies is not easy. If a mistake is made, maybe your
grandchildren would have to give Erzurum, Kars, and Van.



He informed that Bandýrma ship will be attacked by torpedos.



Berch Kerestecian Turker was born in 1870 in Istanbul. He studied in
Galatasaray and Robert High Schools. He learned Ottoman Turkish,
French, Armenian, English, Greek, German, Italian and Spanish very
well. In armistice, He was dutied as Ottoman Bank Manager and 2nd
president of the Red Crescent Society. At the war of Independence, he
was the leader of people, who ported health supplies to Inebolu by
boats. In May 1919, while Ataturk and his friends will go to Samsun by
ship, Berch Turker secretly informed Mustafa Kemal Pasha with mediation
of his advocate Sadeddin Ferit Bey (Talay) that Englishmen will be
attacked by torpedos at the Black Sea. Thereupon, Bandýrma ship left
from her route and sailed from shore. Taken out ignition mechanism of
cannons, which used in Sakarya War was got back stealthily by Special
Organization with the use of 15,000 Turkish liras of Turker lended
before.




+++++++++++++++++++++++++++





http://www.armenianreality.com/armenian_terror/mccarthy.htm



Professor McCarthy: Armenian genocide is British propaganda


Renown U.S. historian and expert on Ottoman affairs, Professor Justin
McCarthy said allegations of Armenian genocide are British propaganda


Professor Justin McCarthy, speaking at a conference in London, said
that a source known as the "Blue Book" chosen by Armenians to prove
their claims of genocide is one of the products of British war
propaganda bureau's efforts of misinformation during first world war.



The Blue Book written by Viscount Bryce and Arnold Toynbee has been
used as proof that Armenians and the victims of the Jewish Holocaust
suffered the same fate in history. This book has been said to be a
product of British intelligence designed to promote and promulgate lies
during World War I. Britain had set up the war propaganda bureau at
Wellington House for the sole purpose of promoting lies and
misinformation on Germany and the Ottoman Empire. The British were in
full co-operation with American missionaries in Anatolia and the
American Embassy in Istanbul conjured a so called Armenian genocide
based on gossip, hear-say and erroneous information.

The real purpose behind this exercise was to create and strengthen an
image in the minds of British military officers that the Turk were
evil, horrible and untrustworthy McCarthy adds.


PROFESSOR JUSTIN MCCARTHY: HISTORIAN AND EXPERT ON OTTOMAN AFFAIRS

All documents at the Wellington House where the British carried out
their propaganda were destroyed when the war ended. One document that
survived, however, was the Blue Book (it is documented that many more
of these books were published and copied for other countries). This
book is currently being used around the world as a legal document on
the genocide.

AMERICAN HISTORIAN PROVES THE FACTS

The American historian and expert on Ottoman affairs was a recent
speaker at the London School of Oriental and African Studies. He
commented on a few of the stomach churning activities of the British
during the first world war. He stated, When the war began, a secret
propaganda unit was set up at Wellington House, London (on September 2,
1914). This units sole aim was to provide support for Britain, smear
Britains enemies, obtain support for the British view through the use
of Americans, and to keep British morale high during the war. This unit
was headed by Charles Masterman a Liberal m.p. He was a close friend of
Lloyd George. There also was an American intellectual named Viscount
Bryce working in this bureau who had many influential friends in the
U.S. Arnold Toynbee, young historian, meanwhile was one of Bryces close
friends at the time.

SEVEN MILLION DOCUMENTS

At the end of the war all documents and records of work at the war
propaganda bureau were destroyed, and its existence was only admitted
in 1935. However, the sources of the propaganda bureau were discovered
due to one records book surviving until present day. Publications
prepared in this bureau and the existence of seven million documents
which were very efficiently sent to the United States after the war
were also exposed. Many famous authors of the time as Arnold Bennett
and John Buchan were also employed by the Wellington House, where they
published brochures, books and statements for the war effort.

GERMANY, THE ACTUAL TARGET

Although Germany was the actual target of activities at Wellington
House, the Ottoman Empire, having sided with Germany during the war
received its fair share of false propaganda. No matter how sympathetic
the British officers felt towards their Turkish compatriots, the image
that Turkish officers were bad, evil and untrustworthy was strengthened
by such slanderous data.

NON-REAL NAMES

Work carried out by those at Wellington House on Ottomans involved many
so called authors and writers whose existence could not be verified and
thus, the information remains unconfirmed. For example, there was
apparently a Syrian member of the Ottoman Committee of Union and
Progress Party, named Faiz whose memoirs are mentioned in publications
of the Wellington House. This persons existence is totally make-belief
and his statements on Talat Pasha, a complete fallacy since he never
existed. Wellington House also proves the close co-operation which
existed between them and the American diplomats and missionaries based
in Turkey during that time. Since it is documented that these groups
were close to the Armenians in Turkey, their so called information from
Turkey is a total fabrication.


BLUE BOOK ORDERED BY LLOYD GEORGE

Public law and order was severely disrupted as a result of Armenians
revolting against Ottoman authority in eastern Anatolia, which led
Bryce and Toynbee to concoct material to document alleged atrocities
committed by Ottomans. Lloyd George asked to collect these documents in
the Blue Book. This document was later submitted to the British
parliament and has since been used as a classic documentation by
radical nationalist Armenian groups.


TOYNBEE WAS AN ANTI-TURK

It is thought that Toynbee believed in the authenticity and
truthfulness of material received from American missionaries in
Anatolia. However, he also added some spice to these imaginary stories,
since it was his country that was at war with Turkey and he thought it
would be right to lie in his reports. As was proved in his late career,
Toynbee was indeed an avid Turk hater, but was too far away from the
events of eastern Turkey in 1916 to document anything.

It is easy to see far away from such events Armenians living in Turkey
were and in looking at Toynbees data. Toynbee also seems to have
exaggerated their reliability for they turned and fought against their
former protector for promises made by outsiders. For example so many
anecdotes mentioned by western observers are not by western travelers
but by a local Armenians travelling only short distances. One tenth of
the anecdotes do not even have a source of any kind. Other sources are
generally hearsay and have no witnesses who can attest to the so called
crimes.


NO REACTIONS FROM TURKEY

All propaganda against Germany by Wellington House has been forgotten,
yet unfortunately Bryce - Toynbee documents have been recognized as
true in Britain and U.S. These documents have always been used by
radical militant Armenians to pursue their goals. There is no
information at hand about whether Turkey has shown any reactions
against the impact of these documents. The mentioned Blue Book has been
published more then once. Ara Sarafian who is to publish the book for
the third time does not mention the fact that the books contents were
prepared at Wellington House and that its sources are untrustworthy.
Thus, propaganda carried out by the British during World War I
continues to spread its venom against all Turkish people living around
the world.



The information in this web site is taken from NTVMSNBC.com


+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++



http://www.armenianreality.com/armenian_terror/justin_mccarthty_turkey_should_use.htm


Justin McCarthy:

'Turkey should use propaganda against Armenian allegations'

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Professor Justin McCarthy from the U.S Louisville University said on
Monday that Turks had not committed genocide against the Armenians and
Turkey should use comprehensive propaganda to counter the Armenian
allegations.

Speaking at a conference organized by the Rotary 2420th District
Governorship at Cemal Resit Rey Concert Salon in Istanbul, McCarthy
said the French parliament's approval of the Armenian genocide
allegations and initiatives in the American Congress to get the claims
accepted were wrong.

Stressing that the Armenians' accusations that Turkey had committed
genocide were illogical, McCarthy said Turkey was one of the most
important countries in the world and a model country in its region.

He also emphasized that the resolution taken by several countries'
parliaments concerning the Armenian genocide claims were politically
motivated.

Drawing attention to the fact that the Christian missionary and British
Propaganda Office played very important roles in spreading these
allegations during World War I, McCarthy said similar propaganda was
continuing today.

"In order to prevent this incorrect propaganda Turkey should open the
Ottoman archives," he said.

He also noted that brochures, handouts and books should be prepared
that explain that Turkey did not commit genocide against any nation and
also the Ottomans' religious tolerance with other nations during its
rule.

"Although there are 2,000 brochures with the Armenian's claims, in the
American teachers' hands they can teach two million children, while
there are no documents or brochures concerning Turkey's view," he said.


Emphasizing that not only should the state's propaganda be influential
and convincing, McCarthy said other civil organizations should take
part in the promotional work.



+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++




http://www.armenianreality.com/armenian_terror/armenian_terrorism_chronological_rundown.html



ARMENIAN TERRORISM - A CHRONOLOGICAL RUNDOWN

January 27, 1973 Santa Barbara, California

The Armenian Gourgen Yanikian, a U.S. citizen, invites the
Turkish Consul General, Mehmet Baydar, and the Consul, Bahadir Demir to
a lunche. The unsuspecting diplomats accept the friendly invitation.
Gourgen Yanikian murders his two guests. He is sentenced to life
imprisonment.

April 4, 1973 Paris
Bombings at the Turkish Consulate General and the offices of
Turkish Airlines (THY). Extensive damage.

October 26, 1973 New York
Attempted bombing of the Turkish Information Office. The bomb is
discovered in time and defused. A group calling itself the «Yanikian
Commandos» claims responsibility. They want the release of the double
murderer of Santa Barbara, Gourgen Yanikian, who insidiously murdered
two Turkish diplomats.

February 7, 1975 Beirut
Attempted bombing of the Turkish Information and Tourism Bureau.
The bomb explodes while being defused. A Lebanese policeman is injured.
The «Prisoner Gourgen Yanikian Group» claims responsibility.

February 20, 1975 Beirut
The «Yanikian» group demanding the release of the double
murderer of Santa Barbara strikes again. Extensive damage is caused by
a bomb explosion at the THY offices. ASALA (Armenian Secret Army for
the Liberation of Armenia) also claims responsibility for the bombing.

October 22, 1975 Vienna
The Turkish Ambassador, Danis Tunalzgil, is assassinated in his
study by three Armenian terrorists. ASALA claims responsibility.

October 24, 1975 Paris
Ambassador Ismail Erez and his driver, Talip Yener, are
murdered. The ASALA and the JCAG (Justice Commandos for the Armenian
Genocide) dispute responsibility.

October 28, 1975 Beirut
Grenade attack on the Turkish Embassy. The ASALA claims
responsibility.

February 16, 1976 Beirut
The First Secretary of the Turkish Embassy, Oktar Cirit, is
assassinated in a restaurant on Hamra Street. The ASALA claims
responsibility.

May 17, 1976 Frankfurt, Essen, Cologne
Consulates General in Frankfurt, Essen and Cologne are the
targets of simultaneous bomb attacks.

May 28, 1976 Zurich
Bomb attacks at the offices of the Turkish Labor Attache and the
Garanti Bank. Extensive damage. A bomb in the Turkish Tourism Bureau is
defused in time. Responsibility is claimed by the JCAG.

May 2, 1977 Beirut
The cars of the Military Attache, Nahit Karakay, and the
Administrative Attache, Ilhan Özbabacan, are destroyed. The two
diplomats are uninjured. Credit is claimed by the ASALA.

May 14, 1977 Paris
Bomb attack at the Turkish Tourism Bureau. Extensive damage. The
«New Armenian Resistance Group» claims responsibility.

June 6, 1977 Zurich
Bomb attack at the store of a Turkish citizen, Hüseyin
Bülbül.

June 9, 1977 Rome
Assassination of the Turkish Ambassador to the Holy See, Taha
Carzm. He dies soon after the attack. The JCAG claims responsibility.

October 4, 1977 Los Angeles
Bomb attack at the house of Professor Stanford Shaw, who teaches
Ottoman history at the University of California in Los Angeles (UCLA).
Responsibility is claimed by an «Armenian Group of 28».

January 2, 1978 Brussels
Bomb attack at a building containing Turkish banking services.
The «New Armenian Resistance» claims credit.

June 2, 1978 Madrid
Terrorist attack on the automobile of the Turkish Ambassador,
Zeki Kuneralp. His wife, Necla Kuneralp, the retired Turkish Ambassador
Besir Balczoglu die immediately in the rain of gunfire. The Spanish
chauffeur, Antonio Torres, dies of his injuries in the hospital. ASALA
and JCAG claim responsibility.

December 6, 1978 Geneva
A bomb explodes in front of the Turkish Consulate General.
Extensive damage. The «New Armenian Resistance Group» claims
responsibility.

December 17, 1978 Geneva
A bomb explodes at the THY Bureau. ASALA claims responsibility.

July 8, 1979 Paris
The French capital experiences four bomb attacks in a single
day. The first is at the THY offices; the next at the offices of the
Turkish Labor Attache; the third in the Turkish Information and Tourism
Bureau. A fourth explosive, intended for the Turkish Permanent
Representative to the O.E.C.D., is defused before it explodes. The JCAG
claims responsibility.

August 22, 1979 Geneva
A bomb is thrown at the car of the Turkish Consul General,
Niyazi Adalz. The diplomat escapes unhurt. Two Swiss passers-by are
injured. Two cars are destroyed.

August 27, 1979 Frankfurt
The offices of THY are totally destroyed by an explosion. A
pedestrian is injured. The ASALA claims responsibility.

October 4, 1979 Copenhagen
Two Danes are injured when a bomb explodes near the offices of
THY. ASALA claims credit.

October 12, 1979 The Hague
Ahmet Benler, the son of Turkish Ambassador Özdemir Benler, is
assassinated by Armenian terrorists. The murderers escape. JCAG and
ASALA claim responsibility.

October 30, 1979 Milan
The offices of THY are destroyed by a bomb explosion. ASALA
claims responsibility.

November 8, 1979 Rome
The Turkish Tourism Office is destroyed by a bomb. ASALA claims
responsibility.

November 18, 1979 Paris
Bomb explosions destroy the offices of THY, KLM, and Lufthansa.
Two French policemen are injured. Responsibility is claimed by ASALA.

November 25, 1979 Madrid
Bomb explosions in front of the offices of TWA and British
Airways. ASALA, in claiming responsibility, states that the attacks are
meant as a warning to the Pope to cancel his planned visit to Turkey.

December 9, 1979 Rome
Two bombs explode in downtown Rome, damaging the offices of PAN
AM, British Airways and the Philippine Airways. Nine people are injured
in the terrorist attack. A «New Armenian Resistance Movement» claims
responsibility.

December 17, 1979 London
Extensive damage is caused when a bomb explodes in front of the
THY offices. A «Front for the Liberation of Armenia» claims
responsibility.

December 22, 1979 Paris
Yzlmaz Çolpan, the Tourism Attache at the Turkish Embassy is
assassinated while walking on the Champs Elysées. Several groups,
including ASALA, JCAG and the «Commandos of Armenian Militants Against
Genocide» claim responsibility.

December 22, 1979 Amsterdam
Heavy damage results from a bomb explosion in front of the THY
offices. ASALA claims credit.

December 23, 1979 Rome
A bomb explodes in front of a World Council of Churches Refugee
Center, being used as a transit point for Armenian refugees from
Lebanon. ASALA claims credit for the attack and warns the Italian
authorities to halt «the Armenian diaspora».

December 23, 1979 Rome
Three bomb explosions occur in front of the offices of Air
France and TWA, injuring a dozen passers-by. ASALA claims
responsibility, stating that the bomb was placed «in reprisal against
the repressive measures of French authorities against Armenians in
France» (i.e., questioning suspects, carry out investigations, etc.)

January 10, 1980 Teheran
A bomb which explodes in front of the THY offices causes
extensive damage. ASALA claims responsibility.

January 20, 1980 Madrid
A series of bomb attacks, resulting in numerous injuries, occurs
in front of the offices of TWA, British Airways, Swissair, and Sabena.
The JCAG claims credit for the attacks.

February 2, 1980 Brussels
Two bombs explode within minutes of each other in front of the
downtown offices of THY and Aeroflot. The «New Armenian Resistance
Group» issues a communique in which they claim responsibility for both
attacks.

February 6, 1980 Bern
A terrorist opens fire on Turkish Ambassador Dogan Türkmen, who
escapes with minor wounds. The would-be-assassin, an Armenian named Max
Klindjian, is subsequently arrested in Marseilles and returned to
Switzerland for trial. The JCAG claims credit for the attack.

February 18, 1980 Rome
The offices of Lufthansa, El Al and Swissair are damaged by two
bomb attacks. Telephone messages give three reasons for the attacks: 1.
The Germans support «Turkish fascism»; 2. The Jews are Zionists
(ASALA); 3. The Swiss behave «repressively» towards the Armenians.

March 10, 1980 Rome
Bomb attacks on the THY and Turkish Tourism Bureau offices on
the Piazza Della Repubblica. The blasts kill two Italians and injure
fourteen. Credit for the attack is claimed by the «New Armenian
Resistance of the Armenian Secret Army».

April 17, 1980 Rome
The Turkish Ambassador to the Holy See, Vecdi Türel, is shot
and seriously wounded. His chauffeur, Tahsin Güvenç, is also slightly
wounded in the assassination attempt. JCAG claims responsibility for
the attack.

May 19, 1980 Marseilles
A rocket aimed at the Turkish Consulate General in Marseilles is
discovered and defused prior to exploding. ASALA and a group calling
itself «Black April» claim credit for the attack.

July 31, 1980 Athens
Galip Özmen, the Administrative Attache at the Turkish Embassy,
and his family are attacked by Armenian terrorists while sitting in
their car. Galip Özmen and his fourteen-year-old daughter, Neslihan,
are killed in the attack. His wife, Sevil, and his sixteen-year-old
son, Kaan, are wounded. Credit for the double killing is claimed by
ASALA.

August 5, 1980 Lyon
Two terrorists storm into the Turkish Consulate General in Lyon
and open fire, killing two and injuring several other bystanders. ASALA
claims credit for the attack.

August 11, 1980 New York
An «Armenian group» hurls paint bombs at the Turkish House
across from the United Nations, home of the Turkish Representations in
New York.

September 26, 1980 Paris
Selçuk Bakkalbasz, the Press Counselor at the Turkish Embassy,
is shot as he enters his home. Bakkalbasz survives but is permanently
paralyzed as a result of his injuries. ASALA claims responsibility for
the attack.

October 3, 1980 Geneva
Two Armenian terrorists are injured when a bomb they are
preparing explodes in their Geneva hotel room. The two, Suzy
Mahseredjian from Canoga Park, California, and Alexander Yenikomechian,
are arrested. Their arrest leads to the formation of a new group called
«October 3», which subsequently strikes at Swiss targets.

October 3, 1980 Milan
Two Italians are injured when a bomb explodes in front of the
THY offices. ASALA claims credit for the attack.

October 5, 1980 Madrid
The offices of Alitalia are rocked by a bomb explosion which
injures twelve individuals. The ASALA claims responsibility for the
attack.

October 6, 1980 Los Angeles
Two molotov cocktails are thrown into the home of the Turkish
Consul General, Kemal Arzkan. He survives with injuries.

October 10, 1980 Beirut
Two bombs explode near Swiss offices in West Beirut. A group
calling itself «October 3» claims responsibility for these bombings
as well as others on the same day against Swiss offices in England.

October 12, 1980 New York
A bomb placed in front of the Turkish House explodes. Four
passers-by are injured. JCAG assumes responsibility.

October 12, 1980 Los Angeles
A travel agency in Hollywood, owned by a Turkish-American, is
destroyed. JCAG claims responsibility.

October 12, 1980 London
The Turkish Tourism and Information Bureau's offices are damaged
by a bomb explosion. ASALA claims credit.

October 12, 1980 London
A Swiss shopping complex in central London is damaged by a bomb
blast. Callers claim the explosion was the work of «October 3».

October 13, 1980 Paris
A Swiss tourist office is damaged by a bomb explosion. «October
3» again claims credit.

October 21, 1980 Interlaken, Switzerland
A bomb is found in a Swiss express train coming from Paris.
Luckily, it does not explode. «October 3» is believed to be behind
the action, which could have caused a catastrophe.

November 4, 1980 Geneva
The Swiss Palace of Justice in Geneva is heavily damaged by a
bomb explosion. Credit is claimed by «October 3».

November 9, 1980 Strasbourg
Heavy damage results from a bomb blast at the Turkish Consulate
General. The attack is claimed by ASALA.

November 10, 1980 Rome
Five people are injured in attacks on the Swissair and Swiss
Tourist offices. ASALA and «October 3» claim credit.

November 19, 1980 Rome
The offices of the Turkish Tourism Bureau and those of THY are
damaged by a bomb explosion. ASALA claims responsibility.

November 25, 1980 Geneva
The offices of the Union of Swiss Banks are hit by a bomb
explosion. Responsibility is claimed by «October 3».

December 5, 1980 Marseilles
A police expert defuses a time bomb left at the Swiss Consulate
in Marseilles. «October 3» claims responsibility.

December 15, 1980 London
Two bombs placed in front of the French Tourism Office in London
are defused by a Scotland Yard bomb squad. «October 3» claims the
bombs are a warning to the French for assistance they have rendered the
Swiss in fighting Armenian terrorism.

December 17, 1980 Sydney
Two terrorists assassinate sarzk Arzyak, the Turkish Consul
General, and his bodyguard, Engin Sever. JCAG claims responsibility.

December 25, 1980 Zurich
A bomb explosion destroys a radar monitor at Kloten Airport, and
a second explosive planted on the main runway of the airport is
defused. «October 3» claims credit for these attempted mass-murders.

December 29, 1980 Madrid
A Spanish reporter is seriously injured in a telephone booth
while calling in a story to his paper about the bomb attack on the
Swissair offices. «October 3» claims responsibility.

December 30, 1980 Beirut
Bomb attack on the Credit-Suisse offices. ASALA and «October
3» fight over who gets the credit.

January 2, 1981 Beirut
In a press communique, ASALA threatens to «attack all Swiss
diplomats throughout the world» in response to the alleged
mistreatment of «Suzy and Alex» in Switzerland. On January 4, ASALA
issues a statement giving the Swiss a few days to think things over.

January 14, 1981 Paris
A bomb explodes in the car of Ahmet Erbeyli, the Economic
Counselor of the Turkish Embassy. Erbeyli is not injured, but the
explosion totally destroys his car. A group calling itself the «Alex
Yenikomechian Commandos» of ASALA claims credit for the explosion.

January 27, 1981 Milan
The Swissair and Swiss Tourist offices in Milan are damaged by
bomb explosions. Two passers-by are injured. «October 3» claims
credit for the bombing in a call to local media representatives.

February 3, 1981 Los Angeles
Bomb-squad officials disarm a bomb left at the Swiss Consulate.
The terrorists threaten in anonymous phone calls that such attacks will
continue until Suzy Mahseredjian is released.

February 5, 1981 Paris
Bombs explode in the TWA and Air France offices. One injured,
heavy material damage. «October 3» claims credit.

March 4, 1981 Paris
Two terrorists open fire on Resat Moralz, Labor Attache at the
Turkish Embassy, Tecelli Arz, Religious Affairs Attache, and Ilkay
Karakoç, the Paris representative of the Anadolu Bank. Moralz and Arz
are assassinated. Karakoç manages to escape. ASALA claims
responsibility.

March 12, 1981 Teheran
A group of ASALA terrorists try to occupy the Turkish Embassy,
killing two guards in the process. Two of the perpetrators are captured
and later executed by the Iranians. ASALA claims credit.

April 3, 1981 Copenhagen
Cavit Demir, the Labor Attache at the Turkish Embassy, is shot
as he enters his apartment building late in the evening and is
seriously wounded. Both ASALA and JCAG claim the attack.

June 3, 1981 Los Angeles
Bombs force the cancellation of performances by a Turkish
folk-dance group. Threats of similar bombings force the group's
performances in San Francisco to be canceled as well.

June 9, 1981 Geneva
Mehmet Savas Yergüz, Secretary in the Turkish Consulate, is
assassinated by the Armenian terrorist Mardiros Jamgotchian. The arrest
of the ASALA terrorist leads to the formation of a new ASALA branch
called the «Ninth of June Organization,» which will be responsible
for a new series of attacks.

June 11, 1981 Paris
A group of Armenian terrorists, led by one Ara Toranian,
occupies the THY offices. Initially ignored by the French authorities,
the terrorists are only evicted from the premises after vehement
protests from the Turkish Embassy.

June 19, 1981 Teheran
A bomb explodes at the offices of Swissair. The «Ninth of June
Organization» claims responsibility.

June 26, 1981 Los Angeles
A bomb explodes in front of the Swiss Banking Corporation
offices. Again the work of the «Ninth of June Organization».

July 19, 1981 Bern
A bomb explodes at the Swiss Parliament Building. «Ninth of
June» claims responsibility.

July 20, 1981 Zurich
«Ninth of June» strikes again. A bomb explodes in an automatic
photo-booth at Zurich's international airport.

July 21, 1981 Lausanne
Twenty women are injured as a bomb laid by Armenian terrorists
explodes in a department store. «Ninth of June» claims
responsibility.

July 22, 1981 Geneva
A bomb explodes in a locker at the train station. Authorities
suspect «Ninth of June».

July 22, 1981 Geneva
An hour later, a second bomb explodes in a locker at the
station. Police cordoned off the area following the first explosion,
thereby preventing injuries from the second.

August 11, 1981 Copenhagen
Two bombs destroy the offices of Swissair. An American tourist
is injured in the explosion. «Ninth of June» claims responsibility.

August 20, 1981 Los Angeles
A bomb explodes outside the offices of Swiss Precision
Instruments. The attack is claimed by «Ninth of June».

August 20, 1981 Paris
Explosion at Alitalia Airlines. «October 3» is back in action.

September 15, 1981 Copenhagen
Two people are injured as a bomb explodes in front of the THY
offices. Police experts manage to defuse a second bomb. Credit is
claimed by a «Sixth Armenian Liberation Army».

September 17, 1981 Teheran
A bomb explosion damages a Swiss Embassy building. ASALA's
«Ninth of June» claims responsibility.

September 24, 1981 Paris
Four Armenian terrorists occupy the Turkish Consulate General.
During their entry into the building, the Consul, Kaya Inal, and a
security guard, Cemal Özen, are seriously wounded. Terrorists take 56
hostages. Özen dies of his injuries in the hospital. The terrorists
are ASALA members.

October 3, 1981 Geneva
The main post office and the city courthouse are hit by bomb
explosions. An ASALA member is scheduled to go on trial for murder in
the courthouse. «Ninth of June» claims credit for the attacks, which
leave one person injured.

October 25, 1981 Rome
An Armenian terrorist fires at Gökberk Ergenekon, Second
Secretary at the Turkish Embassy. Ergenekon is wounded in the arm.
ASALA claims credit in the name of the «September 24 Suicide
Commandos».

October 25, 1981 Paris
Fouquet's, the fashionable French restaurant, is the target of a
bomb attack. A group calling itself «September-France» claims the
attack.

October 26, 1981 Paris
The same group is behind the explosion of a booby-trapped
automobile in front of «Le Drugstore».

October 27, 1981 Paris
«September-France» carries out a bomb attack at Roissy
Airport.

October 27, 1981 Paris
A second bomb explodes near a busy escalator at Roissy Airport.
No one is injured. «September-France» claims responsibility.

October 28, 1981 Paris
The same group is responsible for a bomb attack in a movie
theater. Three people are injured.

November 3, 1981 Madrid
A bomb explodes in front of the Swissair offices, injuring three
persons. Considerable damage to nearby buildings. ASALA claims
responsibility.

November 5, 1981 Paris
A bomb explodes in the Gare de Lyon, injuring one person. The
attack is claimed by the Armenian «Orly Organization».

November 12, 1981 Beirut
Simultaneous bomb explosions occur in front of three French
offices: the French Cultural Center, the Air France offices and the
home of the French Consul General. The «Orly Organization» claims
responsibility. This organization owes its name to the fact that the
French police arrested an Armenian at Orly Airport in Paris because of
forged papers. The idea now is to «bomb him free».

November 14, 1981 Paris
A bomb explosion damages an automobile near the Eiffel Tower.
«Orly» claims responsibility.

November 14, 1981 Paris
«Orly» launches a grenade attack on a group of tourists
disembarking from a sightseeing boat on the River Seine.

November 15, 1981 Paris
«Orly» threatens to blow up an Air France airplane in flight.

November 15, 1981 Beirut
Simultaneous bomb attacks are carried out against three French
targets: the «Union des Assurances de Paris», the Air France offices
and the «Banque Libano-Française». «Orly» is responsible.

November 15, 1981 Paris
A McDonald's restaurant is destroyed by «September-France».

November 16, 1981 Paris
A bomb injures two innocent bystanders at the Gare de l'Est.
«Orly» claims responsibility.

November 18, 1981 Paris
«Orly» announces that it has planted a bomb at the Gare du
Nord.

November 20, 1981 Los Angeles
The Turkish Consulate General in Beverly Hills suffers extensive
damage. The JCAG claims credit.

January 13, 1982 Toronto
An ASALA bomb causes extensive damage to the Turkish Consulate
General.

January 17, 1982 Geneva
Two bombs destroy parked cars. The ASALA «Ninth of June
Organization» claims credit.

January 17, 1982 Paris
A bomb explodes at the Union of Banks and a second is disarmed
at the Credit Lyonnais. «Orly» claims responsibility.

January 19, 1982 Paris
A bomb explodes in the Air France offices in the Palais des
Congres. «Orly» claims responsibility.

January 28, 1982 Los Angeles
Kemal Arzkan, the Turkish Consul General in Los Angeles, is
assassinated by two terrorists while driving to work. Nineteen year old
Hampig Sassounian is arrested and sentenced to life.

March 22, 1982 Cambridge, Massachusetts
A gift shop belonging to Orhan Gündüz, the Turkish Honorary
Consul General in Boston, is blown up. Gündüz receives an ultimatum:
Either he gives up his honorary position or he will be «executed».
Responsibility is claimed by the JCAG.

March 26, 1982 Beirut
Two dead, sixteen injured in an explosion at a movie theater.
ASALA claims credit for the attack.

April 8, 1982 Ottawa
Kani Güngör, the Commercial Attache at the Turkish Embassy in
Ottawa, is seriously wounded in an attack by Armenian terrorists in the
garage of his apartment house. ASALA claims responsibility.

April 24, 1982 Dortmund, West Germany
Several Turkish-owned businesses suffer extensive damage in bomb
attacks. The «New Armenian Resistance Organization» claims
responsibility.

May 4, 1982 Cambridge, Massachusetts
Orhan Gündüz, the Turkish Honorary Consul General in Boston is
assassinated. The murderer is still at large.

May 10, 1982 Geneva
Bombs explode at two banks. The attacks are claimed by an
Armenian «World Punishment Organization».

May 18, 1982 Toronto
Four Armenians are arrested for trying to smuggle money out of
the country. The money was extorted from Armenians, a common practice
throughout the world. In the course of the investigation, it is
discovered that the terrorists fire-bombed the house of an Armenian who
refused to make his contribution to Armenian terrorism.

May 18, 1982 Tampa, Florida
Attack at the office of Nash Karahan, the Turkish Honorary
Consul General.

May 26, 1982 Los Angeles
A bomb damages the office of Swiss Banking Corporation. The
suspects: four Armenians accused of involvement in ASALA.

May 30, 1982 Los Angeles
Three members of ASALA are arrested when planting a bomb in the
Air Canada cargo-office.

June 7, 1982 Lisbon
The Administrative Attache at the Turkish Embassy, Erkut Akbay,
and his wife, Nadide Akbay, are assassinated in front of their home.
JCAG claims responsibility.

July 1, 1982 Rotterdam
Kemalettin Demirer, the Turkish Consul General in Rotterdam, is
shot down by four Armenian terrorists. An «Armenian Red Army» claims
responsibility.

July 21, 1982 Paris
Sixteen injured in a bomb explosion near a cafe in the Place
Saint-Severin. Credit is claimed by the Orly Organization. «Orly»
complains that the French do not treat the arrested Armenian terrorists
as «political prisoners», but rather as ordinary criminals.

July 26, 1982 Paris
«Orly» is responsible for injuring two women in an explosion
in Paris' «Pub Saint-Germain».

August 2, 1982 Paris
Pierre Gulumian, an Armenian terrorist, is killed when a bomb he
is making explodes in his face.

August 7, 1982 Ankara, Esenboga Airport
Two Armenian terrorists open fire in a crowded passenger waiting
room. One of the terrorists takes more than twenty hostages while the
second is apprehended by the police. Nine people are dead and
eighty-two injured - some seriously. The surviving terrorist, Levon
Ekmekjian is arrested and sentenced.

August 8, 1982 Paris
A bomb is defused in time. «Orly» regrets the discovery.

August 12, 1982 Paris
Terrorists open fire on a policeman assigned to protect the
offices of the Turkish Tourism Attache. Luckily, he escapes without
injury.

August 27, 1982 Ottawa
Colonel Atilla Altzkat, the Military Attache at the Turkish
Embassy, is assassinated in his car. JCAG claims responsibility.

September 9, 1982 Burgaz, Bulgaria
Bora Süelkan, the Administrative Attache at the Turkish
Consulate General in Burgaz, is assassinated in front of his home. The
assassin leaves a message «We shot dead the Turkish diplomat: Combat
Units of Justice Against the Armenian Genocide». An anonymous caller
claims that the assassination is the work of a branch of the ASALA.

October 26, 1982 Los Angeles
Five Armenian terrorists are charged with conspiring to blow up
the offices of the Honorary Turkish Consul General in Philadelphia. All
belong to the JCAG.

December 8, 1982 Athens
Two Armenians on a motorbike throw a bomb at the offices of the
Saudi Arabian Airlines. The bomb hits a power pylon, explodes and kills
one of the terrorists. His accomplice, an Armenian from Iran named Vahe
Kontaverdian is arrested. It is later revealed that ASALA ordered the
attack because Saudi Arabia maintains friendly relations with Turkey.

January 21, 1983 Anaheim, California
Nine «sophisticated» pipe bombs are confiscated from an
Armenian bakery after one of the detonators goes off and causes fire.

January 22, 1983 Paris
Two terrorists attack the offices of THY with hand grenades. No
one is injured. ASALA claims credit.

January 22, 1983 Paris
French police defuse a powerful explosive device near the THY
counter at Orly airport.

February 2, 1983 Brussels
The offices of THY are bombed. The «New Armenian Resistance
Organization» claims responsibility.

February 28, 1983 Luxembourg
A bomb placed in front of Turkey's diplomatic mission is
defused. The Armenian Reporter in New York reports that the «New
Armenian Resistance Organization» is responsible.

February 28, 1983 Paris
A bomb explodes at the Marmara Travel Agency. Killed in the
explosion is Renée Morin, a French secretary. Four other Frenchmen are
wounded. A few minutes after the attack, ASALA claims responsibility.

March 9, 1983 Belgrade
Galip Balkar, the Turkish Ambassador to Yugoslavia is
assassinated in central Belgrade. His chauffeur, Necati Kayar is shot
in the stomach. As the two assailants flee from the scene, they are
bravely pursued by Yugoslav citizens. One of the terrorists shoots and
wounds a Yugoslav Colonel, and is in turn apprehended by a policeman.
The second terrorist opens fire on civilians who are chasing him,
killing a young student and wounding a young girl. The two terrorists,
Kirkor Levonian and Raffi Elbekian, are tried and sentenced.

March 31, 1983 Frankfurt
An anonymous caller threatened to bomb the offices and kill the
staff of Tercüman newspaper, a Turkish daily.

May 24, 1983 Brussels
Bombs explode in front of the Turkish Embassy's Culture and
Information offices and in front of a Turkish-owned travel agency. The
Italian director of the travel agency is wounded. ASALA claims credit.

June 16, 1983 Istanbul
Armenian terrorists carry out an attack with hand grenades and
automatic weapons inside the covered bazaar in Istanbul. Two dead,
twenty-one wounded. ASALA claims responsibility.

July 8, 1983 Paris
Armenian terrorists attack the offices of the British Council,
protesting against the trials of Armenians in London.

July 14, 1983 Brussels
Armenian terrorists murder Dursun Aksoy, the Administrative
Attache at the Turkish Embassy. ASALA, ARA and JCAG claim
responsibility.

July 15, 1983 Paris
A bomb explodes in front of the THY counter at Orly airport.
Eight dead, more than sixty injured. A 29 years old Syrian-Armenian
named Varadjian Garbidjian confesses to having planted the bomb. He
admits that the bomb was intended to have exploded once the plane was
airborne.

July 15, 1983 London
A bomb, similar to the one that exploded at Orly, is defused in
time. ASALA claims responsibility for both attacks.

July 18, 1983 Lyon
A bomb threat is made by ASALA against the Lyon railroad
station.

July 20, 1983 Lyon
Panicky evacuation of Lyon's Gare de Perrache following a bomb
threat from ASALA.

July 22, 1983 Teheran
«Orly» carries out bomb attacks on the French Embassy and Air
France.

July 27, 1983 Lisbon
Five Armenian terrorists attempt to storm the Turkish Embassy in
Lisbon. Failing to gain access to the chancery, they occupy the
residence, taking the Deputy Chief of Mission(DCM) and his family
hostage. When explosives being planted by the terrorists go off, Cahide
Mzhçzoglu, wife of the DCM and four of the terrorists are blown to
pieces. The DCM, Yurtsev Mzhçzoglu, and his son Atasay are injured.
The fifth terrorist is killed in the initial assault by Turkish
security forces. One Portuguese policeman is also killed and another
wounded. The ARA claims responsibility.

July 28, 1983 Lyon
Another bomb threat on Lyon-Perrache railroad station. ASALA
claims responsibility.

July 29, 1983 Teheran
A threat to blow up the French Embassy in Teheran with a rocket
attack causes Iranian officials to increase security at the facility.

July 31, 1983 Lyon and Rennes
Bomb threats from Armenian terrorists force the emergency
landing of two domestic French flights carrying 424 passengers.

August 10, 1983 Teheran
A bomb explodes in an automobile at the French Embassy. ASALA
claims credit for the attack.

August 25, 1983 Bonn
A whole series of bomb attacks against offices of the French
Consulate General claim two lives and leave twenty-three injured. ASALA
claims responsibility.

September 9, 1983 Teheran
Two French Embassy cars are bombed. One of the bombs injures two
embassy staff members. ASALA claims credit.

October 1, 1983 Marseilles
A bomb blast destroys the U.S., Soviet and Algerian pavilions at
an international trade fair in Marseilles. One person is killed and
twenty-six injured. ASALA and «Orly» claim credit.

October 6, 1983 Teheran
A French Embassy vehicle is bombed, injuring two passengers.
«Orly» claims responsibility.

October 29, 1983 Beirut
Hand-grenade attack on the French Embassy. One of the ASALA
terrorists is arrested.

October 29, 1983 Beirut
The Turkish Embassy is attacked by three Armenian terrorists.
One of the assailants, Sarkis Denielian, a 19 years old
Lebanese-Armenian is apprehended. ASALA claims responsibility.

February 8, 1984 Paris
Bomb threat on an Air France flight to New York.

March 28, 1984 Teheran
A timed series of attacks is carried out against Turkish
diplomats:
Two Armenian terrorists shoot and seriously wound Sergeant
Ismail Pamukçu, employed at the office of the Turkish Military
Attache;
Hasan Servet Öktem, First Secretary of the Turkish Embassy, is
slightly wounded as he leaves his home;
Ibrahim Özdemir, the Administrative Attache at the Turkish
Embassy, alerts police to two suspicious looking men. They turn out to
be Armenian terrorists and are arrested;
In the afternoon of the same day, Iranian police arrest three
more Armenian terrorists outside the Turkish Embassy;
An Armenian terrorist is killed when a bomb he is attempting to
plant in the car of the Turkish Assistant Commercial Counselor explodes
prematurely. The dead terrorist is later identified as Sultan Gregorian
Semaperdan (ASALA).

March 29, 1984 Los Angeles
ASALA sends a written threat, saying they will assassinate
Turkish athletes who take part in the Olympics.

April 8, 1984 Beirut
ASALA issues a communique warning that all flights to Turkey
will be considered military targets.

April 26, 1984 Ankara
The Turkish Prime Minister, Turgut Özal, receives a threat
warning him that if he goes ahead with a planned visit to Teheran,
ASALA will schedule a major terrorist operation against his country.

April 28, 1984 Teheran
Two Armenian terrorists riding a motorcycle open fire on Iszk
Yönder as he drives his wife, Sadiye Yönder, to the Turkish Embassy
where she works. Iszk Yönder is killed, and ASALA claims credit for
yet another senseless murder.

June 20, 1984 Vienna
A bomb explodes in a car belonging to Erdogan Özen, Assistant
Labor and Social Affairs Counselor at the Turkish Embassy in Vienna.
Özen is killed and five others seriously wounded, including a
policeman. ARA terrorists claim credit for the crime.

June 25, 1984 Los Angeles
A news agency office in France receives a letter threatening to
attack all governments, organizations and companies which assist, in
any way whatsoever, Turkey's team at the Los Angeles Olympics.

August 13, 1984 Lyon
A bomb explodes in a Lyon train station causing minor damage.
ASALA claims credit.

September 1984 Teheran
Several Turkish owned firms in Iran come under attack after
receiving warning letters informing them that they are to be targeted.
The first victim is the Sezai Türkes Company. A Turkish employee is
injured while fighting the fire caused by the explosion. A chain of
smaller scale acts of intimidation follows.

September 1, 1984 Teheran
Iranian authorities expose a plot to assassinate Ismet Birsel,
the Turkish Ambassador to Teheran.

September 3, 1984 Istanbul
Two Armenian terrorists die as one of their bombs goes off too
soon. The ARA claims credit.

November 19, 1984 Vienna
Evner Ergun, Deputy Director of the Centre for Social
Development and Humanitarian Affairs of the United Nations, Vienna is
assassinated while driving to work. The assassins leave a flag with the
initials «ARA» on his body.

December 1984 Brussels
Authorities are able to thwart a bombing attempt at the
residence of Selçuk Incesu, Turkish Consul General.

December 29, 1984 Beirut
Two French buildings in East Beirut are bombed. ASALA claims
credit.

December 29, 1984 Paris
Following an ASALA threat to blow up an Air France plane, police
increase security at the Charles de Gaulle Airport.

January 3, 1985 Beirut
The offices of Agence France Presse are extensively damaged when
a bomb explodes.

March 3, 1985 Paris
An anonymous caller to Agence France Presse threatens to attack
French interests throughout the world upon the indictment of the three
terrorists who participated in the Orly attack.

March 12, 1985 Ottawa
Three heavily armed terrorists storm the Turkish Embassy,
killing a Canadian security guard in the process. After blowing up the
front door, the gunmen enter the building. Ambassador Coskun Kzrca
manages to escape but suffers extensive injuries. The wife and daughter
of the Ambassador, who were taken hostage, are later released, and the
terrorists surrender. ARA claims responsibility.

March 26, 1985 Toronto
A threat to blow up the city of Toronto's transit system leads
to chaos during the rush hour. An «Armenian Secret Army for the
Liberation of Our Homeland» claims responsibility for the threat.

November 1985 Brussels
A special anti-terrorist security squad of the Belgian police
exposes and arrests three Armenian terrorists with Portuguese
passports. They were planning an attack on Turkish officers at NATO
headquarters.

November 28, 1985 Paris
French police arrest the leader of the terrorist organization -
the «Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia-Revolutionary
Movement» (ASALA-RM) - Mr. Monte Melkonian, a U.S. citizen. In
Melkonian's apartment, police confiscate weapons, explosive devices,
arrival and departure information on Turkish ships scheduled to visit
France and a picture of Turkey's Ambassador to France, Adnan Bulak.

December 1985 Paris
Forty-one shoppers in two of Paris' leading department stores
(Gallerie Lafayette and Printemps) are injured (twelve seriously) when
nearly simultaneous bomb explosions rip through the stores. In the
ensuing panic, some 10,000 Christmas shoppers flee into the street. The
Armenian Reporter, published in New York, reports in its December 12th
issue that French law enforcement authorities are concentrating on
ASALA as the most likely perpetrator. ASALA later takes credit for the
two bombings.

November 23, 1986 Melbourne
At 2:15 a.m. a bomb explodes in front of the Turkish Consulate
General. One dead -presumedly the perpetrator- and one Australian
injured.
Jason K. Lambrou
2005-01-12 18:20:50 UTC
Permalink
***@yahoo.com wrote:
Dear Mark Tsimpoyk*-Moronoglu does your mind sometimes seem to have a
mind of its own??
or the inner working of your mind seem like a dark ancient Mongol
mystery??

Dear Mark Manavoglu Kasap Where do you stand? How much mind power are
you using? How's your thought life? Are you enjoying peace of mind? Or,
are you mentally retarded, but don't know it?

*derived from tsimboyk coglan or cocksucker boy
Terrorist Turks raped, tortured, massacred millions of innocent and
defenceless, Jews, Kurds, Arabs and other non-Turks in
Ottoman Eastern Anatolia during WWI (with direct and generous support
from their allies, the victors of WWI including Czarist Russia which
also created the mess in the Middle East, including the fake state of
Iraq, millions of people are suffering from now) to ethnically cleanse
the area for an Armenian homeland which never existed. The rest of the
Ottoman Turkish population either very blindly followed their
terrorist leaders (who were ".. craven and mean-spirited and exel in
nothing except drinking ..imperfect Christians" - Marco Polo), or
remained totally complacent.
http://www.armenianreality.com/armenian_terror/diary.htm
OFFICIAL DIARY OF THE SECOND RUSSIAN GARRISON ARTILLERY REGIMENT IN
ERZERUM
The Russian Army of the Caucasus evacuated the stations they had
previously
occupied towards the middle of December 1917, and, without having
received
orders from G.H.Q. or any of the Army Commanders, began their
withdrawal.
The Garrison Artillery Regiment brought up the rear of the Army. Of the
detachments from the Deve-Boinu fortresses and the Artillery Regiment
from
Erzerum only 4° officers remained behind. Deserted by their men, they
remained by the guns from a feeling of duty. In the fortresses were
more
than 400 guns, left behind for lack of means of transport. The
officers,
inspired by feelings of honor and duty, waited permission from G.H.Q.
to
leave the guns or for reinforcements to carry on the defense. With the
officers of the first Regiment the cadre of the second Artillery
Regiment
was formed.
After the withdrawal of the Russian Army an Armenian Revolutionary
Committee
was set up in Erzerum, calling itself " The Armenian Military Union."
At the
same time the Army Commander sent to the Second Garrison Artillery
Regiment
400 untrained Armenians, of whom the majority deserted and the
remainder
could only be used to guard the batteries of the fortresses.
Shortly before the withdrawal of the Army, when touch had been lost
between
Russia and the Trans-Caucasus, a provisional Government had been formed
in
Tiflis, which was called "The Trans-Caucasian Commission." This
Commission
announced that there was no intention of instituting an independent
Trans-Caucasian Government, as before Trans-Caucasia belonged
absolutely to
Russia, but until the restoration of order the Commission would
undertake to
represent the central administration.
On the 18th December, 1917, the Commission issued a proclamation that
in
place of the scattered Russian Army, a new Army would be raised on a
national basis, consisting of three Army Corps-one Russian, one
Georgian,
one Mohammedan-and some detachments of smaller nationalities, such as
Cherkesses, Ossets, etc. Only the artillery in the fortresses of
Erzerum and
Deve-Boinu retained their old character (i.e., comprised troops of
various
nationalities) until a decision should be arrived at as to the
nationality
of this unit, consisting of Russian officers and Armenian men. It was
clear
that this unit, whose cadres and leaders were in Russian hands, could
not be
claimed as Armenian. Moreover, we had received no orders with regard to
the
Armenian character of the formation, which was still regarded as
Russian,
being led by Russian officers who had actually served in the Russian
Army
and drew their pay from the Russian Treasury. The fact that the Army
possessed no Armenian, but only a Russian church, conducted by Russian
priests, was a further proof of the complete Muscovite character of the
unit.
Since the withdrawal of the Army, begun some two months before, order
could
not be re-established among the soldiers, who deserted, looted, and
threatened their officers, and were in a state of complete mutiny.
Colonel
Torkum, alleged to be an Armenian Bulgar, was appointed Commandant of
Erzerum.
Towards the middle of January 1918, some Armenians of the infantry
detachment murdered a Turkish notable of Erzerum in his dwelling and
looted
the house. Commander-in-Chief Odichelidze mustered all detachment
commanders
and summoned them to discover the perpetrator of this horrible crime
within
three days at most. He then turned to the Armenian officers and told
them
that the honor of the Armenian nation was at stake in this matter; it
was
therefore their duty to leave no stone unturned to discover the guilty
person if they were to clear their reputation in the eyes of the world.
" If these outrages of which the Armenians are guilty do not cease, I
shall
find myself compelled to distribute arms to the Mohammedan population
so
that they can defend their lives and property," he added. To these
accusations Colonel Torkum retorted in an injured tone that it was
unjust to
lay the crimes of a few individuals at the door of a whole nation. The
detachment commanders proposed the setting up of a court martial, which
by
military law could punish murder with death. Odichelidze replied that
he had
already taken the necessary measures.
Colonel Torkum, if I am not mistaken, organized on 25th January a
review of
the troops and had twenty-one guns fired to impress the population with
his
military power. On this occasion he made a speech in Armenian. In this
speech, which is directed against General Odichelidze, he asserted
Armenian
independence, and mentioned that he was taking over the reins of
authority
as head of the new State. After hearing this grotesque statement the
General
had the new head of the State, Colonel Torkum, removed from Erzerum.
This measure was sufficient to show that the Russian Government
intended to
prevent at all costs the founding of an independent Armenian State. I
have
learnt that the Russian General Staff has reminded the Armenians
repeatedly
that all arms, ammunition, and other war stores, partly from the depots
at
Erzerum, partly from other depots, had only been handed over to them
provision- ally because no other troops were available. These arms,
therefore, were only loaned to the Armenian and had to be handed back
at any
time on request.
In these days the Armenians were perpetrating indescribably cruel
murders
among the poor Turkish inhabitants of the neighborhood of Erzindjan;
the
Turks were unarmed and without any means of self-defense. On hearing
that
the Turkish troops were approaching, the Armenians, committing fresh
crimes,
fled in the direction of Erzerum.
According to the reports of the Commander-in-Chief, confirmed by
officers
who were actually present at the scene of the crime, the Armenians slew
more
than 800 Turks in Erzindjan, and so avenged one of their miserable
accomplices who had been killed by a Turk in justified self-defense.
Furthermore, the Armenians massacred the unhappy Mohammedan population
of
Ilidja, in the neighborhood of Erzerum, without sparing the women and
children.
On February 7th the following incident came to my notice: I ascertained
that
the Militia and the Armenian soldiers of the town were carrying off
some
hundreds of Mohammedans to an unknown destination. When I inquired into
the
reasons for this, I received the answer that these men were being
recruited
to clear the railway of snow. I expressed myself satisfied with this
explanation.
About three o'clock 2nd Lieutenant Lipsky, an officer of my regiment,
reported to me over the telephone that some Armenian soldiers had
attacked
five Turks in the streets; they had driven them into a corner of the
barrack
yard, beaten them mercilessly, and would certainly kill them. The
intervention of the Russian officer in favor of the unfortunate men was
met
with threats, where-upon an Armenian officer, who was also present at
the
scene, took the part of the bandits and joined in preventing Lipsky
from
intervening. On hearing this I hurried, accompanied by three officers,
to
the scene of the outrage. On the way I met the officer who had
telephoned to
me and the Mayor of Erzerum, Stawrosky, looking for one of their
Turkish
friends who had been captured by the Armenians. Lipsky told me that the
soldiers were holding the entrance to the barracks by force of arms. I
went
on my way. As I came near the barracks I saw twelve Turks leaving; they
were
running away, obviously panic-stricken. I stopped one of them, but, as
I did
not understand his speech, it was impossible to know what he said.
Finally,
with great difficulty, I entered the barracks. I immediately inquired
about
the Turks who had been captured in the street. The soldiers affirmed
that
there was no civilian of the town in the barracks. I began a personal
search
of every nook and corner of the barracks, and finally discovered in the
bathroom seventy Mohammedans, victims of the most ghastly horrors. I
immediately instituted an inquiry and had six Armenians who were
responsible
for this crime arrested. I also learned in the course of the inquiry
that an
Armenian, whose identity I could not establish, had shot an unfortunate
Mohammedan who had shown himself on the roof of a house near the
barracks.
Naturally I at once set at liberty the unfortunate victim of this
horrible
outrage. The minutes of this inquiry, together with my own records,
including the list of the Mohammedans whom I had succeeded in rescuing,
were
lost during the reoccupation of Erzerum by the Ottoman troops on
February
27th. But the incident can be confirmed by questioning the Turks, who,
whenever we meet, are profuse in their gratitude. In addition, Ali Bey
Pepeoff, the Secretary of Mayor Stawrosky, who drew up the list and the
protocol, would certainly recognize the parties concerned.
The inquiry revealed that Karaguedoff, an Armenian cadet of the
artillery
regiment, was the instigator of the outrage. In the course of ruthless
house-searchings in Turkish homes, which he had conducted in the
company of
Armenian soldiers accustomed to such methods, he had appropriated
furniture
and other domestic property. Karaguedoff was arrested, together with
other
Armenian soldiers. The incidents were reported the same evening to the
Commander-in-Chief in the presence of Government Commissioner Zetaloff
and
his assistant. On the same day the Armenians murdered other Turks and
set
fire to the Turkish bazaar. It was generally known that during these
days
several murders were committed in Erzerum and its neighborhood. I
personally
arrested an Armenian who had killed Turks in the neighborhood of Tafta
and
handed him over to the Commandant. It was said in the town that the
Turk who
had been told off to work in the fields never returned from their work,
and
that nothing could be learnt as to their whereabouts. The magistrates
reported the disappearance of these men to the Commander-in-Chief.
In a report which we handed to the Commander-in-Chief on the occasion
of an
officers' conference we requested his permission to leave the fortress
of
Erzerum in view of our complete uselessness and the impossibility of
preventing the Armenian crimes. We were afraid of besmirching our
reputation. Odischelidze told us of the arrival of a wireless message
which
he had received from General Wehib Pasha, in command of the Ottoman
troops.
The General informed him that his troops had received orders to
garrison
Erzindjan and to advance until they had established touch with the
Russian
troops. Wehib Pasha further remarked that this was the only means of
paving
the way for the suppression of the barbarous cruelties practiced by the
Armenians upon the Turkish population.
After this the Trans-Caucasian Commission made offers of peace to the
Ottoman Government. In the telegram of reply the Commandant of the
Ottoman
troops expressed his readiness to accept the proposal, and added that
he had
communicated the proposal of the Trans-Caucasian Commission to his
Government, recommending its acceptance. In accordance with a petition
from
us, General Odichelidze got into communication with Gueguetschkoni, the
President of the Trans-Caucasian Commission, and General Lebedinsky,
the
Commander-in-Chief.
The reply contained the announcement that an ultimatum had been
dispatched
to the Armenian National Assembly, demanding the immediate cessation of
all
Armenian atrocities in order to put an end finally to these lamentable
occurrences, and that Dr. Zavrieff and Andranik had been sent as
delegates
to Erzerum. As to the request of the officers, the advice of the
Commissaries was that they should remain at their posts until the
expected
answer to the peace overtures had been received from the Ottoman
Government.
The Council expressed their thanks to the officers for the service they
had
rendered, and declared that if Russia were faced with any fresh danger
they
were sure that the officers would be found at their posts to the last
minute.
The Commander-in-Chief of the Army also issued an order of the day in
which
he recommended officers not to leave their posts, adding that to shield
their honor and protect their lives he would enforce the most stringent
measures against the Armenian criminals. On these conditions we
remained at
Erzerum with the sole object of safeguarding the interests of Russia,
and
under the sole command of the Commander-in-Chief. We learned that the
Ottoman Government had received the proposal of the Trans-Caucasian
Commission with favor and replied to this effect, and that peace
negotiations would be opened on February 17th in Trebizond.
Our Army Commander informed all officers that there was no intention of
stirring up enmity against the Ottoman troops in Erzerum and the
neighborhood and that accordingly they were to remain in Erzerum until
the
conclusion of peace, when arms and other war material, according to the
peace conditions, would cither be transported to Russia or handed over
finally to the Ottoman Government. In case of any attempt on the part
of the
Ottoman troops to occupy Erzerum before the signing of peace, all guns
were
to be put out of action and the troops and officers withdrawn to
Russia,
definite orders for which would be promulgated at least seven days in
advance.
The necessity for defending ourselves against the attacks of the Kurds
until
the final decision as to our remaining grew more and more obvious, for
during the Armistice the Ottoman Government had declared that the Kurds
were
subject to no orders and would act on their own initiative. The Army
Commander had, therefore, decided as early as the end of January to
strengthen the Erzerum-Erzindjan line-of-communication by an
appropriate
number of guns to keep off the attacks of the Kurds, who were trying to
loot
our line-of-communication depots. An officer and two guns were ordered
to
each strategic point. On the withdrawal of the Armenians from Erzindjan
and
Erzerum the guns were withdrawn with them. On February 10th two guns
were
placed in all the positions from Buyuk-Kiremidli along the road from
Trebizond as far as Erep-Michan, as at all other important strategic
points
of the town, with the same object in view. In view of the probability
of a
Kurdish attack from the direction of Palan-Dongno, guns were to be
placed
also between the Kars and Charput gates. These guns, which were only to
be
used against a possible attack by the Kurds, and were scarcely adequate
for
this object, would have been useless against a regular army with
a few shots would suffice to put them out of action. Towards the middle
of
February the sights of the guns in the outlying positions were
collected and
delivered to the central depot; the same measure was now to be carried
out
also in the case of the guns in the nearer positions. This order was
also
given for the guns in Palan-Dongno, but was never carried out. Only the
guns, which remained in the positions to be used against the Kurds,
retained
their sights. However, no immediate offensive on the part of the
Ottoman
troops was expected, as the Turks were regarded as demoralized and not
in a
position to undertake any movements before the summer. On February 12th
some
Armenian bandits, armed to the teeth, had openly shot ten or twelve
Turks in
the neighborhood of the station. Two Russian officers, infuriated by
these
impudent outrages, had tried to interfere, but had been compelled to
give
way before armed threats and to leave the victims to their fate.
On February 13th the Commander-in-Chief proclaimed a state of siege and
convened a court martial, which was to enforce the death penalty
according
to the old regulations. Colonel Morel was appointed Commandant of the
fortress of Erzerum, and an Armenian as president of the court martial.
On
the same day the Commander-in-Chief and General Gerassimoff left the
town;
they wished to fix a rendezvous in case the artillery had to withdraw.
I
remained in Erzerum in command of the Garrison Artillery. Colonel
Morel's
staff consisted exclusively of Russian officers, and the Adjutant of
the
regiment was Staff-Captain Schnauer.
After the departure of the Commander-in-Chief, Colonel Morel at once
changed
his attitude. He declared that Erzerum was to be defended to the last
moment, and forbade all officers and inhabitants capable of bearing
arms to
leave the town. When I submitted to the court martial the wishes of
some of
the officers to avail themselves of this permission, one member, an
Armenian
named Sokhonnyan, replied brutally that he would himself cut down all
who
showed any intention of quitting the town, and would have any man who
should
dare to attempt flight seized by the Armenian forces in Kopri-Koj and
Hassan-Kale, and taken before the court martial unless they were
provided
with permits. These permits, however, were issued solely by him. I
realized
that we were in a trap, escape from which would be extremely difficult,
and
that the court martial and the state of siege were directed less
against the
bandits than against the Russian officers.
The outrages continued in the town, and the unhappy Turkish population,
unarmed and defenceless, was continually attacked by the Armenians.
Their
only refuge was the Russian officers, who, however, could only offer
them
very limited protection. A few officers under my command had been
obliged to
use force to save the lives of a couple of Turks who were being robbed
in
the street. A military engineer, Karaieff, shot down with his rifle an
Armenian who was taking to his heels after robbing a Turk in the street
in
the middle of the day. The promise to punish the bandits who murdered
peaceful, unarmed Mohammedans remained, as usual, a dead letter.
From fear of Armenian revenge, the court martial did not dare to
sentence
one single Armenian, in spite of the fact that it had been set up
chiefly at
Armenian request. The Turks, moreover, had prophesied that a court
martial
of Armenians would not condemn a single one of their compatriots. We
could
now see the truth of the proverb that the wolves do not prey on one
another.
All fit Armenians immediately escaped with their wives on the pretext
of
being obliged to protect them.
I learned that a non-commissioned officer, Karaguedoff, had been freed
from
prison without my permission. I made inquiries of Colonel Morel as to
the
reason for this, and was told in reply that Karaguedoff's innocence had
been
established at a new inquiry. In spite of the fact that two of my
officers
and I bad been the principal witnesses on this occasion, neither of us
had
been summoned to this very extraordinary inquiry. I expressed my
dissatisfaction with the reply received from Colonel Morel, reported
the
matter again, and handed over the minutes to Colonel Alexandroff. The
murderer I had captured in Tafta likewise went unpunished.
Colonel Morel feared a mutiny of the Turkish troops in Erzerum. On
February
I7th Andranik arrived in Erzerum, accompanied by Dr. Zavrieff,
Assistant
Commissioner for the occupied area. As we had not been instructed on
Armenian questions, we did not know that Andranik was one of the
criminals
condemned to death by the Ottoman Government. I first learned these
details
on March 7th, in a conversation with the Turkish Army Commander.
Andranik
appeared in the uniform of a Russian brigadier-general. He was wearing
the
Order of Vladimir, Fourth Class, and the Cross of St. George, Second
Class,
as well as the Military Cross of St. George, Second Class. He was
accompanied by his Chief-of-Staff, the Russian colonel, Zinkewitsch. In
the
evening before his arrival Colonel Morel informed us that, according to
a
telegram received from Andranik at Kopri-Koj, machine-guns were to be
employed to shoot down all cowards who attempted to escape from
Erzerum.
Immediately after his arrival Andranik took over the command of the
fortress; Colonel Morel was subordinate to him, and we to Morel.
On the day of Andranik's arrival the whole of the inhabitants of
Tepe-Koj,
which belonged to my command, were massacred-men, women, and children.
The
officer on duty in this section communicated the tragic news to me, and
I
immediately reported it to Andranik in our first conversation. In my
presence he gave orders for twenty horsemen to be dispatched to
Tepe-Koj to
bring back at least one of the criminals. Up to the present day I have
never
heard the result of this step.
Colonel Torkum turned up again in the town, and at the same time the
Armenian artillery colonel, Dolukhanoff, made his reappearance in
Erzerum.
His first announcement was that he, an Inspector of Artillery, would
henceforward rank as my superior officer. I replied that I held the
rank of
a Divisional Commander and did not require a superior officer;
otherwise, I
added, I should leave the service. It was thereupon announced that
Colonel
Dolukhanoff would carry on the administrative work of the Garrison
Artillery, and that consequently his instructions to me would not be
issued
under his own name, but, as before, under that of Andranik. One day the
Armenian lieutenant, Djanbuladion, who commanded the artillery
battalion
under my orders, also made an attempt to interfere with my affairs.
When I
directed that all guns, searchlights, and dynamos were to be
transported
towards the rear, he replied that he would not allow any withdrawal of
material, as the Armenians intended to take all the administrative
posts in
the command into their own hands, and might only use the Russian
officers as
executives; they also wished to use them, without their realizing it,
in
establishing Armenian independence. Had the Russian officers grasped
the
purpose they were intended to serve the majority of them would have
resigned, and the Armenians would have been left with an inadequate
number
of officers. The following statements of Captain Peliat, temporary O.C.
of
the 7th Battalion of Caucasian Mountain Artillery, show how gravely the
Armenians feared the resignation of the artillery officers. When the
Armenians learned that the 7th Battalion Mountain Artillery were
holding
themselves in readiness to withdraw to San Kamisch on February 7th,
they
seized the commanding officer on the 5th of that month; and although at
the
orders of the Army H.Q. they were obliged to set him at liberty, they
repeated the attempt three times.
The Armenians of Erzerum threatened H.Q. to drown the town in blood if
the
guns were withdrawn. The Army Commander was consequently forced to
cancel
the order for the withdrawal of the artillery. An attempt had to be
made to
come to an understanding with the officer commanding the 7th artillery
Battalion. We agreed secretly that, in case the Armenians should
attempt to
force the hands of the Russian artillery officers and officially
propose
that they should ally themselves with the Armenian cause, we would help
one
another mutually. We possessed considerable war material, guns,
machine-guns, and officers. The officers of the Mountain Artillery
tried to
find billets as near as possible to one another in the town, and we of
the
Garrison Artillery collected as far as possible in the Turkish quarter,
where our headquarters had been situated since the occupation of the
town.
Since Andranik's arrival at Colonel Morel's side the fears of a rising
of
the inhabitants of Erzerum had greatly increased. The Colonel ordered
that
an efficient Russian officer should be put in command of Fort Medjedie
to
direct the bombardment in the event of a rising, which might follow the
arrest of the instigator of the unrest. We all received the order to
leave
the Turkish quarter and transfer ourselves to the Armenian quarter. As
we
had lived in this quarter for two years, and were always in sympathy
with
the Mohammedan population, we thought this suggestion, to say the least
of
it, remarkable.
The Russian artillery officers unanimously declared that they had
remained
in the service to fight a worthy foe, and would never agree to fire on
women
and children, for it was quite clear that the Armenians would use a
threatened Turkish rising as a pretext to open a bombardment of the
Turkish
quarter. As to the transfer to the Armenian quarter, it was
impracticable
for three reasons: Firstly, it was impossible to effect the removal in
the
time given; secondly, the withdrawal of the Russian officers from the
Mohammedan quarter would of course, be followed by a fresh massacre;
and
thirdly, in view of the strained relations that had existed for some
time
between them and the Armenians, it would have been risky for the
Russian
officers to venture into their midst.
The officers of the Mountain Artillery Battalion who did not belong to
the
cadre of the Garrison Artillery also rejected the proposal. Finally the
Armenians, who were left with no choice but to do their own dirty work,
began to arrest some alleged agitators.
As Colonel Morel's proposal to bombard the town was very significant, I
considered it necessary to call together all the officers under my
command.
We met twice in the course of three days. The first meeting was
attended by
all artillery officers in Erzerum, as well as by two English officers
who
had arrived a few days before; also by Colonels Morel. Zinkewitsch,
Dolukhanoff and Torkum, Andranik and Dr. Zavrieff. Our object in
inviting
the English officers was to let them see the relations existing between
the
Russian officers and the Armenian Command. It would also give them an
opportunity of finding out what resources the Russians had at their
disposal
to prevent Armenian atrocities, so that on their return they might
support
their observations by tangible proofs. As I had no telephonic or
telegraphic
connections under my personal control, I was convinced that telegrams
sent
by me would never reach their destination. I therefore seized the
opportunity of this meeting to describe in the greatest detail all that
I
had myself observed and heard from reliable sources as to the
atrocities and
horrors perpetrated by the Armenians. I described to my hearers the
degree
of insubordination that prevailed among the Armenian troops, and cited
examples I had heard from the lips of General Odischlidze himself. I
concluded with the words: " We Russian officers who have remained in
Erzerum
have not done so with the object of placing our uniforms at the service
of
the Armenians as a cloak to conceal their ghastly crimes, but simply
and
solely in obedience to our superiors and to protect Russia. Unless the
Armenian atrocities are suspended during our stay in Erzerum," I added,
"
every Russian officer will insist on leaving the town and resigning his
post." Some other officers, speaking after me, emphatically confirmed
what I
had said.
In his reply Andranik intimated that the Armenians would be eternally
grateful to Russia, that the Armenians formed an integral part of the
population of Greater Russia, and that they had no other end in view
than
that of serving Russian interests. As to the so-called massacres
committed
by the Armenians, they were the result of the enmity existing between
Armenians and Turks. He added that the principal object of his mission
in
Erzerum was to put down such crimes, and, should he fail to bring the
Armenians to reason, he would be the first to leave the town. The
business
of the meeting was carried on through the medium of an interpreter.
Questioned as to his views on allowing officers who wished to do so to
leave
the town, Andranik replied that he considered it desirable that all
those
who were not too confident of their own courage should leave the town,
and
he would himself assist their departure as far as possible. Colonel
Zinkewitsch declared before the whole meeting that, once convinced that
the
continued presence of the Russian officers in Erzerum would serve the
interests of Russia, he would remain solely for that reason. In the end
all
officers decided to remain ten days longer and to regulate their
conduct by
the future course of events, according as these might confirm or refute
Andranik's pledges.
The meeting had been held on February 20th or 21st. Shortly afterwards
Colonel Dolukhanoff expressed to me and other Russian officers his
astonishment at the contempt and even horror with which the Russian
officers
regarded the Armenians. On the next day Andranik proclaimed, on large
wall-posters written in Turkish, that any man who killed either
Armenians or
Mohammedans would be arrested and punished by death; further, that the
Turks
might resume their occupations without fear, and that, in the event of
anyone of the Mohammedans engaged in labor in the fields failing to
return
from his work, he would hold the entire detachment in charge of the
supervision of the work responsible. As I was riding through the
streets the
following day, accompanied by the Armenian captain, Djanbuladian, we
noticed
many people reading the posters. Djanhuladian assured them in Turkish
that
provided the Mohammedan population refrained from revolt, they would
have
nothing to fear from the Armenians. The reply was that for two years
the
Mohammedans had committed no crimes, and that there was no intention of
doing so in the future; all they asked was that the Mohammedans, who
were
unarmed and without any means of defense, should not be killed, without
reason. I asked the captain to tell the people that I was the Russian
artillery commander, and to state that I and my Russian comrades were
sympathetic towards the Mohammedan population, and would continue, as
before, to look after these poor people, Some of the Turks present, two
or
three especially, confirmed my words, saying that I had with my own
hand
saved their lives during the massacre of February 7th. Djanbuladian,
who
acted as interpreter, was himself a member of the Armenian Committee.
At the second meeting Russian officers were present, the only foreigner
admitted being Dr. Zavrieff. The following points were discussed: That
an
attempt should be made to define clearly the status of the 2nd Garrison
Artillery Regiment of Erzerum, in the sense that this regiment was not,
as
the Armenians imagined, an Armenian artillery regiment, but a Russian
regiment; not one of its officers had voluntarily enlisted in Armenian
service, not one of us had made any agreement to do so. If the regiment
was
Russian we insisted on preserving Russian status; if Armenian, we
desired
the right to leave the town at will in order to serve with the Russian
Army.
The state of siege had only served to prevent the departure of those
officers who wished to leave in order to serve on another than the
Caucasus
front. If, on the other hand, the current rumor materialized and the
Trans-Caucasus had split off from Russia, it would certainly be
necessary to
grant leave of absence to the Russian officers if we were not to find
ourselves strangers in a foreign land.
After prolonged discussion we reached the conviction that, according to
the
circular we had received, every officer had the right to apply for
transfer
to a Russian Army Corps or to be placed at the disposal of the War
Ministry.
I therefore consented to forward all such applications to the proper
authorities.
During the meeting the experience of Lieutenant Yermoloff, of the 7th
Battalion Caucasus Mountain Artillery, was brought up as a striking
example.
He had asked to be transferred from the new Armenian battalion to which
he
had been assigned. Colonel Morel had first tried to dissuade him, then,
in
face of this officer's fixed determination, he had added to the written
form
of application that the officer in question had shown himself
incompetent
for his duties, that he would therefore be placed at the disposal of
the
General Staff of the Front, and would receive orders to leave Erzerum
within
twenty-four hours. Thus was the honor of an efficient officer attacked,
for
the sole reason that he refused to serve Armenian interests and had
been
indiscreet enough to declare that Colonel Morel had allied himself to
the
Armenian cause.
Dr. Zavrieff repeated word for word Andranik's statement given above.
He
said that by remaining in Erzerum until the conclusion of peace we
should be
serving Russian interests. Officers belonging to a civilized nation had
no
right to adopt such a line of reasoning as, for example: "Let the
Armenians
and Turks settle their own quarrel! Let them cut each other's throats!
Why
should we Russians interfere with their affairs? Let them go to the
devil!"
At the conclusion of his speech, which had not made the desired
impression,
Dr. Zavrieff said that if we wished to serve humanity it was our duty
to
remain in Erzerum to prevent butchery of the Turks.
Andranik's promises were not fulfilled, nor had the Mohammedan
population
ever placed any faith in them. Shops remained closed and terror
continued to
reign. Not a living soul showed himself in the Mohammedan quarters.
Only a
few shops in the neighbourhood of the Town Hall opened their shutters,
and
there a few Mohammedans collected during the day.
Not a single Armenian was punished. To keep up the pretence of Armenian
innocence the question was asked whether the innocent were to be
punished
for the sake of Andranik's promise. But when the Russian officers
replied
that they had themselves handed over various Armenian offenders and
accused
them before the authorities, this irrefutable argument was received in
silence. Murder still went on and was merely concealed. It was
practiced in
the more remote villages, no longer before the eyes of the Russian
officers.
The Turkish inhabitants of the villages round Erzerum disappeared, and
nothing was heard as to their fate.
Arrests in the town increased in number on the excuse of a possible
rising.
To my ironical question, what happened to the prisoners, and whether
they
all ran the risk of being slaughtered, Colonel Morel replied that some
would
be taken to Tiflis under adequate escort, others would be kept in
Erzerum as
hostages. In the streets Armenian bands, formed of Armenian deserters,
murdered the passers-by--partly from fear, partly to rob them of their
possessions; in any case, robbery was the chief motive. Before
Andranik's
arrival the companies refused to go into the front line. Afterwards
they
obeyed the order, but only to desert in the most craven fashion.
Andranik,
on horse-back, tried to drive them back with his sword and fists. To
have
him at their head was the dearest wish of all Armenians of the Russian
artillery. They were apparently incapable of grasping that the Garrison
Artillery required the services of trained artillerymen and an adequate
number of infantry. But it was easy to guess their secret thought: when
the
moment came for withdrawal, to escape under cover of the guns.
Subsequent
events have proved the truth of this.
The opening of peace negotiations at Trebizond was delayed. We learned
through the General Staff at Erzerum that the negotiations fixed for
February 17th had been postponed until the 20th or 25th. As my Staff
was
separated in opposite ends of the town, and the telephonic
communication was
in an inefficient state, I was compelled to make the journey twice a
day.
According to information I received from Colonel Morel and his Staff in
the
course of an official visit, there were no regular Ottoman troops in
the
neighborhood of Erzerum; we were fighting Kurdish bands and villagers,
together with a few regulars, relics of the Turkish Army of 1916. It
was
understood that these bands bad been raised by some Ottoman officers
who had
come to the neighborhood to protect the population. These troops had
only
two mountain guns, which had been left in Erzindjan by the Armenians.
They
could advance by the Erzindjan-Olti- Jeni road, or from the other side
from
Kars and Palan-Dogno. Colonel Morel, on what grounds I do not know,
assumed
that the attack would be made from Olti. The intelligence service was
conducted by the Armenians most inefficiently. They were chiefly
occupied in
murder in the villages and driving off any herds of cattle they came
across.
Their reports were lies from beginning to end. If they reported that
the
patrol had been attacked by an enemy force of 2,000 men, one could be
sure
that there had actually been 200 at most. They were not ashamed to
admit
having fled before an attack by 300-400 men, in which their sole loss
was
one killed and one wounded. One day an Armenian officer reported over
the
telephone that his detachment had been attacked by 400 of the enemy; it
transpired that two unarmed men had emerged from a neighboring village
and
immediately withdrawn into their houses. From the evacuation of Erzerum
until the Turkish occupation the Armenian Scout patrols only once
succeeded
in making a capture -a single Turkish horseman. He was probably
suffering
from frozen feet or was prevented by some other reason from escaping.
After our second officers' meeting some officers had applied for
transfer to
other posts. When these applications were submitted to Colonel Morel he
was
very angry, and said that he would refuse to permit their departure on
the
grounds of a court martial decision. When I pointed out that the guns
were
still in the hands of the Russian officers, who could reply to such
unjustified severity with artillery fire, and, moreover, that as the
applications were absolutely legal and could not be stigmatized as an
attempt at desertion, it was necessary to comply, he retorted that, if
the
officers insisted, he would give them, as he had done in the case of
Captain
Yermaloff, papers which would compromise their records. I replied to
Colonel
Morel that, as Colonel Dolukhanoff had justly declared in Tiflis and
Batum,
officers who were forced to remain at their posts against their will
could
not be expected to give good service. He replied that for this reason
he had
asked for sixty English officers to be sent to Erzerum, and had already
received formal consent. On this occasion I also heard of another
a Russian or Polish soldier who was acting as stationmaster in Erzerum
had
refused to continue his duties. He had been at once arrested and forced
to
carry on. Under the pretext of facilitating a more rapid circulation of
orders I ordered my officers to billet themselves as near to one
another as
possible; in reality my object was that we might be in a better
position to
help one another in case of need.
Captain Yermoloff had departed on February 25th. I had asked him to
break
his journey at Sari-Kamieko to inform Generals Wischinsky and
Gerassimoff,
artillery commanders. of the serious position in which we were placed
in
relation to the Armenians, and to urge him to free us as quickly as
possible
from this cul-de-sac.
On February 24th I sighted a Turkish aeroplane reconnoitering, and
concluded
that the enemy was at Erzindjan or even Mama-Khatum. The same day
Colonel
Morel informed me that he had received the Turkish proposal regarding
the
evacuation of Erzerum. After the Turkish occupation I learned from
Corps
Commander Krazim Bey that this proposal had not been a worthless scrap
of
paper, but an official document bearing his own signature, whereas
Colonel
Morel had deliberately led me to believe that this official ultimatum,
signed by the Officer Commanding the Army Corps, was mere bluff. The
General
Staff of the fortress announced on February 24th and 25th that no
danger was
imminent. Only a band of Kurds had been seen in the neighbourhood of
Teke-Deressi, and their advance had been checked by a detachment sent
out
against them. It was also stated that a detachment sent out from
Erzerum had
thrown back the enemy a few kilometers beyond Ilidja. Meanwhile we
heard
that on February 26th the Armenian detachment at Teke-Deressi had been
attacked, and that those who had been able to escape had fled like the
wind
to Erzerum; the Ilidja detachment, completely broken up, was also
running
away in the same direction.
I had received from Colonel Morel verbal orders to open artillery fire
on
the attacking enemy, but I could see no target. On the Charput road
only
fleeing Armenian soldiers were visible, and on the Trebizond road
Armenian
detachments retreating on Erzerum in close formation, as if on the
parade
ground. In the course of the afternoon it became known, also, that an
enemy
detachment was halted close to Guoz-Koj. I estimated it at 1,500 men;
it did
not look like Kurdish bands, but a properly led regiment.
Andranik attempted to muster the fugitives and send them against the
enemy,
but these cowards took to their heels as soon as they came into touch
with
the foe. The artillery fire, however, was maintained until midnight.
Immediately the Kurd offensive was opened and we had got to work, no
more
was heard of departure from the Russian officers, who carried out their
assigned duties honorably.
I could not induce the Armenian infantry attached to my batteries at
Buyuk-
Kiremidli to attack; instead they deserted the batteries and withdrew
persistently towards the Charput gate. The Armenians who had fled at
Teke-Deressi even carried off in their flight the herds of cattle and
slew
the defenseless isolated peasants they encountered on their way. The
Turkish
advance on Erzerum came as a complete surprise to the Russian General
Staff;
no battle orders had been issued, or, if they had, I, at any rate, had
heard
nothing of them. My task was very simple: it consisted of keeping the
enemy
under fire to prevent him from piercing the belt of forts, which
surrounded
the town. In the advanced positions were also infantry and mountain
artillery, which were not under my command.
On the same day the Armenian militia busied themselves in the town
until
evening in seizing all male Mohammedans, including old men and sick.
When
questioned as to the object of these measures, the reply was that men
were
being collected to clear the railway of snow. In the evening I learned
that
an Armenian student, with his band, had forced an entry into my house,
in
spite of my name on the door, on the excuse of searching it. As my wife
resisted this deliberate intrusion he did not succeed in his attempt,
and
was also prevented from carrying off the owner of the house, an old
Turk,
together with some Kurdish servants; he cursed roundly at this
thwarting of
his plan. The student declared that the searchings were being carried
out at
the order of Andranik. I at once had a communication door cut so that
the
old man could take refuge with us in case they came a second time to
fetch
him.
I had recently been in the habit, each time I visited Andranik and his
Staff, of taking with me Captain Yulkewitsch, the chief of the
Mobilization
Department, as a witness of my relations with these men. One evening he
accompanied me to an officers' meeting. When we entered the meeting had
already begun. Those present were Andranik, Dr. Zavrieff, Colonels
Zinkewitsch and Dolukhanoff, and a few others. On my arrival
Zinkewitsch
began to read aloud the following telegram from the Commander-in-Chief,
General Odichelidze: " I have received a wireless message from Wehib
Pasha,
commanding the Ottoman forces, in which he states that his troops have
orders to occupy Erzerum. Destroy the guns of the fortress and withdraw
with
the troops. (Sgd.) Odichelidze."
This belated order left us no time to destroy the guns. After Andranik
had
given vent to his fury, he announced his decision to hold Erzerum two
days
longer, to enable the destruction to be carried out, and then to
evacuate
the fortress. When Dr. Zavrieff pointed out that nothing was being done
to
suppress the firebrands who infested the town, and that the Mohammedan
aged
and sick had been seized and dispatched to an unknown destination, he
replied that orders had already been given to put down this disorder.
But,
as with all the others, these fine promises were never carried out.
After discussing the best way of carrying out Andranik's decision we
withdrew. As to the question of holding Erzerum for two more days,
considering the strength of the troops and of the advanced position,
the
town could have held out for another forty-two days, not only against
the
Kurds, but even against a regular army.
As Ottoman H.Q. had officially stated in the course of the armistice
negotiations that they could not be responsible for keeping the Kurds
in
order, it was our duty to take all necessary measures against a
possible
attack from them.
When I returned to my Headquarters I gave the necessary orders for the
destruction of the guns, which in any case could have been rendered
useless
within two days. I learned from the reports of my officers that the
infantry, under cover of darkness, had deserted the trenches and taken
to
flight. I communicated this news to Colonel Morel, who assured me that
it
would give rise to no danger at all, as reinforcements had been sent
up. I
returned home and went to bed about one o'clock.
Between one and three I heard isolated shots in the town, and soon
after I
could hear the voices of Armenians, the sound of doors being smashed in
with
axes, and the despairing cries of the poor unhappy Mohammedans, who had
been
attacked. Two thoughts gave me anxiety: In the first place, our honor
was
threatened, for anyone who had not witnessed personally the cowardly
cruelty
of the Armenians (fighting for freedom!) might assume that these
inhuman
brutalities were being perpetrated with the connivance of the Russian
officers, and we should have to share the blame with these wild beasts;
in
the second place, as it was not in accordance with the views of G.H.Q.
to
engage the regular Turkish forces, the result might be that the orders
of
the Commander-in-Chief would not be obeyed if a misunderstanding should
arise among the attackers. With regard to these two points I came to
the
following decision: To call on Colonel Morel first thing in the morning
and
suggest to him--first, that the Armenians must be prevented from
perpetrating fresh outrages, even if the only method of doing so were
to
turn part of our guns upon them and so control them to heed our orders;
secondly, envoys should be at once sent with a flag of truce to the
Turkish
troops to inform them that in two days the town would be ceded without
bloodshed. Moreover, it would be necessary to raise detachments,
excluding
Armenians, in order to suppress the disturbances by force of arms and
prevent the butchery of the Turks by the Armenians.
When, in the early morning, I went to see Colonel Morel, accompanied by
Captain Yulkewitsch, I met, near the artillery munition dump, the
Armenian
second lieutenant, Bagratonian, who was on duty at this depot. He told
me
that when the order came to withdraw he would like to blow up the dump,
but
would wait for orders from me. This statement astounded me, for the
ammunition depot was under the command of Colonel Dolukhanoff, and no
orders
had been received to blow it up. I gave him to understand that such an
explosion might cause injury to the Russian officers as well as to the
civilian population, advised him to abandon his project, and finally
succeeded in convincing him. In this way I saved the ammunition.
As I approached Colonel Morel's quarters I saw that everyone was taking
flight. The house of the American Consul, which stands opposite his
quarters, was in flames. Colonel Morel and Colonel Torkum were mounted
and
ready for flight; their baggage had been loaded on to a motorcar and
several
carriages. It was seven o'clock in the morning. I inquired as to the
situation. I was told that the order for withdrawal had been issued at
5
a.m., and astonishment was expressed that I had not received it. This
is
what I had feared: the Armenians succeeded in escaping under the
protection
of the Russian officers and the artillery. But while the Russian
officers
were working the guns single- handed and beating back the onslaught of
the
attackers, the Armenians were at full liberty to slaughter the
Mohammedans
and take to their heels. If I had not appeared no Russian officer would
have
known of the order for withdrawal. I thought for a moment of running to
Fort
Medjedie to send a farewell of shrapnel into the brave Armenians who,
clad
in bulletproof tunics, were fleeing unhindered along the Kars road. But
it
occurred to me that there might be one or two innocent men among them,
so I
abandoned the idea.
It was also a result of the cunning and cowardice of the noble Armenian
looters that the guns could not be put out of action. When I returned
to my
quarters I heard in an obscure street cries of pain and the crackle 'of
a
terrific rifle volley. As I was at a street corner I could not see what
was
happening, but the bloodstains in the snow showed that a fight had
taken
place. I got down from my carriage to continue my journey on foot; but
when
I saw the Armenian Commanding Officer of the Militia on horseback,
coming
out of a side street, I could imagine the scene of horror that had been
enacted.
When I was back in my quarters I gave orders to the batteries to sound
the
retreat at the same time as the infantry and to get the carriages ready
for
the artillery officers. I was told that the outriders had already
escaped in
the night. Armenian deserters, armed to the teeth, had taken the horses
belonging to the carriages, and galloped off two on each horse. As my
groom
had put up a resistance they had not been able to take my horses, but
they
wounded one of them with a shot. Of the fifty carriages we were left
with
only three, which some of the officers used. Soon afterwards we learnt
the
Turkish army had entered the town, and were at last able to ascertain
that
they did not consist of bands of Kurds collected together haphazard,
but
regular troops. The brave Armenian infantry took advantage of the night
to
dash off with all speed along the Erzerum-Kars road. A hurricane could
hardly have swept Erzerum so thoroughly of the Armenian dirt in so
short a
time.
Neither in the firing trenches nor in the town were there any wounded
Armenians to be found. This proves afresh with what courage and
audacity
they had defended Erzerum. The only prisoners were Russian officers, so
the
Armenians can boast of having taken a negative part in the defense of
the
town.
After receiving news of the occupation of the town by the Turks I went
with
my adjutant to headquarters to report.
As I passed along the streets, the Turks I met expressed in most moving
fashion their gratitude to me for saving their lives. This gratitude
included all the Russian officers, for if the Russian officers had not
been
there, the Turkish troops reoccupying Erzerum would not have found a
single
Turk alive.
The Russian author Petronius says of the Armenians: " The Armenians are
certainly human, but at home they go on all fours."
"You
are a slave, you are a coward, for you are an Armenian."
ERZERUM, April 29th, 1918.
(Signed} LT.-COL. TVERDOKHLEBOFF,
Provisional Commandant of the Fortresses of Erzerum and Deveboynu,
Commanding the 2nd Garrison Artillery Regiment, Erzerum.
++++++++++++++++++++
http://www.armenianreality.com/armenian_terror/reward_to_armenian.htm
Reward to Armenian who saved Ataturk's life
In 1919, Armenian-origined Turkish citizen Berch Kerestecian Turker who
saved Ataturk's life, has been rewarded by Rotary 2420th Region
Governorship, after 50 years from his dead. Yesterday, at the ceremony
in Cemal Reshit Rey Concert Hall, attorney of Turkish Armenian
Patriarch Mesrob 2 th, Krikor Damadian took delivery of honour
certificate of Berch Kerestecian Turker, who informed that the ship
will be attacked by torpedos, which Mustafa Kemal Ataturk arrived to
Samsun in 19th May 1919. At the ceremony, historian, author Cemal Kutay
and American historian who known as Turkish friend, Prof. Dr. Justin
McCarthy been rewarded as ''Reward of faithful authors for history
makers''. Prof. Dr. McCarthy stated that against to supposedly
Armenian genocide, we must struggle for long-term. He said ''To
struggle with lies is not easy. If a mistake is made, maybe your
grandchildren would have to give Erzurum, Kars, and Van.
He informed that Bandýrma ship will be attacked by torpedos.
Berch Kerestecian Turker was born in 1870 in Istanbul. He studied in
Galatasaray and Robert High Schools. He learned Ottoman Turkish,
French, Armenian, English, Greek, German, Italian and Spanish very
well. In armistice, He was dutied as Ottoman Bank Manager and 2nd
president of the Red Crescent Society. At the war of Independence, he
was the leader of people, who ported health supplies to Inebolu by
boats. In May 1919, while Ataturk and his friends will go to Samsun by
ship, Berch Turker secretly informed Mustafa Kemal Pasha with mediation
of his advocate Sadeddin Ferit Bey (Talay) that Englishmen will be
attacked by torpedos at the Black Sea. Thereupon, Bandýrma ship left
from her route and sailed from shore. Taken out ignition mechanism of
cannons, which used in Sakarya War was got back stealthily by Special
Organization with the use of 15,000 Turkish liras of Turker lended
before.
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++
http://www.armenianreality.com/armenian_terror/mccarthy.htm
Professor McCarthy: Armenian genocide is British propaganda
Renown U.S. historian and expert on Ottoman affairs, Professor Justin
McCarthy said allegations of Armenian genocide are British propaganda
Professor Justin McCarthy, speaking at a conference in London, said
that a source known as the "Blue Book" chosen by Armenians to prove
their claims of genocide is one of the products of British war
propaganda bureau's efforts of misinformation during first world war.
The Blue Book written by Viscount Bryce and Arnold Toynbee has been
used as proof that Armenians and the victims of the Jewish Holocaust
suffered the same fate in history. This book has been said to be a
product of British intelligence designed to promote and promulgate lies
during World War I. Britain had set up the war propaganda bureau at
Wellington House for the sole purpose of promoting lies and
misinformation on Germany and the Ottoman Empire. The British were in
full co-operation with American missionaries in Anatolia and the
American Embassy in Istanbul conjured a so called Armenian genocide
based on gossip, hear-say and erroneous information.
The real purpose behind this exercise was to create and strengthen an
image in the minds of British military officers that the Turk were
evil, horrible and untrustworthy McCarthy adds.
PROFESSOR JUSTIN MCCARTHY: HISTORIAN AND EXPERT ON OTTOMAN AFFAIRS
All documents at the Wellington House where the British carried out
their propaganda were destroyed when the war ended. One document that
survived, however, was the Blue Book (it is documented that many more
of these books were published and copied for other countries). This
book is currently being used around the world as a legal document on
the genocide.
AMERICAN HISTORIAN PROVES THE FACTS
The American historian and expert on Ottoman affairs was a recent
speaker at the London School of Oriental and African Studies. He
commented on a few of the stomach churning activities of the British
during the first world war. He stated, When the war began, a secret
propaganda unit was set up at Wellington House, London (on September 2,
1914). This units sole aim was to provide support for Britain, smear
Britains enemies, obtain support for the British view through the use
of Americans, and to keep British morale high during the war. This unit
was headed by Charles Masterman a Liberal m.p. He was a close friend of
Lloyd George. There also was an American intellectual named Viscount
Bryce working in this bureau who had many influential friends in the
U.S. Arnold Toynbee, young historian, meanwhile was one of Bryces close
friends at the time.
SEVEN MILLION DOCUMENTS
At the end of the war all documents and records of work at the war
propaganda bureau were destroyed, and its existence was only admitted
in 1935. However, the sources of the propaganda bureau were discovered
due to one records book surviving until present day. Publications
prepared in this bureau and the existence of seven million documents
which were very efficiently sent to the United States after the war
were also exposed. Many famous authors of the time as Arnold Bennett
and John Buchan were also employed by the Wellington House, where they
published brochures, books and statements for the war effort.
GERMANY, THE ACTUAL TARGET
Although Germany was the actual target of activities at Wellington
House, the Ottoman Empire, having sided with Germany during the war
received its fair share of false propaganda. No matter how sympathetic
the British officers felt towards their Turkish compatriots, the image
that Turkish officers were bad, evil and untrustworthy was strengthened
by such slanderous data.
NON-REAL NAMES
Work carried out by those at Wellington House on Ottomans involved many
so called authors and writers whose existence could not be verified and
thus, the information remains unconfirmed. For example, there was
apparently a Syrian member of the Ottoman Committee of Union and
Progress Party, named Faiz whose memoirs are mentioned in publications
of the Wellington House. This persons existence is totally make-belief
and his statements on Talat Pasha, a complete fallacy since he never
existed. Wellington House also proves the close co-operation which
existed between them and the American diplomats and missionaries based
in Turkey during that time. Since it is documented that these groups
were close to the Armenians in Turkey, their so called information from
Turkey is a total fabrication.
BLUE BOOK ORDERED BY LLOYD GEORGE
Public law and order was severely disrupted as a result of Armenians
revolting against Ottoman authority in eastern Anatolia, which led
Bryce and Toynbee to concoct material to document alleged atrocities
committed by Ottomans. Lloyd George asked to collect these documents in
the Blue Book. This document was later submitted to the British
parliament and has since been used as a classic documentation by
radical nationalist Armenian groups.
TOYNBEE WAS AN ANTI-TURK
It is thought that Toynbee believed in the authenticity and
truthfulness of material received from American missionaries in
Anatolia. However, he also added some spice to these imaginary stories,
since it was his country that was at war with Turkey and he thought it
would be right to lie in his reports. As was proved in his late career,
Toynbee was indeed an avid Turk hater, but was too far away from the
events of eastern Turkey in 1916 to document anything.
It is easy to see far away from such events Armenians living in Turkey
were and in looking at Toynbees data. Toynbee also seems to have
exaggerated their reliability for they turned and fought against their
former protector for promises made by outsiders. For example so many
anecdotes mentioned by western observers are not by western travelers
but by a local Armenians travelling only short distances. One tenth of
the anecdotes do not even have a source of any kind. Other sources are
generally hearsay and have no witnesses who can attest to the so called
crimes.
NO REACTIONS FROM TURKEY
All propaganda against Germany by Wellington House has been forgotten,
yet unfortunately Bryce - Toynbee documents have been recognized as
true in Britain and U.S. These documents have always been used by
radical militant Armenians to pursue their goals. There is no
information at hand about whether Turkey has shown any reactions
against the impact of these documents. The mentioned Blue Book has been
published more then once. Ara Sarafian who is to publish the book for
the third time does not mention the fact that the books contents were
prepared at Wellington House and that its sources are untrustworthy.
Thus, propaganda carried out by the British during World War I
continues to spread its venom against all Turkish people living around
the world.
The information in this web site is taken from NTVMSNBC.com
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
http://www.armenianreality.com/armenian_terror/justin_mccarthty_turkey_should_use.htm
'Turkey should use propaganda against Armenian allegations'
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Professor Justin McCarthy from the U.S Louisville University said on
Monday that Turks had not committed genocide against the Armenians and
Turkey should use comprehensive propaganda to counter the Armenian
allegations.
Speaking at a conference organized by the Rotary 2420th District
Governorship at Cemal Resit Rey Concert Salon in Istanbul, McCarthy
said the French parliament's approval of the Armenian genocide
allegations and initiatives in the American Congress to get the claims
accepted were wrong.
Stressing that the Armenians' accusations that Turkey had committed
genocide were illogical, McCarthy said Turkey was one of the most
important countries in the world and a model country in its region.
He also emphasized that the resolution taken by several countries'
parliaments concerning the Armenian genocide claims were politically
motivated.
Drawing attention to the fact that the Christian missionary and British
Propaganda Office played very important roles in spreading these
allegations during World War I, McCarthy said similar propaganda was
continuing today.
"In order to prevent this incorrect propaganda Turkey should open the
Ottoman archives," he said.
He also noted that brochures, handouts and books should be prepared
that explain that Turkey did not commit genocide against any nation and
also the Ottomans' religious tolerance with other nations during its
rule.
"Although there are 2,000 brochures with the Armenian's claims, in the
American teachers' hands they can teach two million children, while
there are no documents or brochures concerning Turkey's view," he said.
Emphasizing that not only should the state's propaganda be influential
and convincing, McCarthy said other civil organizations should take
part in the promotional work.
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
http://www.armenianreality.com/armenian_terror/armenian_terrorism_chronological_rundown.html
ARMENIAN TERRORISM - A CHRONOLOGICAL RUNDOWN
January 27, 1973 Santa Barbara, California
The Armenian Gourgen Yanikian, a U.S. citizen, invites the
Turkish Consul General, Mehmet Baydar, and the Consul, Bahadir Demir to
a lunche. The unsuspecting diplomats accept the friendly invitation.
Gourgen Yanikian murders his two guests. He is sentenced to life
imprisonment.
April 4, 1973 Paris
Bombings at the Turkish Consulate General and the offices of
Turkish Airlines (THY). Extensive damage.
October 26, 1973 New York
Attempted bombing of the Turkish Information Office. The bomb is
discovered in time and defused. A group calling itself the «Yanikian
Commandos» claims responsibility. They want the release of the double
murderer of Santa Barbara, Gourgen Yanikian, who insidiously murdered
two Turkish diplomats.
February 7, 1975 Beirut
Attempted bombing of the Turkish Information and Tourism Bureau.
The bomb explodes while being defused. A Lebanese policeman is injured.
The «Prisoner Gourgen Yanikian Group» claims responsibility.
February 20, 1975 Beirut
The «Yanikian» group demanding the release of the double
murderer of Santa Barbara strikes again. Extensive damage is caused by
a bomb explosion at the THY offices. ASALA (Armenian Secret Army for
the Liberation of Armenia) also claims responsibility for the bombing.
October 22, 1975 Vienna
The Turkish Ambassador, Danis Tunalzgil, is assassinated in his
study by three Armenian terrorists. ASALA claims responsibility.
October 24, 1975 Paris
Ambassador Ismail Erez and his driver, Talip Yener, are
murdered. The ASALA and the JCAG (Justice Commandos for the Armenian
Genocide) dispute responsibility.
October 28, 1975 Beirut
Grenade attack on the Turkish Embassy. The ASALA claims
responsibility.
February 16, 1976 Beirut
The First Secretary of the Turkish Embassy, Oktar Cirit, is
assassinated in a restaurant on Hamra Street. The ASALA claims
responsibility.
May 17, 1976 Frankfurt, Essen, Cologne
Consulates General in Frankfurt, Essen and Cologne are the
targets of simultaneous bomb attacks.
May 28, 1976 Zurich
Bomb attacks at the offices of the Turkish Labor Attache and the
Garanti Bank. Extensive damage. A bomb in the Turkish Tourism Bureau is
defused in time. Responsibility is claimed by the JCAG.
May 2, 1977 Beirut
The cars of the Military Attache, Nahit Karakay, and the
Administrative Attache, Ilhan Özbabacan, are destroyed. The two
diplomats are uninjured. Credit is claimed by the ASALA.
May 14, 1977 Paris
Bomb attack at the Turkish Tourism Bureau. Extensive damage. The
«New Armenian Resistance Group» claims responsibility.
June 6, 1977 Zurich
Bomb attack at the store of a Turkish citizen, Hüseyin
Bülbül.
June 9, 1977 Rome
Assassination of the Turkish Ambassador to the Holy See, Taha
Carzm. He dies soon after the attack. The JCAG claims responsibility.
October 4, 1977 Los Angeles
Bomb attack at the house of Professor Stanford Shaw, who teaches
Ottoman history at the University of California in Los Angeles (UCLA).
Responsibility is claimed by an «Armenian Group of 28».
January 2, 1978 Brussels
Bomb attack at a building containing Turkish banking services.
The «New Armenian Resistance» claims credit.
June 2, 1978 Madrid
Terrorist attack on the automobile of the Turkish Ambassador,
Zeki Kuneralp. His wife, Necla Kuneralp, the retired Turkish Ambassador
Besir Balczoglu die immediately in the rain of gunfire. The Spanish
chauffeur, Antonio Torres, dies of his injuries in the hospital. ASALA
and JCAG claim responsibility.
December 6, 1978 Geneva
A bomb explodes in front of the Turkish Consulate General.
Extensive damage. The «New Armenian Resistance Group» claims
responsibility.
December 17, 1978 Geneva
A bomb explodes at the THY Bureau. ASALA claims responsibility.
July 8, 1979 Paris
The French capital experiences four bomb attacks in a single
day. The first is at the THY offices; the next at the offices of the
Turkish Labor Attache; the third in the Turkish Information and Tourism
Bureau. A fourth explosive, intended for the Turkish Permanent
Representative to the O.E.C.D., is defused before it explodes. The JCAG
claims responsibility.
August 22, 1979 Geneva
A bomb is thrown at the car of the Turkish Consul General,
Niyazi Adalz. The diplomat escapes unhurt. Two Swiss passers-by are
injured. Two cars are destroyed.
August 27, 1979 Frankfurt
The offices of THY are totally destroyed by an explosion. A
pedestrian is injured. The ASALA claims responsibility.
October 4, 1979 Copenhagen
Two Danes are injured when a bomb explodes near the offices of
THY. ASALA claims credit.
October 12, 1979 The Hague
Ahmet Benler, the son of Turkish Ambassador Özdemir Benler, is
assassinated by Armenian terrorists. The murderers escape. JCAG and
ASALA claim responsibility.
October 30, 1979 Milan
The offices of THY are destroyed by a bomb explosion. ASALA
claims responsibility.
November 8, 1979 Rome
The Turkish Tourism Office is destroyed by a bomb. ASALA claims
responsibility.
November 18, 1979 Paris
Bomb explosions destroy the offices of THY, KLM, and Lufthansa.
Two French policemen are injured. Responsibility is claimed by ASALA.
November 25, 1979 Madrid
Bomb explosions in front of the offices of TWA and British
Airways. ASALA, in claiming responsibility, states that the attacks are
meant as a warning to the Pope to cancel his planned visit to Turkey.
December 9, 1979 Rome
Two bombs explode in downtown Rome, damaging the offices of PAN
AM, British Airways and the Philippine Airways. Nine people are injured
in the terrorist attack. A «New Armenian Resistance Movement» claims
responsibility.
December 17, 1979 London
Extensive damage is caused when a bomb explodes in front of the
THY offices. A «Front for the Liberation of Armenia» claims
responsibility.
December 22, 1979 Paris
Yzlmaz Çolpan, the Tourism Attache at the Turkish Embassy is
assassinated while walking on the Champs Elysées. Several groups,
including ASALA, JCAG and the «Commandos of Armenian Militants Against
Genocide» claim responsibility.
December 22, 1979 Amsterdam
Heavy damage results from a bomb explosion in front of the THY
offices. ASALA claims credit.
December 23, 1979 Rome
A bomb explodes in front of a World Council of Churches Refugee
Center, being used as a transit point for Armenian refugees from
Lebanon. ASALA claims credit for the attack and warns the Italian
authorities to halt «the Armenian diaspora».
December 23, 1979 Rome
Three bomb explosions occur in front of the offices of Air
France and TWA, injuring a dozen passers-by. ASALA claims
responsibility, stating that the bomb was placed «in reprisal against
the repressive measures of French authorities against Armenians in
France» (i.e., questioning suspects, carry out investigations, etc.)
January 10, 1980 Teheran
A bomb which explodes in front of the THY offices causes
extensive damage. ASALA claims responsibility.
January 20, 1980 Madrid
A series of bomb attacks, resulting in numerous injuries, occurs
in front of the offices of TWA, British Airways, Swissair, and Sabena.
The JCAG claims credit for the attacks.
February 2, 1980 Brussels
Two bombs explode within minutes of each other in front of the
downtown offices of THY and Aeroflot. The «New Armenian Resistance
Group» issues a communique in which they claim responsibility for both
attacks.
February 6, 1980 Bern
A terrorist opens fire on Turkish Ambassador Dogan Türkmen, who
escapes with minor wounds. The would-be-assassin, an Armenian named Max
Klindjian, is subsequently arrested in Marseilles and returned to
Switzerland for trial. The JCAG claims credit for the attack.
February 18, 1980 Rome
The offices of Lufthansa, El Al and Swissair are damaged by two
bomb attacks. Telephone messages give three reasons for the attacks: 1.
The Germans support «Turkish fascism»; 2. The Jews are Zionists
(ASALA); 3. The Swiss behave «repressively» towards the Armenians.
March 10, 1980 Rome
Bomb attacks on the THY and Turkish Tourism Bureau offices on
the Piazza Della Repubblica. The blasts kill two Italians and injure
fourteen. Credit for the attack is claimed by the «New Armenian
Resistance of the Armenian Secret Army».
April 17, 1980 Rome
The Turkish Ambassador to the Holy See, Vecdi Türel, is shot
and seriously wounded. His chauffeur, Tahsin Güvenç, is also slightly
wounded in the assassination attempt. JCAG claims responsibility for
the attack.
May 19, 1980 Marseilles
A rocket aimed at the Turkish Consulate General in Marseilles is
discovered and defused prior to exploding. ASALA and a group calling
itself «Black April» claim credit for the attack.
July 31, 1980 Athens
Galip Özmen, the Administrative Attache at the Turkish Embassy,
and his family are attacked by Armenian terrorists while sitting in
their car. Galip Özmen and his fourteen-year-old daughter, Neslihan,
are killed in the attack. His wife, Sevil, and his sixteen-year-old
son, Kaan, are wounded. Credit for the double killing is claimed by
ASALA.
August 5, 1980 Lyon
Two terrorists storm into the Turkish Consulate General in Lyon
and open fire, killing two and injuring several other bystanders. ASALA
claims credit for the attack.
August 11, 1980 New York
An «Armenian group» hurls paint bombs at the Turkish House
across from the United Nations, home of the Turkish Representations in
New York.
September 26, 1980 Paris
Selçuk Bakkalbasz, the Press Counselor at the Turkish Embassy,
is shot as he enters his home. Bakkalbasz survives but is permanently
paralyzed as a result of his injuries. ASALA claims responsibility for
the attack.
October 3, 1980 Geneva
Two Armenian terrorists are injured when a bomb they are
preparing explodes in their Geneva hotel room. The two, Suzy
Mahseredjian from Canoga Park, California, and Alexander Yenikomechian,
are arrested. Their arrest leads to the formation of a new group called
«October 3», which subsequently strikes at Swiss targets.
October 3, 1980 Milan
Two Italians are injured when a bomb explodes in front of the
THY offices. ASALA claims credit for the attack.
October 5, 1980 Madrid
The offices of Alitalia are rocked by a bomb explosion which
injures twelve individuals. The ASALA claims responsibility for the
attack.
October 6, 1980 Los Angeles
Two molotov cocktails are thrown into the home of the Turkish
Consul General, Kemal Arzkan. He survives with injuries.
October 10, 1980 Beirut
Two bombs explode near Swiss offices in West Beirut. A group
calling itself «October 3» claims responsibility for these bombings
as well as others on the same day against Swiss offices in England.
October 12, 1980 New York
A bomb placed in front of the Turkish House explodes. Four
passers-by are injured. JCAG assumes responsibility.
October 12, 1980 Los Angeles
A travel agency in Hollywood, owned by a Turkish-American, is
destroyed. JCAG claims responsibility.
October 12, 1980 London
The Turkish Tourism and Information Bureau's offices are damaged
by a bomb explosion. ASALA claims credit.
October 12, 1980 London
A Swiss shopping complex in central London is damaged by a bomb
blast. Callers claim the explosion was the work of «October 3».
October 13, 1980 Paris
A Swiss tourist office is damaged by a bomb explosion. «October
3» again claims credit.
October 21, 1980 Interlaken, Switzerland
A bomb is found in a Swiss express train coming from Paris.
Luckily, it does not explode. «October 3» is believed to be behind
the action, which could have caused a catastrophe.
November 4, 1980 Geneva
The Swiss Palace of Justice in Geneva is heavily damaged by a
bomb explosion. Credit is claimed by «October 3».
November 9, 1980 Strasbourg
Heavy damage results from a bomb blast at the Turkish Consulate
General. The attack is claimed by ASALA.
November 10, 1980 Rome
Five people are injured in attacks on the Swissair and Swiss
Tourist offices. ASALA and «October 3» claim credit.
November 19, 1980 Rome
The offices of the Turkish Tourism Bureau and those of THY are
damaged by a bomb explosion. ASALA claims responsibility.
November 25, 1980 Geneva
The offices of the Union of Swiss Banks are hit by a bomb
explosion. Responsibility is claimed by «October 3».
December 5, 1980 Marseilles
A police expert defuses a time bomb left at the Swiss Consulate
in Marseilles. «October 3» claims responsibility.
December 15, 1980 London
Two bombs placed in front of the French Tourism Office in London
are defused by a Scotland Yard bomb squad. «October 3» claims the
bombs are a warning to the French for assistance they have rendered the
Swiss in fighting Armenian terrorism.
December 17, 1980 Sydney
Two terrorists assassinate sarzk Arzyak, the Turkish Consul
General, and his bodyguard, Engin Sever. JCAG claims responsibility.
December 25, 1980 Zurich
A bomb explosion destroys a radar monitor at Kloten Airport, and
a second explosive planted on the main runway of the airport is
defused. «October 3» claims credit for these attempted mass-murders.
December 29, 1980 Madrid
A Spanish reporter is seriously injured in a telephone booth
while calling in a story to his paper about the bomb attack on the
Swissair offices. «October 3» claims responsibility.
December 30, 1980 Beirut
Bomb attack on the Credit-Suisse offices. ASALA and «October
3» fight over who gets the credit.
January 2, 1981 Beirut
In a press communique, ASALA threatens to «attack all Swiss
diplomats throughout the world» in response to the alleged
mistreatment of «Suzy and Alex» in Switzerland. On January 4, ASALA
issues a statement giving the Swiss a few days to think things over.
January 14, 1981 Paris
A bomb explodes in the car of Ahmet Erbeyli, the Economic
Counselor of the Turkish Embassy. Erbeyli is not injured, but the
explosion totally destroys his car. A group calling itself the «Alex
Yenikomechian Commandos» of ASALA claims credit for the explosion.
January 27, 1981 Milan
The Swissair and Swiss Tourist offices in Milan are damaged by
bomb explosions. Two passers-by are injured. «October 3» claims
credit for the bombing in a call to local media representatives.
February 3, 1981 Los Angeles
Bomb-squad officials disarm a bomb left at the Swiss Consulate.
The terrorists threaten in anonymous phone calls that such attacks will
continue until Suzy Mahseredjian is released.
February 5, 1981 Paris
Bombs explode in the TWA and Air France offices. One injured,
heavy material damage. «October 3» claims credit.
March 4, 1981 Paris
Two terrorists open fire on Resat Moralz, Labor Attache at the
Turkish Embassy, Tecelli Arz, Religious Affairs Attache, and Ilkay
Karakoç, the Paris representative of the Anadolu Bank. Moralz and Arz
are assassinated. Karakoç manages to escape. ASALA claims
responsibility.
March 12, 1981 Teheran
A group of ASALA terrorists try to occupy the Turkish Embassy,
killing two guards in the process. Two of the perpetrators are captured
and later executed by the Iranians. ASALA claims credit.
April 3, 1981 Copenhagen
Cavit Demir, the Labor Attache at the Turkish Embassy, is shot
as he enters his apartment building late in the evening and is
seriously wounded. Both ASALA and JCAG claim the attack.
June 3, 1981 Los Angeles
Bombs force the cancellation of performances by a Turkish
folk-dance group. Threats of similar bombings force the group's
performances in San Francisco to be canceled as well.
June 9, 1981 Geneva
Mehmet Savas Yergüz, Secretary in the Turkish Consulate, is
assassinated by the Armenian terrorist Mardiros Jamgotchian. The arrest
of the ASALA terrorist leads to the formation of a new ASALA branch
called the «Ninth of June Organization,» which will be responsible
for a new series of attacks.
June 11, 1981 Paris
A group of Armenian terrorists, led by one Ara Toranian,
occupies the THY offices. Initially ignored by the French authorities,
the terrorists are only evicted from the premises after vehement
protests from the Turkish Embassy.
June 19, 1981 Teheran
A bomb explodes at the offices of Swissair. The «Ninth of June
Organization» claims responsibility.
June 26, 1981 Los Angeles
A bomb explodes in front of the Swiss Banking Corporation
offices. Again the work of the «Ninth of June Organization».
July 19, 1981 Bern
A bomb explodes at the Swiss Parliament Building. «Ninth of
June» claims responsibility.
July 20, 1981 Zurich
«Ninth of June» strikes again. A bomb explodes in an automatic
photo-booth at Zurich's international airport.
July 21, 1981 Lausanne
Twenty women are injured as a bomb laid by Armenian terrorists
explodes in a department store. «Ninth of June» claims
responsibility.
July 22, 1981 Geneva
A bomb explodes in a locker at the train station. Authorities
suspect «Ninth of June».
July 22, 1981 Geneva
An hour later, a second bomb explodes in a locker at the
station. Police cordoned off the area following the first explosion,
thereby preventing injuries from the second.
August 11, 1981 Copenhagen
Two bombs destroy the offices of Swissair. An American tourist
is injured in the explosion. «Ninth of June» claims responsibility.
August 20, 1981 Los Angeles
A bomb explodes outside the offices of Swiss Precision
Instruments. The attack is claimed by «Ninth of June».
August 20, 1981 Paris
Explosion at Alitalia Airlines. «October 3» is back in action.
September 15, 1981 Copenhagen
Two people are injured as a bomb explodes in front of the THY
offices. Police experts manage to defuse a second bomb. Credit is
claimed by a «Sixth Armenian Liberation Army».
September 17, 1981 Teheran
A bomb explosion damages a Swiss Embassy building. ASALA's
«Ninth of June» claims responsibility.
September 24, 1981 Paris
Four Armenian terrorists occupy the Turkish Consulate General.
During their entry into the building, the Consul, Kaya Inal, and a
security guard, Cemal Özen, are seriously wounded. Terrorists take 56
hostages. Özen dies of his injuries in the hospital. The terrorists
are ASALA members.
October 3, 1981 Geneva
The main post office and the city courthouse are hit by bomb
explosions. An ASALA member is scheduled to go on trial for murder in
the courthouse. «Ninth of June» claims credit for the attacks, which
leave one person injured.
October 25, 1981 Rome
An Armenian terrorist fires at Gökberk Ergenekon, Second
Secretary at the Turkish Embassy. Ergenekon is wounded in the arm.
ASALA claims credit in the name of the «September 24 Suicide
Commandos».
October 25, 1981 Paris
Fouquet's, the fashionable French restaurant, is the target of a
bomb attack. A group calling itself «September-France» claims the
attack.
October 26, 1981 Paris
The same group is behind the explosion of a booby-trapped
automobile in front of «Le Drugstore».
October 27, 1981 Paris
«September-France» carries out a bomb attack at Roissy
Airport.
October 27, 1981 Paris
A second bomb explodes near a busy escalator at Roissy Airport.
No one is injured. «September-France» claims responsibility.
October 28, 1981 Paris
The same group is responsible for a bomb attack in a movie
theater. Three people are injured.
November 3, 1981 Madrid
A bomb explodes in front of the Swissair offices, injuring three
persons. Considerable damage to nearby buildings. ASALA claims
responsibility.
November 5, 1981 Paris
A bomb explodes in the Gare de Lyon, injuring one person. The
attack is claimed by the Armenian «Orly Organization».
November 12, 1981 Beirut
Simultaneous bomb explosions occur in front of three French
offices: the French Cultural Center, the Air France offices and the
home of the French Consul General. The «Orly Organization» claims
responsibility. This organization owes its name to the fact that the
French police arrested an Armenian at Orly Airport in Paris because of
forged papers. The idea now is to «bomb him free».
November 14, 1981 Paris
A bomb explosion damages an automobile near the Eiffel Tower.
«Orly» claims responsibility.
November 14, 1981 Paris
«Orly» launches a grenade attack on a group of tourists
disembarking from a sightseeing boat on the River Seine.
November 15, 1981 Paris
«Orly» threatens to blow up an Air France airplane in flight.
November 15, 1981 Beirut
Simultaneous bomb attacks are carried out against three French
targets: the «Union des Assurances de Paris», the Air France offices
and the «Banque Libano-Française». «Orly» is responsible.
November 15, 1981 Paris
A McDonald's restaurant is destroyed by «September-France».
November 16, 1981 Paris
A bomb injures two innocent bystanders at the Gare de l'Est.
«Orly» claims responsibility.
November 18, 1981 Paris
«Orly» announces that it has planted a bomb at the Gare du
Nord.
November 20, 1981 Los Angeles
The Turkish Consulate General in Beverly Hills suffers extensive
damage. The JCAG claims credit.
January 13, 1982 Toronto
An ASALA bomb causes extensive damage to the Turkish Consulate
General.
January 17, 1982 Geneva
Two bombs destroy parked cars. The ASALA «Ninth of June
Organization» claims credit.
January 17, 1982 Paris
A bomb explodes at the Union of Banks and a second is disarmed
at the Credit Lyonnais. «Orly» claims responsibility.
January 19, 1982 Paris
A bomb explodes in the Air France offices in the Palais des
Congres. «Orly» claims responsibility.
January 28, 1982 Los Angeles
Kemal Arzkan, the Turkish Consul General in Los Angeles, is
assassinated by two terrorists while driving to work. Nineteen year old
Hampig Sassounian is arrested and sentenced to life.
March 22, 1982 Cambridge, Massachusetts
A gift shop belonging to Orhan Gündüz, the Turkish Honorary
Either he gives up his honorary position or he will be «executed».
Responsibility is claimed by the JCAG.
March 26, 1982 Beirut
Two dead, sixteen injured in an explosion at a movie theater.
ASALA claims credit for the attack.
April 8, 1982 Ottawa
Kani Güngör, the Commercial Attache at the Turkish Embassy in
Ottawa, is seriously wounded in an attack by Armenian terrorists in the
garage of his apartment house. ASALA claims responsibility.
April 24, 1982 Dortmund, West Germany
Several Turkish-owned businesses suffer extensive damage in bomb
attacks. The «New Armenian Resistance Organization» claims
responsibility.
May 4, 1982 Cambridge, Massachusetts
Orhan Gündüz, the Turkish Honorary Consul General in Boston is
assassinated. The murderer is still at large.
May 10, 1982 Geneva
Bombs explode at two banks. The attacks are claimed by an
Armenian «World Punishment Organization».
May 18, 1982 Toronto
Four Armenians are arrested for trying to smuggle money out of
the country. The money was extorted from Armenians, a common practice
throughout the world. In the course of the investigation, it is
discovered that the terrorists fire-bombed the house of an Armenian who
refused to make his contribution to Armenian terrorism.
May 18, 1982 Tampa, Florida
Attack at the office of Nash Karahan, the Turkish Honorary
Consul General.
May 26, 1982 Los Angeles
A bomb damages the office of Swiss Banking Corporation. The
suspects: four Armenians accused of involvement in ASALA.
May 30, 1982 Los Angeles
Three members of ASALA are arrested when planting a bomb in the
Air Canada cargo-office.
June 7, 1982 Lisbon
The Administrative Attache at the Turkish Embassy, Erkut Akbay,
and his wife, Nadide Akbay, are assassinated in front of their home.
JCAG claims responsibility.
July 1, 1982 Rotterdam
Kemalettin Demirer, the Turkish Consul General in Rotterdam, is
shot down by four Armenian terrorists. An «Armenian Red Army» claims
responsibility.
July 21, 1982 Paris
Sixteen injured in a bomb explosion near a cafe in the Place
Saint-Severin. Credit is claimed by the Orly Organization. «Orly»
complains that the French do not treat the arrested Armenian terrorists
as «political prisoners», but rather as ordinary criminals.
July 26, 1982 Paris
«Orly» is responsible for injuring two women in an explosion
in Paris' «Pub Saint-Germain».
August 2, 1982 Paris
Pierre Gulumian, an Armenian terrorist, is killed when a bomb he
is making explodes in his face.
August 7, 1982 Ankara, Esenboga Airport
Two Armenian terrorists open fire in a crowded passenger waiting
room. One of the terrorists takes more than twenty hostages while the
second is apprehended by the police. Nine people are dead and
eighty-two injured - some seriously. The surviving terrorist, Levon
Ekmekjian is arrested and sentenced.
August 8, 1982 Paris
A bomb is defused in time. «Orly» regrets the discovery.
August 12, 1982 Paris
Terrorists open fire on a policeman assigned to protect the
offices of the Turkish Tourism Attache. Luckily, he escapes without
injury.
August 27, 1982 Ottawa
Colonel Atilla Altzkat, the Military Attache at the Turkish
Embassy, is assassinated in his car. JCAG claims responsibility.
September 9, 1982 Burgaz, Bulgaria
Bora Süelkan, the Administrative Attache at the Turkish
Consulate General in Burgaz, is assassinated in front of his home. The
assassin leaves a message «We shot dead the Turkish diplomat: Combat
Units of Justice Against the Armenian Genocide». An anonymous caller
claims that the assassination is the work of a branch of the ASALA.
October 26, 1982 Los Angeles
Five Armenian terrorists are charged with conspiring to blow up
the offices of the Honorary Turkish Consul General in Philadelphia. All
belong to the JCAG.
December 8, 1982 Athens
Two Armenians on a motorbike throw a bomb at the offices of the
Saudi Arabian Airlines. The bomb hits a power pylon, explodes and kills
one of the terrorists. His accomplice, an Armenian from Iran named Vahe
Kontaverdian is arrested. It is later revealed that ASALA ordered the
attack because Saudi Arabia maintains friendly relations with Turkey.
January 21, 1983 Anaheim, California
Nine «sophisticated» pipe bombs are confiscated from an
Armenian bakery after one of the detonators goes off and causes fire.
January 22, 1983 Paris
Two terrorists attack the offices of THY with hand grenades. No
one is injured. ASALA claims credit.
January 22, 1983 Paris
French police defuse a powerful explosive device near the THY
counter at Orly airport.
February 2, 1983 Brussels
The offices of THY are bombed. The «New Armenian Resistance
Organization» claims responsibility.
February 28, 1983 Luxembourg
A bomb placed in front of Turkey's diplomatic mission is
defused. The Armenian Reporter in New York reports that the «New
Armenian Resistance Organization» is responsible.
February 28, 1983 Paris
A bomb explodes at the Marmara Travel Agency. Killed in the
explosion is Renée Morin, a French secretary. Four other Frenchmen are
wounded. A few minutes after the attack, ASALA claims responsibility.
March 9, 1983 Belgrade
Galip Balkar, the Turkish Ambassador to Yugoslavia is
assassinated in central Belgrade. His chauffeur, Necati Kayar is shot
in the stomach. As the two assailants flee from the scene, they are
bravely pursued by Yugoslav citizens. One of the terrorists shoots and
wounds a Yugoslav Colonel, and is in turn apprehended by a policeman.
The second terrorist opens fire on civilians who are chasing him,
killing a young student and wounding a young girl. The two terrorists,
Kirkor Levonian and Raffi Elbekian, are tried and sentenced.
March 31, 1983 Frankfurt
An anonymous caller threatened to bomb the offices and kill the
staff of Tercüman newspaper, a Turkish daily.
May 24, 1983 Brussels
Bombs explode in front of the Turkish Embassy's Culture and
Information offices and in front of a Turkish-owned travel agency. The
Italian director of the travel agency is wounded. ASALA claims credit.
June 16, 1983 Istanbul
Armenian terrorists carry out an attack with hand grenades and
automatic weapons inside the covered bazaar in Istanbul. Two dead,
twenty-one wounded. ASALA claims responsibility.
July 8, 1983 Paris
Armenian terrorists attack the offices of the British Council,
protesting against the trials of Armenians in London.
July 14, 1983 Brussels
Armenian terrorists murder Dursun Aksoy, the Administrative
Attache at the Turkish Embassy. ASALA, ARA and JCAG claim
responsibility.
July 15, 1983 Paris
A bomb explodes in front of the THY counter at Orly airport.
Eight dead, more than sixty injured. A 29 years old Syrian-Armenian
named Varadjian Garbidjian confesses to having planted the bomb. He
admits that the bomb was intended to have exploded once the plane was
airborne.
July 15, 1983 London
A bomb, similar to the one that exploded at Orly, is defused in
time. ASALA claims responsibility for both attacks.
July 18, 1983 Lyon
A bomb threat is made by ASALA against the Lyon railroad
station.
July 20, 1983 Lyon
Panicky evacuation of Lyon's Gare de Perrache following a bomb
threat from ASALA.
July 22, 1983 Teheran
«Orly» carries out bomb attacks on the French Embassy and Air
France.
July 27, 1983 Lisbon
Five Armenian terrorists attempt to storm the Turkish Embassy in
Lisbon. Failing to gain access to the chancery, they occupy the
residence, taking the Deputy Chief of Mission(DCM) and his family
hostage. When explosives being planted by the terrorists go off, Cahide
Mzhçzoglu, wife of the DCM and four of the terrorists are blown to
pieces. The DCM, Yurtsev Mzhçzoglu, and his son Atasay are injured.
The fifth terrorist is killed in the initial assault by Turkish
security forces. One Portuguese policeman is also killed and another
wounded. The ARA claims responsibility.
July 28, 1983 Lyon
Another bomb threat on Lyon-Perrache railroad station. ASALA
claims responsibility.
July 29, 1983 Teheran
A threat to blow up the French Embassy in Teheran with a rocket
attack causes Iranian officials to increase security at the facility.
July 31, 1983 Lyon and Rennes
Bomb threats from Armenian terrorists force the emergency
landing of two domestic French flights carrying 424 passengers.
August 10, 1983 Teheran
A bomb explodes in an automobile at the French Embassy. ASALA
claims credit for the attack.
August 25, 1983 Bonn
A whole series of bomb attacks against offices of the French
Consulate General claim two lives and leave twenty-three injured. ASALA
claims responsibility.
September 9, 1983 Teheran
Two French Embassy cars are bombed. One of the bombs injures two
embassy staff members. ASALA claims credit.
October 1, 1983 Marseilles
A bomb blast destroys the U.S., Soviet and Algerian pavilions at
an international trade fair in Marseilles. One person is killed and
twenty-six injured. ASALA and «Orly» claim credit.
October 6, 1983 Teheran
A French Embassy vehicle is bombed, injuring two passengers.
«Orly» claims responsibility.
October 29, 1983 Beirut
Hand-grenade attack on the French Embassy. One of the ASALA
terrorists is arrested.
October 29, 1983 Beirut
The Turkish Embassy is attacked by three Armenian terrorists.
One of the assailants, Sarkis Denielian, a 19 years old
Lebanese-Armenian is apprehended. ASALA claims responsibility.
February 8, 1984 Paris
Bomb threat on an Air France flight to New York.
March 28, 1984 Teheran
A timed series of attacks is carried out against Turkish
Two Armenian terrorists shoot and seriously wound Sergeant
Ismail Pamukçu, employed at the office of the Turkish Military
Attache;
Hasan Servet Öktem, First Secretary of the Turkish Embassy, is
slightly wounded as he leaves his home;
Ibrahim Özdemir, the Administrative Attache at the Turkish
Embassy, alerts police to two suspicious looking men. They turn out to
be Armenian terrorists and are arrested;
In the afternoon of the same day, Iranian police arrest three
more Armenian terrorists outside the Turkish Embassy;
An Armenian terrorist is killed when a bomb he is attempting to
plant in the car of the Turkish Assistant Commercial Counselor explodes
prematurely. The dead terrorist is later identified as Sultan Gregorian
Semaperdan (ASALA).
March 29, 1984 Los Angeles
ASALA sends a written threat, saying they will assassinate
Turkish athletes who take part in the Olympics.
April 8, 1984 Beirut
ASALA issues a communique warning that all flights to Turkey
will be considered military targets.
April 26, 1984 Ankara
The Turkish Prime Minister, Turgut Özal, receives a threat
warning him that if he goes ahead with a planned visit to Teheran,
ASALA will schedule a major terrorist operation against his country.
April 28, 1984 Teheran
Two Armenian terrorists riding a motorcycle open fire on Iszk
Yönder as he drives his wife, Sadiye Yönder, to the Turkish Embassy
where she works. Iszk Yönder is killed, and ASALA claims credit for
yet another senseless murder.
June 20, 1984 Vienna
A bomb explodes in a car belonging to Erdogan Özen, Assistant
Labor and Social Affairs Counselor at the Turkish Embassy in Vienna.
Özen is killed and five others seriously wounded, including a
policeman. ARA terrorists claim credit for the crime.
June 25, 1984 Los Angeles
A news agency office in France receives a letter threatening to
attack all governments, organizations and companies which assist, in
any way whatsoever, Turkey's team at the Los Angeles Olympics.
August 13, 1984 Lyon
A bomb explodes in a Lyon train station causing minor damage.
ASALA claims credit.
September 1984 Teheran
Several Turkish owned firms in Iran come under attack after
receiving warning letters informing them that they are to be targeted.
The first victim is the Sezai Türkes Company. A Turkish employee is
injured while fighting the fire caused by the explosion. A chain of
smaller scale acts of intimidation follows.
September 1, 1984 Teheran
Iranian authorities expose a plot to assassinate Ismet Birsel,
the Turkish Ambassador to Teheran.
September 3, 1984 Istanbul
Two Armenian terrorists die as one of their bombs goes off too
soon. The ARA claims credit.
November 19, 1984 Vienna
Evner Ergun, Deputy Director of the Centre for Social
Development and Humanitarian Affairs of the United Nations, Vienna is
assassinated while driving to work. The assassins leave a flag with the
initials «ARA» on his body.
December 1984 Brussels
Authorities are able to thwart a bombing attempt at the
residence of Selçuk Incesu, Turkish Consul General.
December 29, 1984 Beirut
Two French buildings in East Beirut are bombed. ASALA claims
credit.
December 29, 1984 Paris
Following an ASALA threat to blow up an Air France plane, police
increase security at the Charles de Gaulle Airport.
January 3, 1985 Beirut
The offices of Agence France Presse are extensively damaged when
a bomb explodes.
March 3, 1985 Paris
An anonymous caller to Agence France Presse threatens to attack
French interests throughout the world upon the indictment of the three
terrorists who participated in the Orly attack.
March 12, 1985 Ottawa
Three heavily armed terrorists storm the Turkish Embassy,
killing a Canadian security guard in the process. After blowing up the
front door, the gunmen enter the building. Ambassador Coskun Kzrca
manages to escape but suffers extensive injuries. The wife and daughter
of the Ambassador, who were taken hostage, are later released, and the
terrorists surrender. ARA claims responsibility.
March 26, 1985 Toronto
A threat to blow up the city of Toronto's transit system leads
to chaos during the rush hour. An «Armenian Secret Army for the
Liberation of Our Homeland» claims responsibility for the threat.
November 1985 Brussels
A special anti-terrorist security squad of the Belgian police
exposes and arrests three Armenian terrorists with Portuguese
passports. They were planning an attack on Turkish officers at NATO
headquarters.
November 28, 1985 Paris
French police arrest the leader of the terrorist organization -
the «Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia-Revolutionary
Movement» (ASALA-RM) - Mr. Monte Melkonian, a U.S. citizen. In
Melkonian's apartment, police confiscate weapons, explosive devices,
arrival and departure information on Turkish ships scheduled to visit
France and a picture of Turkey's Ambassador to France, Adnan Bulak.
December 1985 Paris
Forty-one shoppers in two of Paris' leading department stores
(Gallerie Lafayette and Printemps) are injured (twelve seriously) when
nearly simultaneous bomb explosions rip through the stores. In the
ensuing panic, some 10,000 Christmas shoppers flee into the street. The
Armenian Reporter, published in New York, reports in its December 12th
issue that French law enforcement authorities are concentrating on
ASALA as the most likely perpetrator. ASALA later takes credit for the
two bombings.
November 23, 1986 Melbourne
At 2:15 a.m. a bomb explodes in front of the Turkish Consulate
General. One dead -presumedly the perpetrator- and one Australian
injured.
Jason K. Lambrou
2005-01-12 18:19:27 UTC
Permalink
Talk is cheap. What if my Greek lovers really want me.
Dear Mark Tsimpoyk*-Moronoglu does your mind sometimes seem to have a
mind of its own??
or the inner working of your mind seem like a dark ancient Mongol
mystery??

Dear Mark Manavoglu Kasap Where do you stand? How much mind power are
you using? How's your thought life? Are you enjoying peace of mind? Or,
are you mentally retarded, but don't know it?

*derived from tsimboyk coglan or cocksucker boy
Jason K. Lambrou
2005-01-12 18:39:59 UTC
Permalink
Post by m***@yahoo.com
Talk is cheap. What the Greek hommos do is what counts.
Dear Mark Tsimpoyk*-Moronoglu does your mind sometimes seem to have a
mind of its own??
or the inner working of your mind seem like a dark ancient Mongol
mystery??

Dear Mark Manavoglu Kasap Where do you stand? How much mind power are
you using? How's your thought life? Are you enjoying peace of mind? Or,
are you mentally retarded, but don't know it?

*derived from tsimboyk coglan or cocksucker boy
m***@yahoo.com
2005-01-13 23:56:14 UTC
Permalink
The sub-human anti-Turkish hatred fabricators, murderers of innocent
and defenceless Turks and thugs of Armenian/Greek/PKK/KADEK
anti-Turkish Hatred Inc never stop in their relentless dreams of
massacring all Turks everywhere in the World. The sub-human
Greek/Armenian/PKK/KADEK terrorists think repeating anti-Turkish hate
propaganda over and over legitimize their rape, torture and murder of
innocent and defenceless Turkish human beings.



http://www.pubinfo.gov.nc.tr/h040399f.htm

GREECE & PKK MASSACRE DOSSIER

Greece's relations with PKK have begun to exhaust Turkey's
patience. While, on one hand, PKK militants, being accommodated in
Syria keep infiltrating into Turkey through the south-eastern region
indiscriminately and brutally killing innocent and unarmed people,
including women and children, yet another branch of these blood-stained
murderers based in Greece, carries out acts of bombing and killings.

Dozens of terrorists arrested by the Turkish police before or after
they have committed their acts, tell, in their depositions, how they
are trained by the Greeks in Greece and that they arrive in Turkey with
the bombs given to them by the former.

On the days when the caught terrorists were telling how they had been
trained in Greece and how the Greek administration had welcomed them,
the Greek politicians paid a warm visit to the PKK's blood-stained
leader Abdullah Ocalan, inviting him to Athens: all this heightens the
hatred towards Greece cherished by the Turkish people whose children
become martyrs while defying the dastardly terrorist acts of the
terrorist organization.

When Turkey's allies, seeing her sensitivity on the subject, warn the
rulers of Greece, the latter, with a rarely witnessed thick-skinniness,
speak lies with no shame and put themselves into further embarrassment
by claiming that Turkey tells lies in order to denigrate them and that
they have no association at all with terrorism.

HOW GREECE-PKK RELATIONS BEGAN

The first time the Greek Intelligence Organization (KIP) hooked the
separatist, Kurdish terrorist organization PKK was, I believe, on 5
February 1988.

Greece's relations with PKK was initiated with a meeting between
Ihsan Kaya, sent by Abdullah Ocalan (APO) to Athens as a
representative, and Michailis Charalambides, a KIP agent known well for
his role in the subversive activities against Turkey, at the premises
of the "Greek Union for the Rights and Liberation of Peoples.

About a fortnight before this meeting, "Nei Antropi" weekly paper
published in Athens had his front-page wholly devoted to a report
carrying the following banner headlines:

"KURDISH AUTONOMY-SEEKERS ARE IN GREECE AS INVITEES OF THE GREEK
ORGANIZATION."

The text of the report, without openly mentioning PKK, stated the
following:

"In the coming days, a delegation consisting of high-level Kurdish
autonomy-seekers are going to arrive in Athens, as the guests of a
Greek association. During the days they will stay in Athens, the Kurds
will explain to the Greek press about their struggle and the benefits
Greece will reap from the success of their struggle. The Greek police
will take strict security measures in Athens against the possibility of
the murdering of our Kurdish guests by the Turkish agents.

The assessment of the political commentator of our paper concerning the
invitation of the Kurds to Greece is as follows: "Our gain from the
autonomy-seeking activities of the Kurds will be very big. The Kurdish
problem is a thorn for Turkey. If Turkey enters a war with Greece, the
Kurds and Armenians will undermine her internal security."

One day after his meeting with Ihsan Kaya, Michailis Charalambides met
KIP Chief Kostas Tsimas who reported the case to the then Prime
Minister Andreas Papandreou who endorsed the extension of support to
PKK.

In order to lend help and support to PKK, Greece organized a massive
organization in which politicians, army generals, diplomats,
journalists, the Church and all the organs of the State participated.

In the meantime, an army general, along with some KIP agents disguised
as journalists, entered into PKK's camp at the Beqaa Valley where
they met APO asking him about his needs. After PKK's needs had been
discovered, an inflow of arms, ammunition and money began to PKK, as
soon as the delegation returned to Athens. The statistical records
reveal that the number of PKK's murders of innocent people of its own
origin also went up considerably after the launch of the Greek
assistance.

With the initiation of the aid, the separatist Kurdish terrorists began
to be trained, in groups, in the belt between Athens and Salonica,
particularly in military zones. Assassination, bomb making and using
and the use of war equipment are the topics of this training.

In the meantime, a batch of 20 thousand kalashnikovs belonging to the
arms depots of the Greek army was shipped, under the cover of
agricultural equipment, to the Latakia port aboard a South Cyprus
ferryboat sailing to Syria, to be handed over to PKK.

These guns were only a beginning. From 1987 to the present, the amount
of the guns given by Greece to PKK through numerous channels has
reached an incredible level.

GREECE'S ROLE IN INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM

Although Greece has been harboring the international terrorism for the
last 12 years and although this messy deed of her has been repeatedly
confirmed by the intelligence organizations of the West, her
collaboration with the notorious terrorists who are a big headache for
the entire world has been taken with tolerance, just because she is a
member to NATO and EU.

Greece's role in the international terrorism has "reached the point
of treachery against NATO." Cabinet ministers, MPs of the ruling party
PASOK, who had been involved terrorism and been trained by the
Palestinian terrorists at the Beqaa Valley before becoming politicians,
have given the military secrets to enemies.

When SERGEI BOKHAN, a Soviet diplomat serving in Athens, who secured
asylum in the US on 25 May 1985, made grossly interesting revelations
about the role of Greece in international terrorism.

The Soviet diplomat explained how Greece served as bridge of
international terrorism and arms smuggling between Europe and the
Middle East, by giving important information. Bokhan, inter alias,
explicated that the confidential information had been passed on to
Moscow (by Greece) and that informed of Athens treachery, the NATO's
headquarters in Brussels had refrained from giving "strictly
confidential" documents to the Greeks.

The Russian agent also revealed the names of the Greek cabinet
ministers who had given him information during his 3-year service in
Athens. On 26 June 1985, the US envoy in Athens Mr. Sterns paid a visit
to Prime Minister Papandreou giving him a list of 10 Greeks. The list
contained the names of the Ministers and high-level officials from the
PASOK party.

Among the names on the list were: the Undersecretary of the Foreign
Ministry Iannis Kapsis; Chairman of the Mediterranean Research Center
Michailis Charalambides who establishes the connection between PKK and
the Greek Intelligence Organization, Press Undersecretary Dimitris
Marudas, Chairman of the Bureau for the International Relations of the
Prime Ministry Vassilis Konstandineas; and Sifis Valirakis who is
allegedly among the founders of "17 November" terrorist
organization in Greece and two-term Minister of Public Order. All the
names mentioned in the ten-name list of the US were very loyal persons
to Prime Minister Andreas Papandreou. Even all of them were the
founding members of the PAK terrorist organization established between
1967-74, the era of the Greek military junta.

Papandreou's establishing friendships in 1976 with those countries
regarded as dangerous for the Western alliance was striking. All sorts
of support extended to him by Syria, Iran and Libya played a very
important role in his rising to power in the period of 1981-1989.

YEAR 1997 ... GREEK RULERS' RELATIONS WITH PKK TERRORIST ORGANIZATION

It is clearly seen that members of the ruling PASOK party in Greece
pursue their relations with terrorism within the programme of a
party-line. In order not be overshadowed by the Government in the field
of terrorism, the Opposition is in an effort to catch up with
Government's involvement in terrorism and assumes its own role to
this end.

The rulers of Greece try to justify their relations with terrorism by
trying to say that they support "those movements struggling for
liberty." The actual object, however, is not "to help others to
achieve their human rights or liberty"; the only reason why Greece
has established partnership with terrorism is the implementation of an
"expansionist" policy aimed at disintegrating Turkey.

GREECE CANNOT DENY THAT IT IS A BASE FOR PKK

PKK terrorist organization has been operating in the Balkans, as if
being a province attached to the central structure of Europe, its
headquarters being in Greece. This "province" is made up of four
regions, namely Greece and the (Aegean) Islands, Bulgaria, Romania and
South Cyprus.

The "Representative Office of ERNK- Balkans and Greece," opened with
the open and full backing of the Greek administration on 5 April 1994,
at a building no. 54 in the Vassilisis Sofia Square in Athens, where
the Greek parliament is situated and next to the US Embassy, is a HQ
where all sorts of subversive activities aimed at Turkey is planned, in
cooperation with the Greek politicians. In this office, a magazine
called "Kurdistan's Voice," financed by the Greek Intelligence
Organization and published by the Greek retired Navy Admiral Andonis
NAKSAKIS and a group of Greek journalists is used to prepare materials
for PKK's bloody propaganda. Donation campaigns for PKK, air tickets
for Zele camp- Syria- Europe and procedures regarding the travels and
residence in Greece of PKK militants are carried out in this office.

Yet another office of PKK in Athens is at "Ipokratus Avenue no.92."

The addresses of other offices of PKK that are operational in Greece
are as follows:

The Committee for Solidarity with Kurdistan, Egnatias, No. 75,
Salonica.

Kurdistan's Red Crescent: Solomu Avenue 54/2.

Kurdistan Cultural Centre: Slomensky Street 22.

Kurdistan News Agency: Spyrou Trikoupi: 51/53.

While it continues in Greece, its subversive activities aimed at the
collapse of Turkey, PKK obtains assistance, not only from the Greek
public institutions, but also from the politicians and retired army
personnel. All this aid is deposited under the bank account of:
"ETHNICI TRAPEZA- 129/350681- 92."

The primary figure among those Greeks working voluntarily at PKK's
office at Vassilis Sofias number 54 is the retired Navy Admiral Andonis
NAKSAKIS who is one of the links between KIP and PKK is NAKSAKIS;
PASOK's MP from Crete Kostas BADUVAS is one of his supporters on the
Kurdish issue.

Yet another person who has been aiding the terrorist organization the
most in the last four years is a certain THEODORE, who speaks Turkish,
English and Italian. He conducts PKK's correspondence and is present
at press declarations and meetings. Because he is the Chairman of the
Pontus- Kurdish Solidarity Committee at the same time, he prepares
ground for joint acts, meetings, statements and all sorts of other acts
with PKK that operates under the guise of ERNK.

Besides two houses of the organization where the PKK members, who come
to Athens, for a temporary period, the guest-houses of the Greek
official departments also offer accommodation for PKK members.

One of the buildings where the PKK members, who undergo training in
Athens, are accommodated, is in Dafni, a suburb of Athens. The injured
who arrive from Turkey through South Cyprus, cadres to be transferred
from Zele to Europe and candidates who have participated in the
organization from the Lavrion camp are treated and trained in this
building. The residents of the house that is used as a base are never
allowed to go out or make telephone calls.

Those staying in this house serve sentries from 23.00 hours to 07.00 in
the morning, with one- hour intervals. The cadres under training are
prohibited to appear on the windows, balconies and terraces, if not
necessary. A TV set, a video-cassette and a type-writer are found in
the house.

The PKK militants who enter into and exit from, this house which is
used a PKK training center in Athens, the most are the ones named Faik,
Cemal and Sait who work as couriers between Abdullah Ocalan and the
Greek officials.

The training in Dafni begins first with a speech and a distribution of
work. Throughout the training, a worker is appointed for each of the
sections of security, logistics, health, kitchen etc.

The code-name of the person in charge of this training is "Sabri".
A team attached to him, also including Greek officers and intelligence
officers, gives its lessons in the hall of this house.

Ten organization members and 25 trainees permanently stay in the house.


The Greek neighbors residing in the vicinity of the house speak of it
as the "house of the PKK terrorists". Transfers to the house are
usually carried out at night time. The house is protected by KIP and
the Gendarmerie on a round-the-clock basis.

Yet another training of PKK in the Greek capital is a farm-building to
the north of Athens. The people living in the neighborhood say that it
belongs to KIP.

At this farm-house, training is given on bombs. All the PKK militants
who have committed acts of bombing in Turkey and then caught admitted
that they were trained in this farm-house. The training program
implemented in this camp is as follows:

The historical background of explosives-- Facts to take into
consideration in bomb-making-- A broad definition of explosives.

Training on the guns: pistols, kalashnikov, Cannas-type pistols.
Shooting at fixed or moving targets, techniques of sabotage,
assassination and its techniques.

The capacity of this camp may reach up to 50 persons. The camp contains
a political HQ, three dormitories, a lecture-room, executive room,
kitchen, a room for the Greek trainers, a military HQ, a military depot
for arms and ammunition. The camp is surrounded by barbed wire in the
form nets and trees. The camp that resembles a farm-house is protected
by military police and Gendarmerie patrols and specially trained dogs.

EACH STONE OVERTURNED IN SOUTHEAST ANATOLIA REVEALS GREEK ROLE IN
TERRORISM

Photographs and letters found in the possession of the PKK militants
who are killed at the operations of the Turkish armed forces in
South-eastern Anatolia and in northern Iraq, as well as in their caves
reveal, beyond any doubt, the relations between the rulers of Greece
and PKK in particular and the Greek-PKK connection in general.

One of the photos found had been taken in front of a shop bearing the
shop's name in Greek. Behind the photo had was written the name
"Vassiliki," an address and a telephone number. Yet another
photograph shows three persons toasting to each other in a stall-like
wine shop in Athens, who are thought to be the members of a PKK group
trained in Athens.

The greatest admirer of Abdullah Ocalan is the Greek parliament speaker
Panaiotis SGURIDES (from PASOK). It has been determined that Zgurides
met APO in 1994 at Beqaa Valley twice and met APO and his
representatives in South Cyprus in 1997 three times, where he went for
trivial reasons.

The Greek politician paid a visit to APO on 14 June 1995 and honouring
him with an award of the Greek parliament "in recognition of his
service to Hellenism." That the Greek politician, during the meeting,
gave a map to APO, drawn up in Greece, showing the oil pipe lines,
asking him to sabotage them was published overtly in the Greek press,
together with the map in question.

While the contacts of the Greek parliamentarians from all the political
parties with PKK and APO clearly reveals to all, the "Greek-PKK
alliance", clearly showing what a liar the Greek Government Spokesman
is when trying to deceive the world that "Greece has nothing to do
with PKK, Turkey is lying".
m***@yahoo.com
2005-01-13 23:56:41 UTC
Permalink
The sub-human anti-Turkish hatred fabricators, murderers of innocent
and defenceless Turks and thugs of Armenian/Greek/PKK/KADEK
anti-Turkish Hatred Inc never stop in their relentless dreams of
massacring all Turks everywhere in the World. The sub-human
Greek/Armenian/PKK/KADEK terrorists think repeating anti-Turkish hate
propaganda over and over legitimize their rape, torture and murder of
innocent and defenceless Turkish human beings.



http://www.atmg.org/GrecoPKK.html


GREECE AND PKK TERRORISM

CONTENTS:

Prologue
1. Introduction
2. The Organisational Structure of the PKK in Greece
3. PKK's Activities in Greece
a. Media and Propaganda Activities
b. Militant Training Camps
c. Fundraising
4. Greek Authorities' Support to the PKK
a. Government and Other Authorities
b. Parliamentarians and Political Parties
c. Local Authorities and Other Circles
5. International Publications and Press Reports
6. Testimonies of the PKK Militants Exposing the Greek Involvement in
PKK Terrorism
7. Conclusion
Epilogue
Press Review
Appendices
PROLOGUE
THE COLD KILLERS OF 17 NOVEMBER WHO ALWAYS GO FREE
THE OBSERVER
28 SEPTEMBER 1997

Leonard Doyle examines the role of the Greek intelligence service.

Ever since the Greek terrorists known as the Revolutionary Movement 17
November gunned down the CIA station chief in Athens a few days before
Christmas 1975, the shadowy group has managed to strike with impunity
at its chosen targets. Western intelligence agencies have long
suspected 17 November of acting at the behest of prominent left-wing
Greek politicians. The little that is known about the organisation is
that it is nationalistic, left wing and likes to issue rambling
communiques that quote Balzac. But in Washington and London it has long
been suspected of being the cats paw of a radicalised Greek
intelligence service, the GYP. Washington made its frustration's with
Athens clear in its most recent world terrorism survey, where it
stated: "The Greek government continues to make no headway in its
pursuit of Greek terrorists, in particular, the Revolutionary
Organisation 17 November that is responsible for numerous attacks
against US interests, including the murder of four US officials." Until
today's Observer revelations, a direct link between 17 November and the
Greek secret service had not been established. The Kurdish bomber Seydo
Hazar has told the Observer that:

17 November leaders work hand-in-glove with elements of the Greek
intelligence service.
Police were kept away from PKK training camps by 17 November leaders
who checked the identity of car numberplates with Greek officials.
Funds were obtained and distributed to the PKK by a retired naval
commander who lives on a military base and is a well-known sympathiser
of 17 November.
The organisation is the most feared group in Greece and often referred
to as the deadliest terrorist group in Europe. Since 1975 its members
have executed 21 people, without anyone being arrested, charged or
convicted. Indeed, a close analysis of 17 November's actions down the
years, points to a remarkable set of coincidences in which Greek
government interests are seen to have been furthered by individual
attacks.
The Observer's evidence directly implicates the 17 November in
sheltering the PKK by providing housing and training facilities for its
guerrillas.The PKK bomber has told the Observer that Kurdish agents
could not train and pass through Greece without direct government
backing. "The Greek intelligence service were organising the chemicals,
the high explosives, for example they were giving people in the
(Kurdish) "home office" Greek passports," Hazar said.

The name 17 November comes from the day in 1973 when the Greek Colonels
sent tanks and soldiers to smash a student uprising at Athens
Polytechnic University, killing 34 young people. It was Europe's
Tiananmen Square and out of it grew a terrorist organisation. Highly
nationalistic, the group is anti-Greek establishment, anti-US,
anti-Turkiye, anti-Nato; it is committed to removing US bases and the
Turkish military presence from Cyprus, and to severing Greece's ties to
Nato and the European Union. 17 November's operations are always
planned and carried of with military precision. First there is the
"hit", carried out with the same small collection of Colt. 45 and Smith
and Wesson revolvers. The Colt. 45 that dispatched the CIA man, Robert
Welch, in 1975 was used again last June to murder Cosfi Peraticos,
scion of a Greek shipping family, which bought the privatised Elefsis
Shipyards in 1992. British diplomats, businessmen and interests have
also been singled out by 17 November; most recently the HMS Ark Royal
which was targeted with rockets when it docked in Pireaus in 1994 with
a crew of 1,000. Heavy rain prevented the rockets detonating, but there
were other successful rocket attacks that day against American and
German interests.

The 17 November communiques, with a five-pointed star and the name
"17N", typically come from the same typewriter that issued the
movement's first proclamation in 1975 shortly before Welch's execution.
But again, the Greek authorities have never come up with any leads.
This summer, the US government renewed the reward for the capture and
conviction of 17 November terrorists (it is now worth $2 million),
implicated in the deaths of four Americans, injuries to 28 other
Americans and a rocket attack on the US embassy compound in February
1996. What distinguishes the 17 November from other terrorist
organisations is that in 22 years not a single member of the group has
been arrested. Indeed, the identity of no member of 17 November is said
to be known to Greek, American or European police and intelligence
agencies. It is a claim no other terrorist group can make.

1.INTRODUCTION
Greece, with its complex and problematic relationship with Turkiye, has
traditionally adopted a supportive attitude towards elements hostile to
Turkiye, inspired by the motto "my enemy's enemy is my friend". In view
of its long-standing policy to tolerate the activities of various
terrorist groups on its territory, Greece has readily extended its
hostility towards Turkiye into this domain. Greece's past record in its
fight against terrorism is most revealing. The findings of consecutive
annual reports on terrorism by the US State Department have not only
categorically described Greece "to be a venue for a large number of
international terrorist attacks", but also have underlined the failure
of the Greek governments in taking appropriate measures in combating
terrorism and the toleration shown to terrorist groups active against
Turkish interests. Taking into consideration Greece's disposition to
harm the interests of Turkiye, it was not a coincidence to witness the
escalation of terrorist attacks against Turkish targets including the
assassination of a large group of Turkish diplomats and other
government officials abroad by the infamous Armenian terrorist
organisation ASALA during the years following the Turkish intervention
in Cyprus in 1974, in the wake of the Greek coup d'état designed to
annex the island. Various interviews with members of the ASALA who took
part in the heinous murders of Turkish diplomats serve as an
eye-opener.

Greece provides facilities on its soil to the PKK, a notorious
terrorist organisation, in the form of providing shelter, training and
logistics for its activities aiming at the dismemberment of Turkiye.
Greece's support to the PKK dates back to the late 1980s. Each time
Turkiye voiced its resentment and concern for the support given by
Greece to the PKK, the Greek governments while denying the charges have
insisted on the need for Turkiye to prove its claims with concrete
evidence. Yet it is not easy at all for Turkiye to provide Greece with
such evidence since Turkiye does not, in contrast to the Greek
practice, conduct intelligence operations on another NATO country's
territory. Nevertheless, front organisations of the PKK have been given
permission to establish themselves and function in major cities of
Greece. Furthermore, abundant number of testimonies by the captured PKK
terrorists contain detailed accounts of the training that they have
been given in various camps in Greece and the logistical support that
they have been provided with. These constitute evidence, which cannot
be ignored. Greek governments have in the past made unconvincing
statements to condemn terrorism in a somewhat ambiguous fashion.
Besides, they have been careful not to condemn the PKK by any explicit
reference. After the arrival in Rome of Abdullah Ocalan, the ringleader
of the PKK, Greece came up in front to voice its sympathy for the
"Kurdish cause" and started to campaign for the convening of an
international conference to discuss the so-called "Kurdish question",
which it claimed to be a matter of great interest for Europe, while
underlining the systematic support of Greece to the rights of the Kurds
to their national self-determination. Although the official statements
insist that Greece does not allow the PKK to operate on its soil, the
undeniable facts prove the contrary. The latest example to a series of
incidents in that direction has been the recent visit to Athens of Kani
Yilmaz (also known as Faysal Dunlayici), a member of the PKK leadership
and its representative for Europe. During this visit, in an interview
to the Greek press, Yilmaz stated that he and the PKK support violence,
and that violence will be extended to the major cities of Turkiye such
as Ankara, Istanbul and Izmir. Greece has indicated publicly and
repeatedly in the past that it does not condone violence, and that it
does not allow any activity on its soil aimed at the use of force
against third countries. It remains as a legitimate question as to how
this official line of Greece is compatible with the fact that a PKK
representative for whom the Greek government has been duly notified by
an Interpol arrest warrant could have the freedom to travel to Greece
and to make statements inciting violence against Turkiye.

Greek involvement in terrorist activities is not restricted to the
provision of a propitious environment for the activities of the PKK
only. Turkish diplomats in Greece were the targets of numerous attacks
carried out by a terrorist organisation, "17 November", which resulted
in loss of life. Consecutive Greek governments have not traced this
organisation for more than two decades. Yet there have been repeated
speculations in the Greek press with respect to the structure,
composition and objectives of this organisation. The latest fatal
incident came just after a list of addresses and car license plate
numbers of the Turkish diplomats serving in Greece, which had been
communicated to the Greek security authorities, was published in the
Greek press.

There are a number of international instruments to which Greece is a
party and is under the obligation to combat and cooperate effectively
against terrorism. Greece is also duty bound according to the
agreements that it has signed not to permit terrorist organisations and
their affiliates to operate on its territory. Given its record Greece
is in blatant violation of these commitments.

Against this backdrop, it is not surprising to see the name of Greece
being mentioned in connection with terrorism. Yet, it is known how
serious a threat terrorism constitutes for the contemporary world.
Increasingly violent acts of terrorist organisations and the ever
growing links between terrorism and organised crime such as drug
trafficking, money laundering, extortion and smuggling of people and
weapons point clearly to the need for concerted action in combating and
suppressing terrorism. In spite of the abundance of statements,
resolutions, conventions and other documents regarding co-operation
against terrorism adopted at various international fora, including the
United Nations, Council of Europe, NATO and the OSCE, a number of
countries, including Greece, persistently ignore their international
commitments in combating terrorism and do not refrain from lending
moral and material support to various terrorist organisations.

The pursuit of policy of hostility to Turkiye has long been a
misconceived cornerstone of Greek foreign policy. In the hope of taking
advantage of any instability that might be instigated in Turkiye, in
flagrant disregard of its obligations as a NATO member and under
international conventions, Greece has rendered encouragement and
support to the terrorist organisation PKK. In return, the notorious
head of the PKK, Abdullah Ocalan, does not miss any opportunity to
express openly his gratitude for the continuous sustenance its
organisation receives from Greece. In an interview published on 13
September 1998 in the Greek Cypriot daily Simerini, Ocalan took the
occasion "to pass his thanks to the Greek and (Greek) Cypriot people
for their devoted support" and noted that "only a joint combat would
bring about victory."

MEGA-TV, a Greek private TV station, broadcast an interview with Ocalan
on 15 September 1998, whereby the head of the PKK proposed a joint
military doctrine among the Middle Eastern countries, including Greece,
against Turkiye, similar to the one between Greece and the Greek
Cypriot Administration in South Cyprus. Ocalan also promised victory to
Greece in a possible Turco-Greek war, which he volunteered to command
and claimed that if the (Greek) Cypriots cooperated with the Kurdish
militants, the war would last for years.

These outrageous flirtations of the terrorist gang leader with Greece
and the Greek Cypriots preceded his escape from his long time hideout
in Syria in October 1998 in search of a new safe haven. It is revealing
to note that Athens was Ocalan's first preferred destination where he
went and sought political asylum. Providing sanctuary to such a
terrorist would have entailed a high price to pay for Greece by totally
exposing its policies in support of PKK terrorism. Therefore, Ocalan's
request was not granted, but ample support continued to flow to him
from Greece, notably from the ruling Pan-Hellenic Socialist Party
(PASOK), during the following episodes of Ocalan's flight first to the
Russian Federation through Athens, then to Italy and back to the
Russian Federation again.

The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the Greek support to the
PKK, which is a well established, but so far not a widely known fact.
This strange phenomenon - support given by a NATO member to a
separatist Marxist-Leninist terrorist organisation against another NATO
member - deserves to be seriously studied because of the paradoxes it
creates and the questions it poses, in the first instance for Greece
itself as an EU and NATO member. In the following sections, the
evolution of Greece's PKK-inspired policy toward Turkiye is examined.
While it merits being the subject of a particular study, there are
unavoidable references in this paper to the Greek Cypriot
Administration in South Cyprus because of Greek Cypriot involvement and
support for terrorism along similar lines with Greece.

2. THE ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF THE PKK IN GREECE
The PKK carries out its activities in Greece through two ERNK (Kurdish
acronym of the PKK's propaganda wing, "National Liberation Front of
Kurdistan") offices, two "Kurdistan Committees", one "Kurdistan
Cultural Centre" and a "Kurdish Red Crescent Office", which are all
subsidiaries of this terrorist organisation. Through these so-called
offices, committees and centres the PKK has established in Greece a
network which serves its logistical and operational needs as well as
its propaganda in its terrorist campaign against Turkiye.

Due to its geographical position, Greece serves as a bridge in the
transit of PKK militants between Western Europe and the Middle East. In
this regard Greece plays for the PKK a role comparable to that of Syria
and territories under Syrian control where the head of the PKK and PKK
militants have for years benefited from the sanctuary and facilities
provided to them. Since the agreement reached between Turkiye and Syria
on 20 October 1998 in Adana, Turkiye, whereby Syria designated the PKK
as a terrorist organisation and undertook to eradicate PKK presence and
activities on its territory, Greece stands alone among the neighbours
of Turkiye where the PKK has an officially sanctioned free hand.

Greece is a country where the PKK militants are sheltered and given
terrorist training in safe-houses, in camps disguised as "Refugee
Treatment Centres" or "farmhouses" on a temporary basis for periods of
2-3 months. This is a very serious violation of international rules and
norms, involving the use of Greek territory by a terrorist organisation
to prepare acts of terror against its neighbour.

Ocalan is on record to have said that he and the leadership of the PKK
had been invited to relocate in Greece by the Papandreu Government. He
has added that geographically Greece would not be convenient for
conducting PKK activities in Turkiye, but that efforts would be
underway to establish PKK training camps in Greece and particularly in
South Cyprus by August 1994. This invitation must have left an
unforgettable mark in Ocarina's mind as it was Greece where he sought
sanctuary and political asylum when he was forced to leave Syria in
October 1998 and again when he was desperately seeking a safe haven for
himself in January 1999 before being squeezed out of Rome.

On 5 April 1994, the PKK was allowed to open a representative office of
its own in Athens, called "the ERNK representation in Athens and the
Balkans." The PKK banner was hoisted in front of this ERNK office. A
number of well-known Greek politicians attended the office's opening
ceremony, including Panayiotis Sgouridis, Deputy Speaker of the Greek
Parliament, and four other members of parliament -- Dimitrios
Vounatsos, Michaelis Galeneanos, Yiannis Spathopoulos and Maria Mahera
Haralambidis. A senior member of PASOK's Central Committee was also
present in the ceremony.

Greek officials have persistently attempted to depict the ERNK, the
facade behind which the PKK criminal network operates in Europe, as a
"Kurdish political organisation" with a view to concealing their
support to the terrorist organisation. In a 1988 document entitled "The
Mass Character of Our Party and Front", the PKK describes the duties of
the ERNK under ten headings. According to this illuminating document,
among other duties of the ERNK, special emphasis is placed upon issues
such as organising mass activities (raids, occupations,
demonstrations), recruiting militants to turn them into "fighters",
providing combat training to these terrorists, maintaining contacts
with other armed groups, gathering intelligence and creating financial
resources for the terrorist organisation through extortion, drug
trafficking and human smuggling. In PKK's own words, its militants are
"fighting under the flag of the ERNK and armed with the weapons of the
ARGK (the armed wing of the PKK).

Another ERNK office under the name of the so-called "Kurdistan
Solidarity Committee" has also been operating in Thessalonica (Egnatia
Street No.75) since 14 November 1994. This ERNK office has been active
in particular in organising PKK's propaganda campaigns.

These ERNK offices in Greece see no harm in even openly selling the
propaganda documents of the terror organisation and issuing receipts
printed under the name of ERNK, given in return for the so-called
"donations" that are in fact forcibly collected. Some have been mailed
also to the Turkish Embassy in Athens.

3. PKK'S ACTIVITIES IN GREECE
The head of the PKK, Abdullah Ocalan, said in an interview published by
the Greek daily "Eksusia" on 23 December 1998 the following: "...Greece
has played a great part in my decision to go to Europe. Let me put it
clearer: If there had not been my Greek friends, I would never have
been able to come to Europe...If we did not have this friendship with
Greece, I could not come to Europe...My friendship with Greece
encouraged me in making my decision to come to Europe... We opened a
gateway in Europe (meaning his arrival in Italy). If we succeed going
through this gateway, a political solution to the problem would then be
found. This would be a political success for Greece ... as well."

He also confirmed press reports that three members of the Greek
parliament, including Deputy Speaker Sgouridis, visited him in Rome. In
the same interview, Ocalan implied Greece's continuing support to the
PKK with the following words: "Greece has always supported us
morally... By allowing us to sell the magazines, which we publish in
Greece, it is also lending support to us economically..."


a. Media and Propaganda Activities
In Greece, two propaganda magazines, the "Kurdish Report" and "Foni Tu
Kurdistan" - Kurdistan's Voice, are published by the PKK in Greek.
Apart from these two magazines, books, pamphlets and leaflets handbills
are also published in Athens mostly in Arabic, to be sent to Syria.
Recently, the PKK has begun to publish in Greece two new magazines
called "Al Aouge" and "El Evch", both in Arabic, and to distribute them
in Syria, Lebanon and northern Iraq for propaganda purposes. Besides
the above mentioned PKK publications, the Greek press itself is
inundated with articles, interviews, comments and reports openly
supporting the terrorist organisation PKK and even calling for action
against Turkiye.
The PKK was allowed to engage in extensive propaganda activities
against Turkish tourism in Greece in the summer of 1993. PKK posters
asking tourists not to travel to Turkiye were displayed all around
Athens. A PKK militant, calling himself the spokesman of the ERNK, held
a press conference in the island of Samos and openly called for a
boycott on travel to Turkiye. Such campaigns of the PKK against Turkish
tourism continue unabated, and are bolstered by certain Greek quarters
that hope to benefit from the possible negative consequences PKK's
anti-Turkish propaganda might inflict on Turkiye's image abroad.


b. Militant Training Camps
PKK militants have been trained in Greece on sabotage techniques and
the use of explosives for conducting terrorist attacks in Turkiye.
These training programs covering periods of 2-3 months have been
carried out with the moral and material support of the Greek
authorities. Following the training provided to groups of 50-70
militants in the camps located mostly in mountainous areas, PKK
terrorists are sent to Turkiye illegally for conducting acts of terror.
Since mid-1994, many PKK militants apprehended in Turkiye have
confessed that they were trained in matters of bomb attacks and
sabotage in these camps in Greece with the help of Greek authorities.
According to the testimonies of the PKK terrorists, one of these
training camps is located in the Psahna district of Evia Island to the
north of Athens, and the other one is based around Lepenu village,
north of the town of Agrinion. Other than those temporary camps
mentioned above, the PKK terrorists mostly coming from various European
countries are provided with theoretical training on
"political-military" subjects at the "Lavrion Refugee Camp" and in the
PKK safe-houses in Athens. Greece has allowed the PKK to use the
"Lavrion Refugee Camp" for planning its terrorist acts and organising
its "fund-raising" activities. The PKK terrorists captured in Turkiye
have independently provided detailed maps and diagrams of these camps
(Appendix 1). One of the most striking cases of Greek involvement in
the PKK's militant training activity came in 1994 and early in 1995.
Police in Istanbul and Izmir arrested groups of PKK militants who were
preparing to attack tourist resorts in Turkiye. It quickly became clear
that the terrorists had been trained as "urban militants" in Greece in
a camp near Athens.

c. Fund-raising
The fund raising activities of the PKK in Greece are mostly carried out
with the help of Greek parliamentarians and other circles supporting
the PKK. Illegal immigration to Europe via Greece from third world
countries has long become one of the lucrative sources of finance for
the terrorist organisation PKK, which is actively involved in almost
every stage of this "modern art" of human smuggling. Extortion of money
from asylum seekers and illegal immigrants during their temporary stay
in Greece's "refugee treatment camps" is also another pitiless method
of fund-raising of the PKK.
Brian Murphy of the Associated Press has reported, in an article
entitled "Kurdish Rivalries Boil Over at Key Stop in Refugee Trail,"
published in the Greek daily Athens News on 11 August 1998, that the
Greek government acquiesced in the PKK militants using the Iraqi
Kurdish camps in the country as centres for fund-raising and propaganda
activities. Based on interviews conducted in the "Kurdish" refugee camp
in Patras, Greece, Mr. Murphy has pointed to the Iraqi Kurds' claim
that they have been forced to pay "PKK taxes" and "protection money"
while they waited for political asylum or transfer to another European
country. Mr. Murphy has indicated that PKK members who demand
commissions from the profits of the human smugglers and beat or murder
those who refuse to cooperate reportedly pressured many Kurds in the
camp into submission.

Donations of various Greek circles and sale of propaganda publications
are also among the sources of income of the PKK.

4. GREEK AUTHORITIES' SUPPORT TO THE PKK

a. Government and Other Authorities
A multitude of contacts were carried out between the head of the PKK
Abdullah Ocalan, Stationed in Syria and the Bekaa valley in Lebanon,
and the Greek administration during the 1981- 89 Papandreu Government.
For instance, a Greek delegation, comprising parliamentarians, press
members and Prime Minister Papandreu's adviser Mr. Haralambidis,
visited Ocalan in Lebanon on 17-19 October 1988. Mr. Papandreu was an
extremely negative factor in Turkish-Greek relations, responsible for
charting a confrontational course and fomenting hostility between the
two nations. A terrorist organisation such as the PKK was a perfect
tool that could serve these radical Greek policies. The policy of
collaboration with the PKK, created during Papandreu's premiership, was
maintained and reinforced through the succeeding New Democracy and
PASOK administrations. Courting, encouraging and supporting PKK
terrorism became a permanent fixture of Greek policies. As time went
by, such support from Greece to the PKK became more vocal and more
visible. Press statements by Government Spokesman Venizelos and Deputy
Foreign Minister Pangalos, following the crackdown on the PKK in France
and Germany in 1993, were extremely detrimental to the common fight
against terrorism. These two Greek officials referred to PKK terrorism
as "a struggle for independence", displaying an irresponsible and
inadmissible attitude by any standards.
Three months later, Greek authorities permitted the PKK to open a
"Kurdish Red Crescent Society" in Athens, whose stated objective was to
"offer medical treatment to Kurdish guerrillas wounded in the
continuing war in Turkish Kurdistan and to help the spouses and
children of Kurdish guerrillas held in Turkish prisons."

On 8 July 1993, the Greek government permitted the ERNK to hold a
provocating press conference on Cos, one of the Dodecanese Islands only
a few miles from the Turkish coast. Several observations on Greece's
refugee policy would also be in order. Greece has its own arbitrary
criteria for treating illegal migrants asking for asylum. In this
context, it accepts on its territory those terrorists, fugitives and
other people especially of Kurdish origin coming from Turkiye, whom it
believes, can be manipulated for its propaganda activities against
Turkiye. At the same time, it deports immigrants and asylum seekers
coming from countries like Iraq, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka.
This inhumane Greek policy is a blatant violation of the fundamental
principles of international law, which regulate the rules of a just
treatment for asylum seekers, but, at the same time, categorically deny
to terrorists the right of asylum. This is true particularly for the
provisions of "The United Nations General Assembly Resolutions on
Measures to Eliminate International Terrorism" and the "European
Convention on the Suppression of Terrorism." Greek Government's support
for the PKK reached its peak point on 30 April 1998, when the PKK was
allowed to open an "official" representation in the centre of Athens,
called "PKK Representation of Balkans." The opening ceremony was
"honoured" by the participation of MPs from both the government and the
main opposition parties. This was the first time that the PKK had
opened an official representation under its own name in any country.
The Greek authorities deny that such a representation bureau was
opened, but the evidence clearly indicates otherwise.

During the latest crisis with Italy over Ocalan that was triggered by
the arrest of PKK's head in Rome on 12 November 1998, government
officials, almost all political parties and the media in Greece called
on the Italian authorities to reject Turkiye's demand for the
extradition of Ocalan and to grant him political asylum. The Government
Spokesman Mr. Dimitris Reppas stated on 14 November 1998 that "Greece
has systematically supported the right of the Kurds to their
self-determination", making null and void all the previous Greek
statements on respect for Turkiye's territorial integrity. George
Papandreou, the Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs, asserted in Rome on
17 November 1998 that "the crisis over Ocalan is not a problem of Italy
but that of Europe" and called on the European Union to act in
solidarity and cooperation with Italy on this issue, while Stelios
Papathemelis, PASOK Deputy and former Minister of Public Order, hoped
that "the Italian government will not yield to the unbelievable demands
of certain countries, which, motivated by intrinsic Turkophile
sentiments, want to try a fighter as though he was a terrorist or a
murderer." Furthermore, the Minister of Defence Akis Tsohatzopoulos
expressed his hope that Ocalan's request for political asylum from the
Italian authorities will pave the way to "the political settlement of
the Kurdish question."

The words of Greek Ambassador to Saudi Arabia, George Nicolaidis, in
his interview published by the Riyadh Daily on 8 December 1998, leave
no room for doubt with regard to Greek official attitude to the PKK
terrorism: "...PKK is a political organisation and also a military one.
It fights for the liberation of Kurdistan. So, it is a liberation
movement. It has a political office in Greece, which, you know, is a
free country..." With these words, Ambassador Nicolaidis also
acknowledged unequivocally the presence of the terrorist organisation
PKK in Greece. Among Ocalan's lawyers, there are also two Greeks,
Thrasinoulos Kontaksis and Yeorgios Adamapoulos. According to these
lawyers who expressed their views in the Greek daily Eleftherotipia on
3 January 1999, "it is the Turkish State, but not Ocalan, that is to be
labelled as terrorist". One of them, Kontaksis, in the same interview
that upon Ocalan's arrival in Rome, "PKK's Balkans Representation" in
Athens contacted him to ask "his legal advice with regard to the
presence of President (Ocalan) in Italy." These words of Kontaksis
revealed unambiguously once again the fact that contrary to the
persistent denials of Greek authorities; the PKK has a presence in
Athens under the name of "representation" which operates without any
restriction.

At an annual Foreign Press Association luncheon held on 26 November
1998, Prime Minister Simitis claimed that the PKK is an "organisation
fighting for the rights of the Kurdish minority and using various means
to reach this end." Mr. Simitis also said, "Greece is in favour of
political asylum being given to Ocalan. Italy has handled the matter
properly". These words can be considered as nothing but an unambiguous
attempt of the Greek Government to justify PKK terrorism which has
resulted, to date, in the death of thousands of people, including many
civilians mostly of Kurdish origin in Turkiye.

On 22 December 1998, Greek Foreign Minister Pangalos participated in a
demonstration at Lavrion camp, one of the main terrorist training
facilities of the PKK in Greece. On this occasion Mr. Pangalos made a
speech at the camp, full of baseless accusations against Turkiye, in
front of PKK demonstrators carrying photographs of Ocalan and posters
against Turkiye's national unity and territorial integrity. Mr.
Pangalos did not refrain from instigating the crowd against Turkiye
with the following words: "The great powers, which had recently decided
on pressing the trigger (British backed American air strikes against
Iraq), do not show the same sensitivity on the right to a free life of
Kurdish people on its own territory..."


b. Parliamentarians and Political Parties
On 20 March 1992, a group of Greek politicians held a joint press
conference with ERNK militants in the Bekaa valley in Lebanon. The
group included three members of the Greek Parliament belonging to PASOK
(the Pan-Hellenic Socialist Party of Mr.Andreas Papandreou) Lefteros
Varivakis, Dimitrios Vounatsos and Elizabeth Papazoi. The group also
paid a call on Ocalan. The Greek government gave its permission for the
press conference to take place, thereby implicitly giving the
terrorists an opportunity to announce that they would be targeting
tourist resorts in Turkiye. Similar declarations have been issued
periodically. For example, on 11 March 1996, Greek television broadcast
an interview with the PKK gang leader Abdullah Ocalan by Panos
Panayotopoulos. During the interview, Ocalan repeatedly threatened to
attack tourists and tourism companies in order to damage the Turkish
tourism industry and advised "foreign tourists not to go to Turkiye. If
they do, the PKK cannot be held responsible."
In February 1993, a second group of Greek Parliamentarians attended the
self-styled Kurdish diaspora assembly in Brussels. They reportedly
"exchanged views with the Kurds on the subject of genocide committed by
the Turkish Army."

On 20-21 September 1994, Greek parliamentarians held another meeting
with PKK representatives. Three PASOK deputies, Costas Badouvas,
Dimitrios Vounatsos and Hristos Kipouros, travelled to the Bulgarian
capital, Sofia, to attend a pro-PKK meeting. With them travelled a
retired admiral and well-known PKK supporter, Naksakis and Dimitrios
Martos, the representative of the "League for People's Rights and
Liberation." Once again the Greek deputies publicly affirmed their
solidarity with the PKK.

In November 1994, Kani Yilmaz, "PKK's representative in Europe", was
arrested in London. On 17 November 1994, 22 Greek deputies signed a
joint letter circulated in other European capitals, denouncing the
arrest.

Early in 1995, the PKK moved to set up a self-styled "Kurdistan
Parliament in Exile." On 12 April 1995, the PKK organised a meeting in
The Hague to launch the so-called "parliament" with the participation
of seven members of the Greek Parliament - Dimitrios Vounatsos (PASOK),
Yiannis Statopoulos (PASOK), Costas Badouvas (PASOK), Leonardos
Harziandrou (PASOK), Nicholas Conomipoulos, Payiotis Camenos (PASOK)
and Petros Taulis.

On 26-29 June 1995, Yasar Kaya, the titular head of PKK's self-styled
"Kurdistan Parliament in Exile", visited Athens with two of his
supporters. They were given an official welcome and received by
Panayiotis Sgouridis, the Deputy Speaker of the Greek Parliament. Some
Greek parliamentarians once again met with the PKK members in Syria on
12 June 1995. This time the delegation consisted of the representatives
of all the mainstream Greek political parties and was headed by the
Deputy Speaker of the Greek Parliament. The delegation expressed its
support for the "PKK's struggle" and awarded Ocalan a plaque.
Photographs of the meeting, published in the Turkish daily newspaper
Milliyet in July 1995, depicted one of the Greek deputies presenting
Ocalan with a blue flag symbolising Greece's territorial aspirations
against Macedonia. A second picture showed Ocalan with one of the other
Greek deputies in front of a map portraying alternative routes for the
proposed oil pipeline from the Caspian basin to the Turkish
Mediterranean coast.

Mihalis Haralambidis, a member of the Central Executive Board of PASOK,
said the following in a speech he delivered during a conference held
for "National Day" on 25 March 1997: "In order to solve the Kurdish
issue, it is necessary for Greece to spend efforts to hold a 'European
Kurdish conference' and for the Greek Government to invite Ocalan
officially."

With the initiative of Mr. Haralambidis, 110 (afterwards this number
increased to 178) deputies of the Greek Parliament signed a joint
letter on 11 April 1997, addressed to the President of the Parliament,
requesting that Abdullah Ocalan be invited to visit Greece. The letter
contained glowing praise to Ocalan. In response, Ocalan sent a letter
to Mr. Haralambidis, thanking him for the invitation.

In this context, the participation of a Greek parliamentary delegation
headed by Deputy Speaker Sgouridis, along with his several other
colleagues in the third anniversary meeting of the so-called,
self-proclaimed "Kurdish Parliament in Exile," the propaganda wing of
the PKK, constitutes another example of the support given by the Greek
Parliament to the PKK. In that meeting, held on 12 April 1998, Mr.
Sgouridis and other members of Greek Parliament made speeches
reaffirming their support to and solidarity with the PKK. Costas
Badouvas, Greek MP and former minister, made a speech during a PKK-led
demonstration in Rotterdam on 12 September 1998 and held that "Kurdish
people's struggle", which he claimed was gaining momentum, would not be
defeated. Mr. Badouvas also wanted Turkiye to respond to PKK's
so-called cease-fire calls.

On 12 November 1998, Ocalan was arrested in Rome on his arrival from
Moscow. PASOK MP Badouvas went to Rome on 13 November 1998 to present
Ocalan with a letter, which had been signed by 109 Greek MPs, inviting
the terrorist to Greece. In the letter, which was also signed by three
deputy speakers of the Greek Parliament, Ocalan was referred to as "the
legitimate representative of the most repressed people of the world
standing between liberation and genocide."

Furthermore, some PASOK MPs, academics, artists and journalists
established "the Committee of Solidarity with the Kurdish Leader",
aimed at supporting Ocalan's application for political asylum in Italy.



c. Local Authorities and Other Circles
In 1994, the pro-PKK campaign inside Greece went a stage further. A
non-governmental organisation called "The League for People's Rights
and Liberation" launched a "campaign for solidarity with the Kurdish
people" with the stated aim of collecting 200 million Drachmas (US$
885,000) as financial support for "Kurdistan's struggle".
In addition to these initiatives, the Governor of Korfu, Andreas
Pangratis, sent a letter to the Greek Government on 30 May 1997, in
which he stated that he supported the initiatives of the Greek deputies
to invite the head of the PKK to Greece, and that in case Ocalan came
to Korfu, they would be pleased to host him and to organise in Korfu a
Europe-wide conference on Kurds. The Greek authorities also permitted
the PKK to hold a meeting in Thessalonica from 19 to 21 September 1997,
organised by the Kurdistan Solidarity Committee and called "an
international festival of peace and solidarity with the Kurdish
people," at which the PKK engaged in propaganda for its terrorist
activities. Greek officials, including the Governor of Thessalonica and
representatives of political parties, participated in the so-called
festival.

According to the Greek press news of 15 September 1998, Dilan (Semsin
Kiliç), known as "PKK/ERNK's representative in the Balkans",
participated in the panel organised by the Municipality of Veria,
Greece, and the "Kurdish Solidarity Committee" and put out anti-Turkish
statements such as the following: "Our war has been serving the
interests of the peoples of the region. Escalating this war will make a
positive contribution to the peaceful coexistence of the Kurds, the
Turks, the Armenians, the Hellenes of Pontus and other peoples..." At
the meeting Mihalis Haralambidis, member of PASOK's Central Committee,
claimed that the rapprochement between the Greeks and the Kurds could
be achieved only after the liberation of "the peoples of Asia Minor".

On 7 December 1998, the Sikies Municipality of Thessalonica issued a
communiqué, forwarded to the Greek Government and Parliament, in which
it called for granting Ocalan the right of political asylum and asked
the Greek Government to take all necessary initiatives to bring to the
international platform the issue of recognition of Kurdish people's
right of having their own territory.

5. INTERNATIONAL PUBLICATIONS AND PRESS REPORTS
In view of all this, it comes as no surprise to read in a report on the
"Patterns of Global Terrorism," published annually by the U.S. State
Department that Greece is "a venue for a large number of international
terrorist attacks." The report comments that "the Greek authorities
made little progress against terrorist groups in 1994, in part due to
ambivalent Government attitudes toward counter-terrorism. Greece still
lacks a new anti-terrorism law to replace legislation repealed in 1993
by the in-coming PASOK Government." The 1996 issue of the report,
published in April 1997, continues to include the PKK among the main
international terrorist organisations and goes on to say that "
...Greek Government also continues to tolerate the official presence in
Athens of two Turkish terrorist groups- the National Liberation Front
of Kurdistan, which is the political wing of the Kurdistan Workers
Party (PKK), and the Revolutionary People's Liberation Party/Front
(DHKP/C) -- formerly Devrimci Sol -- which is responsible for the
murder of two US Government contractors in Turkiye..." It should be
emphasised in this regard that the PKK and the DHKP/C are among the
four top terrorist groups that conducted 51 percent of all
international terrorist attacks in 1996 and they also accounted for 60
percent of international terrorist activities in 1995. The PKK and the
DHKP/C together were responsible for almost 25 percent of all the
international terrorist activities in the same year. As seen from these
figures, the activities of the PKK terrorist organisation extend far
beyond Turkiye.
The Observer in its 28 September 1997 issue, published an interview
entitled "Poison Bomber Offers Secrets for Sanctuary" wherein a member
of the PKK, named Seydo Hazar, revealed from his hideout in Greece the
secret plans of the terrorist organisation and its connections with the
Greek Government and other terrorist groups. The following are some of
the highlights of the information revealed by PKK member Seydo Hazar
whose identity and terrorist connections have been verified by a number
of security sources in Europe:

11 Stinger missiles, manufactured under license in Greece were sold by
the PKK group in Greece to the Tamil Tigers subsequently used to shoot
down military transport planes over Sri Lanka.
The PKK is protected by the shadowy Greek Marxist revolutionary
organisation 17 November and funded by elements close to the Greek
security service while preparing terrorist attacks in London and those
targeted at European tourists in Turkiye.
The 17 November leaders work hand-in-glove with elements of the Greek
intelligence service.
The 17 November has been involved with the PKK in training militants in
Greece for missions in Turkiye.
The Greek intelligence service is giving the PKK militants 'home
office' and Greek passports.
Greek police are kept away from PKK training camps by the 17 November
leaders who check the identity of car numberplates with Greek
officials.
A retired Greek Naval officer who lives on a military base and is a
well-known sympathiser of the 17 November pays all the PKK militants'
expenses in Greece and even acts as an informal censor of their
magazine, the "Voice of Kurdistan".
The terrorist PKK also has links with the German neo-Nazis, the Tamil
Tigers and the Hamas organisation. It has also a liaison officer in
Damascus dedicated to working with Hamas."
As can be seen from the above-mentioned revelations, Seydo Hazar, a PKK
terrorist, states that he and his group were protected and supported by
the Greek security services and the Greek terror organisation known as
17 November, the latter having staged numerous attacks against Turkish
and other foreign diplomats and installations in Athens since 1974,
claiming many lives and inflicting material damage. As a unique case in
the international arena, none of the members of this organisation have
ever been identified, let alone captured, raising serious question
marks as to its roots.
The Observer's interview is only a confirmation of what is already
known. Not surprisingly, the Greek government denied The Observer
reporting claiming that: "everything mentioned in the report is false,
unsubstantiated and made up." Nevertheless, it was learnt that,
following the revelations of Seydo Hazar, the Greek Intelligence
Service began to apply pressure on PKK members in order to make them
observe strict secrecy. The campsite at the Psahna town in Evia Island
was evacuated on 13 November 1997, as were the safe-houses near Athens
used by the PKK members, with the help of PASOK MP Badouvas.

There is substantial evidence shared within the Interpol mechanisms
underlining the fact that the PKK is actively involved in human
trafficking as well as other organised crimes. A striking example of
the PKK involvement in human trafficking was given in the "Report"
program aired by the German ARD television channel on 19 January 1998
which included statements by a gang member convicted of human
trafficking. In his own words, the convict said: "Our organisation in
not directly linked with the PKK, but on several occasions we had to
pay ransom to the PKK in order to do our job. The PKK itself is also
involved in human trafficking. In Greece there is no permission to the
others. My organisation can only smuggle people into Greece, but from
Greece onwards, it is exclusively a PKK job."

Another international press report on the Greek support to PKK
terrorism was published in the 30 March 1998 issue of TIME magazine
entitled "A Hellenic Haven: The flight of Kurdish refugees to Greece
adds to a cycle of violence and vengeance". The report explains in
detail how the vicious terrorist organisation, the PKK, has been given
in Greece a free hand in recruiting and training new cadres and in
planning its terrorist activities. The text of the TIME article is in
Press Review.

6. TESTIMONIES OF PKK MILITANTS EXPOSING THE GREEK INVOLVEMENT IN PKK
TERRORISM
Testimonies of PKK militants apprehended in Istanbul and Izmir at the
end of 1994 and the beginning of 1995 revealed that the terrorists were
trained in a camp near Athens before they were sent to Turkiye to
organize violent attacks on tourist installations. PKK militants,
Sakine Dönmez, Atilla Kaya and Abdurrahman Yaruk, caught after a bomb
attack on Istanbul's famous covered bazaar, Kapaliçarsi, on 2 April
1994, causing several deaths, confessed that they were trained in
explosives in Greece. Testimonies of other PKK terrorists apprehended
in Turkiye confirmed undeniably the previous revelations. According to
these testimonies, PKK members are given "political" and "military
training" at two camps within 200 kilometres of Athens -- the Lavrion
Refugee Camp and the Lamia-Halkida Camp -- where PKK members have been
sheltered and trained to use explosives and firearms.
Dozens of PKK militants arrested in Turkiye have unveiled that former
Greek military officers have trained them in explosives and military
tactics in camps near Athens. In June 1997, the Greek Cypriot press
published photographs of a retired Greek Admiral training PKK
terrorists at a camp in northern Iraq. There are also several reports
stating that PKK members are serving as agents of the Greek
Intelligence Service, acting on its behalf against Turkiye.

The confessions made by PKK militant Fethi Demir, who surrendered to
the Turkish security forces on 6 March 1998, and by Semdin Sakik, PKK's
"second man", who was captured in northern Iraq in April 1998, have
exposed that the Greek support to PKK terrorism goes far beyond what
was formerly known. Excerpts from the testimonies of PKK terrorists on
the Greek support given to the terrorist organisation are at Appendix
2.

7. CONCLUSION
Terrorism has been universally condemned and, under the relevant
international agreements, all countries have committed themselves to
combating and cooperating effectively against terrorism. They have
undertaken not to permit their territories to be used by terrorist
organisations. There is no doubt that Greece is in blatant violation of
its commitments.
A study on terrorism and organised crime entitled "Terrorism And
Organised Crime: Preparing NATO For Future Security Threats", made by
Mr. Larry C.Johnson and Ambassador Morris D.Busby, concluded that
"...Less well known but more disturbing is the support that Greece, a
member of NATO, has given to the PKK. The Deputy Speaker of the Greek
Parliament, accompanied by several colleagues, visited PKK leader
Ocalan at his headquarters in Lebanon's Bekaa Valley in June 1995. A
similar visit was made in the summer of 1997. In addition, 110 members
of the Greek Parliament and the Deputy Speaker called for PKK leader
Ocalan to be officially invited to Athens. Dozens of PKK operatives
arrested in Turkiye claim former Greek military officers at camps near
Athens trained them in explosives and military tactics. In June of
1997, the Greek Cypriot press published photos of a retired Greek
Admiral training PKK terrorists at a camp in northern Iraq. There also
are several press reports that PKK members are agents of the Greek
Intelligence Service, acting on its behalf against Turkiye. In
addition, PKK front groups operate openly in Greece and members of the
ruling party, PASOK, have met on several occasions with PKK leaders...

Put in less diplomatic terms, the government of Greece either turns a
blind eye to the activities of the PKK on its soil or in the worst case
actively supports the PKK with training and logistics. According to US
Government sources. which spoke on the condition of not being
identified, Greece deserved to be included with Iran and Syria as a
sponsor of terrorism, but US political considerations have precluded
this sanction.

In the past, the issue of Greek support of the PKK appears to have been
widely viewed as an extension of the long-standing political dispute
between two NATO members. This situation is awkward for NATO and is
usually only dealt with in unavoidable circumstances. However, given
the PKK's terrorist and criminal activities throughout Europe, it poses
a real threat to the security of several NATO members. Indeed. the PKK
probably is the major terrorist and organised crime threat to NATO. At
a minimum, NATO should call on the member nations to cooperate in
reducing or removing this threat through collective action. In
addition, NATO should convene a plenary session to review and discuss
the threat the PKK represents in Europe. Such a forum would permit
close scrutiny of Greece's policy of supporting a terrorist group while
focusing NATO members on the meatier issue of taking collective action
to confront a new kind of threat."

These are far from being the full story. But all the available
information unmistakably sheds light on the extent of the Greek policy
of hostility towards Turkiye, a policy that has been stretched to the
point of trying to undermine Turkiye's stability by supporting the
terrorist activities of the PKK.

EPILOGUE
As this publication shedding light on the background of Greek
involvement with PKK terrorism went into print, unfolding events
totally exposed the protection and physical sanctuary provided by
Greece to Abdullah Ocalan. It was established that despite persistent
official Greek denials, Ocalan was in fact brought to Athens at the end
of January 1999 under the knowledge of the Greek Government which also
arranged the safe passage of this terrorist to Africa and harboured him
in the Greek Embassy in Nairobi from 2 to 16 February 1999 while
concealing his identity from the Government of Kenya. This shocking
behaviour is a unique case of flagrant contravention of international
law and rules of international conduct, in particular among members of
NATO and the European Union, which deals a serious blow to the standing
and credibility of Greece as a law abiding state.
This further episode of Greek involvement in PKK terrorism will be
dealt with in greater detail in a separate publication. The readers
will find in the final pages on this publication self explanatory
material originating from Greece itself and the Government of Kenya in
order to bring to light the dark and unacceptable role played by Greece
to help the head of a brutal terrorist organisation which has claimed
thousands of lives in Turkiye escape justice.

PRESS REVIEW
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF STATE
April 1997
PATTERNS OF GLOBAL TERRORISM 1996 - GREECE

"The Greek Government also continues to tolerate the official presence
in Athens of two Turkish terrorist groups-the National Liberation Front
of Kurdistan, which is the political wing of the Kurdistan Workers'
Party (PKK), and the Revolutionary People's Liberation Party / Front
(DHKP/C)- formerly Devrimci Sol-which is responsible for the murder of
two US Government contractors in Turkiye."
THE OBSERVER
28 September 1997
THE ONLY WAY TO BEAT TERRORISM

It may not be the end of history, but the era of states waging war as a
means of settling conflicts is receding. Violence, instead, is becoming
the preserve of terrorist organisations prepared to use any means to
achieve ends that cannot be reached by peaceful methods. Their capacity
to destabilise governments is huge - so the temptation for these
governments' enemies to do business with them is ever present. Worse,
the march of technology makes the efficiency of the weapon systems
available to them ever more terrifying.
Our disclosure today that the Kurdish PKK separatist group has
ambitions to use poison bombs against tourists and British interests is
part of this wider picture. It is extremely disturbing. European
governments are committed to fighting terrorism together but, as we
reveal, some groups have been able to operate within Greece. Worse, it
appears some elements in the Greek secret service have connived in the
PKK's operations and are alleged to have offered funding. This is a
grave charge, but the evidence of our informant, and Greece's failure
to deal with the 17 November terrorist group, requires more than ritual
denials.

The story of Seydo Hazar offers evidence that terrorists can produce
homemade nerve agents like sarin or biological weapons, which utilise
deadly bacteria. The way they go about it of course cannot be kept a
secret. It is already available in patent offices and on the Internet.
Theory, it seems, has too easily been allowed to become practice.

The new upward ratchet in the terrorist threat to civilians is
alarming. But so are the close links, previously only speculation,
between German neo-Nazi, the PKK, Tamil Tigers in Sri Lanka and the
Palestinian Hamas Organisation. Weapons are being traded between groups
with murderous results.

National rivalries have no place in the joint fight against terrorists.
This lesson has to be learned above all in Greece, where a
faction-riven secret service seems to bear some responsibility for
exposing citizens to PKK terrorists-its rivalry with Turkiye persuading
wilder fringes of its secret services to sponsor the cell on the
principle that my enemy's enemy is my friend. Our evidence shows its
assurances to the United States that these activities would stop are
not seen as credible. The US has threatened sanctions if Greece does
not fulfil its responsibilities. Now Greece's European Union and Nato
partners must reinforce the message.

THE OBSERVER
THE REPENTANT TERRORIST BOMBER ON THE RUN HAS NO PLACE TO HIDE
Shyam Bhatia on the Greek Island of Naxos meets a fearful Kurd who
predicts a wave of terror across Europe.
For the past four weeks a dark young man in blue shorts and green
bandanna has wandered the Greek islands, trading jokes with the German
and Scandinavian tourists who throng the Aegean at summer's end. None
guessed that Seydo Hazar is a desperate man who fears death at the
hands of the terrorists he served as a bomb-maker, who imagines an
executioner in every bar and hotel corridor, and wants to trade his
secrets for a new life.

He sits on the bed of his simple hotel room on the island of Naxos and
talks of a career that has resulted, he says, in the murder of 60
fellow Kurds and of a young woman killed when one of his bombs exploded
in the Turkish holiday resort of Bodrum in July. He warns of a ruthless
new round of terrorist attacks aimed at tourists, including Britons
which may involve chemical weapons.

He chain-smokes and his dark hooded eyes glance restlessly round the
room. His paranoia is infectious. He catches my arm and, saying we are
both in mortal danger, insists that we toss a coin to decide who goes
through the door first.

The patio outside is empty, but he regards the most innocent encounter
with suspicion. When South African holidaymakers invite us to join them
for a drink, he looks petrified and scurries away. Only when he is
reassured that they are tourists does he join us briefly to watch the
dusk descend on the island that has given him brief sanctuary but no
peace.

In the past 48 hours he has managed to leave Greece and is now believed
to be hiding for his own safety somewhere in Western Europe. He
contacted the Observer through an Irish intermediary, insisting he
wanted to reveal how his former terrorist masters had now switched
their targets to civilians, and that a new wave of atrocities was
planned to begin as early as next month.

His identity and terrorist connections have been verified by a number
of security sources in Europe.

The story of how Hazar, 31, became involved with what is reputed to be
one of the deadliest terrorist organisations in the world has elements
of the classic Faustian bargain. The master from whom he is fleeing is
the Kurdistan Workers Party, the PKK.

Since the early Seventies, this Marxist-Leninist group has sought a
separate Kurdish state in southeast Turkiye. Its reputation is that it
uses terror without compunction, settles its own internal quarrels with
summary violence and controls many of Europe's drug cartels.

He believes he is being hunted by two other deadly enemies. The first
is the little known but highly dangerous 17 November left-wing Greek
terrorist group, which he says has been involved with the PKK in
training Kurds in Greece for missions in Turkiye. In 1975 it murdered
the CIA's Athens station chief, Richard Welch, and it has since killed
about 20 more people, including three other American officials, two
diplomats from Turkiye and 13 Greeks.

The other enemy is the Greek secret service, the GYP (pronounced Kip),
which stands to be seriously embarrassed by Hazar's disclosures. It has
been waging a secret war against Greece's traditional enemies, the
Turks, by helping the Kurds with their bomb making and weapons
training.

THE OBSERVER
28 September 1997
POISON BOMBER OFFERS SECRETS FOR SANCTUARY
Fugitive Kurdish terrorist reveals
by Shyam Bhatla Naxos and Leonard Doyle.
ONE OF THE world's most dangerous bombers has revealed that terrorist
groups on three continents have developed poison bombs to attack
civilians-in an extraordinary confession to the Observer from a secret
hideout in Greece...
...Seydo Hazar, 31, says he and his group were protected by the shadowy
Greek Marxist Revolutionary Organisation 17 November and funded by
elements close to the Greek security services while preparing terrorist
outrages in London and on European tourists...
...Western intelligence agencies are taking the allegations
seriously...
...Hazar has gone public because he is disgusted by the targeting of
civilians by a splinter group of the Marxist Kurdistan Workers Party
(PKK)...
...His claims provide the most complete picture yet of the close
collaboration between international terrorist organisations, as well as
disturbing evidence that one NATO power may have been harbouring
militants from a group waging a war against the government of another
NATO member.
...11 Stinger missiles, manufactured under licence in Greece, were sold
by his group to the Tamil Tigers and subsequently used to shoot down
military transport planes over Sri Lanka...
...He says that the splinter unit of the PKK in Greece has the means to
destroy entire population centres, as well as contaminating beaches and
fresh produce in pursuit of their deadly aims...
...when he lived in a PKK safe house in the village of Drosia (Greece),
he left behind a large cache of explosives, including TNT and Amonal,
as well as the precursors for chemical and biological agents. These
include the nerve agent sarin and laboratory facilities for producing
the E-coli and botulism bacterias...
... The allegation that Athens has been turning a blind eye to PKK
guerrillas using its territory for training and crossing to Kurdish
frontline areas has surfaced before, only to he flatly denied in Athens
as Turkish propaganda.

On Friday, the Observer gave the Greek government the specific
locations of the two sites identified by the bomber as the weapons
dumps. As turned out, PKK arms had already been discovered at one of
the locations and three people taken away for questioning. There were
no arrests, however...

...The US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright is also understood to
have raised the question of Greece's support for Kurdish militants on
her most recent visit to Athens. In confirmation hearings before
Congress, Washington's incoming ambassador to Greece, Nicholas Burns,
put the war against terrorism as a top priority.
"They said so many innocent Kurds had died, it made no difference if
innocent Turkish and foreign civilians died as well"
... According to Hazar, a retired Greek naval officer pays all the
Kurds' expenses in Greece and even acts as an informal censor of their
newspaper, Voice of Kurdistan, 'so as not to spoil the good relations
between Greeks and Kurds'.
....and regional ally. Last year the US formally warned Greece, a
fellow Nato member, that if these activities continued it might be
declared a 'state sponsor of international terrorism'.
...To avoid harsh US economic sanctions, Greece was reported to have
given assurances that PKK activities would be curtailed and its bases
and training camps in Greece closed....
....He does not deny suggestions that he was picked up and trained by
the secret police of the former East Germany before the fall of the
Berlin Wall in 1989. Hazar will admit only that he has lived in
Poland...
...Hazar was persuaded to leave Germany and go to Athens by an inner
elite within the PKK, known as the "home office" (Ülke Bürosu in
Turkish).
...Soon after his arrival in Athens last February he was taken to a
farm near Triada, north of the city. This was a training camp run by a
Greek called Dimitri and his partner Martha. Hazar believes Dimitri to
be the leader of 17 November and that the couple also has good
connections with the Greek secret service.
...Greek authorities were training and equipping Kurdish guerrillas for
missions in Turkiye.
...A small flat was founded for him near the Hotel Pefkakia in the
village of Drosia, about 12 miles north of Athens....
...unprimed bombs are given to three separate couriers to see which one
was caught, or if any in the PKK group in Greece had betrayed them.
...I didn't mind at all about hitting the Turkish army because that was
a legitimate military target.'
...was planned for Antalya, close to where former Turkish Prime
Minister Tansu Ciller's family owns a holiday resort. Another bomb was
planned for the beaches of Marmaris, popular with British tourists.
...half a litre of sarin, a deadly nerve agent...
...for the Ankara mausoleum of Kemal Atatürk,...
...28 October

STATEMENT BY JAMES B. FOLEY, US STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN IN RESPONSE
TO A QUESTION AT THE REGULAR PRESS BRIEFING ON
1 October 1997
QUESTION: Yesterday, we asked the question about the British Observer
newspaper news items about Greece and PKK cooperation. Do you have
anything about this subject today?
ANSWER: Yes. As the April 1997 edition of our publication, "Patterns of
Global Terrorism" noted, the Greek government continues to tolerate the
official presence in Athens of offices of two Turkish terrorist groups;
the PKK's formerly known as Dev-Sol. The latter group is responsible
for the murder of two U.S. government contractors in Turkiye. The Greek
government is clearly aware of our concerns. We're also aware of a
recent allegation, I think you or one of your colleagues noted
yesterday, by a self-described former PKK member or operative of
involvement by Greek government personnel in operational PKK terrorist
activity. I have no information report. We're assessing it as we take
all such reports seriously.
TIME
30 March 1998
EUROPE A HELLENIC HAVEN

Its not every day one sees recruits inducted into a terrorist
organisation. But at the Kurdish Cultural Centre in downtown Athens it
happens three or four times a month. About that often, a self-described
"political branch" of the Kurdistan Workers' Party (P.K.K.) sets up a
few dozen plastic chairs in a room on the centre's dingy first floor,
hangs the red and yellow P.K.K flag on the wall and carts in a Yamaha
electric organ to pound out Ey Ragip, a P.K.K. anthem. Grizzled P.K.K.
loyalists watch as recruits proclaim their allegiance to the armed
movement that has earned a place on the US State Department's list of
terrorist organisations. "Five to 10 Kurds leave here every week to
return (to Kurdistan) and fight," says Rozerin Laser, Balkans general
director of the National Liberation Front of Kurdistan (E.R.N.K.), the
P.K.K political group that seeks a Kurdish homeland in parts of
Turkiye, Syria, Iran and Iraq.
The P.K.K. recruitment of Kurds in Greece is an overlooked link in the
vicious cycle of refugees and revolution across Europe's southeastern
frontier. In January, an influx of thousands of Kurds into Italy and
Greece reminded the rest of the EU how permeable its borders really
are. But not all Kurdish asylum seekers end up in Western Europe. Some
join the P.K.K. and return to would-be Kurdistan to fight, fuelling
more Turkish repression and a new flood of refugees and a new flood of
refugees and potential PKK. recruits. With the Greek government turning
a blind eye, P.K.K. representatives claim the recruiters are free to
start the process over again. The latest refugee crisis says one senior
Western diplomat in Athens, who specialises in terrorist issues,
"unveiled Turkiye's appalling human rights record and revealed the
porous frontiers of Greece and Italy." But, he says, "It also took the
wrappings off Greece's tolerance of rebel Kurds."

The E.R.N.K's induction ceremonies are just the tail end of the process
for turning refugees into revolutionaries. The real indoctrination and
recruitment goes on at places like Lavrion, 45 km southeast of Athens,
one of about five main refugee camps for the 100 or so Kurdish asylum
seekers arriving each month. Although hardly lavish, the camp boasts an
18-inch colour TV with a satellite dish to receive daily broadcasts
from MED TV, the Kurdish news station. Kurdish camp leaders use cell
phones for calls to their "brothers in battle," as they describe their
cohorts on the outside. The crumbling walls are hung with pictures of
P.K.K. strongman Abdullah Ocalan and martyrs to the Kurdish cause.

"This is the greatest help that Greece is providing us," says Ferzeyn
Iskender, a self-proclaimed P.K.K. loyalist at Lavrion. "It is here
away from their homeland that the Kurds nurture their ethnic identity,
learn who they are, what they stand for, how they've been abused by the
Turkish authorities." He points to a group of children playing in the
compound's concrete courtyard. . "Listen," he says, "They're singing Ey
Ragip." P.K.K. tutors arrive twice a week, according to camp leaders,
to teach the history of Kurdistan, its language, customs and
traditions, subjects that would be illegal in Turkiye. But P.K.K.
activists at the camp quickly turn such topics into propaganda. The
E.R.N.K.'s Laser admits that her success in recruitment "is the result
of a process of ideological training."

Turkiye says Greece is aiding and abetting the P.K.K, citing the
confessions of P.K.K. members as proof. "We are just stating what
P.K.K. terrorists captured in Turkiye are saying," says Sermet
Atacanli, a spokesman for Turkiye's Foreign Ministry. "They have been
trained in Greece, both ideologically and militarily." "Lies, lies,
lies!" responds Greece's fiery Foreign Minister, Theodore Pangalos, to
accusations of Greek involvement. Western diplomats monitoring the
P.K.K. say there's no hard evidence substantiating such accusations,
but that "there is a grey area in the field of financial support."

Much sympathy and support comes from the Greek population itself, which
sees parallels between the Kurdish nationalist movement and their own
1830 liberation from the Ottoman Empire. "The same thing is happening
now with the Kurds," says English teacher Kaiti Piperopulou as she
delivers school supplies to Lavrion. "We must help them." The P.K.K.
builds on that backing, circulating fundraising leaflets festooned with
symbols of Greek, Kurdish and Greek Cypriot unity and bearing slogans
like, "The solution to the disputes in the Aegean and Cyprus goes
through Kurdistan." The leaflets always include the bank account
numbers for the E.R.N.K. "We are not hiding what we are doing," says
Lavrion's Iskender.

In the U.S., such open P.K.K. activities would be a breach of the
Anti-Terrorism Act of 1996 and would bring prison sentences of up to 10
years for those perpetrating them. But in Greece, the P.K.K.'s
terrorist fire spreads virtually unchecked. Across the border, Turkiye
fans the flames with its draconian treatment of the Kurdish minority,
and year by year more Kurds are drawn into the conflagration.
- Reported by Anthee Carassava/Athens

PRESS STATEMENT OF KENYAN GOVERNMENT ON THE ENTRY INTO THE COUNTRY BY
ABDULLAH OCALAN
The Government received information that Mr. Abdullah Ocalan, leader of
the Kurdish Workers Party (PKK) in Turkiye, arrived in the country on
2nd February, 1999 at 1 1.33 p.m., aboard a private jet. The request
for diplomatic clearance for the said aircraft was sought by the
Embassy of Greece. The aircraft landed without clearance, since the
Ministry of Foreign Affairs had wanted to establish the status of the
persons in the aircraft prior to its arrival.
The Government also established that the names of the persons used in
the Greek Embassy's Note Verbale seeking clearance were fictitious. The
Greek Ambassador was at pains to explain why the names appearing in the
Note Verbale were different from the persons at the Embassy.

After intervention with the Greek Ambassador, it was confirmed that Mr.
Ocalan was in the Ambassador's residence. The Government immediately
requested for his expatriation from the Country to which the Greek
Ambassador agreed after consultations with his Minister in Athens. The
Embassy undertook the responsibility to pay for their Expatriation
expenses. Consequently, Mr. Ocalan departed the country yesterday, the
15th of February 1999, at about 7:30 p.m. local time, for a destination
known to the Greek authorities.

The Government has established that the Mr. Ocalan arrived in the
Country from Milan, Italy. According to the Greek Ambassador Nationals
from the following Countries accompanied Mr. Ocalan: Sweden, Germany,
the United Kingdom, Belgium and Greece. The entry of Mr. Ocalan into
the country appears to have been well known to the Greek Government. We
are puzzled as to why Kenya was chosen as a destination for Ocalan. It
is possible that the Greek authorities may have taken advantage of the
strong friendly relations existing between our two countries, which
raises serious questions about their sincerity and trustworthiness.

The Greek Government must be aware that Kenya was recently a target by
terrorists who bombed the United States Embassy on August 7th, 1998,
causing heavy loss of life and extensive damage to property in Nairobi.
The presence of Mr. Ocalan in the country, therefore, raises serious
security concerns. We would not have expected a friendly country like
Greece to subject Kenya to such an awkward situation giving rise to
suspicion and possible attack.

The Government is, therefore, taking up the matter with the Government
of Greece with a view to ascertaining the full circumstances and
reasons leading to the illegal entry of Mr. Ocalan to Kenya. The Greek
Ambassador H.E. Mr. George Costorlas was at hand to meet the group at
the J.K.I.A. He briefly boarded the aircraft and left with passengers
without following any of the formalities. No immigration arrival cards
were filled as the passengers were simply walked through. Initially
when the Government got wind of Mr. Ocalan presence in the Ambassador's
residence the Ministry of Foreign Affairs summoned the Ambassador to
explain, but he vehemently denied. However, when he was confronted
yesterday concrete evidence, he owned up, setting into motion the
process of his departure as outlined above.

In view of the above, it is no longer possible to trust the Ambassador
as serious doubts about his credibility have been created. Accordingly,
the Government had demanded his recall with immediate effect.

The Government of Kenya wishes to emphasise that the Government had no
role whatsoever to play in Mr. Ocalan presence in Kenya.
16th February, 1999 NAIROBI

ATHENS NEWS
17 FEBRUARY 1999
GOVERNMENT PLACES THE BLAME ON KURDISH LEADER FOR HIS OWN CAPTURE

Pangalos gives official version of events, condemns embassy sieges with
harsh words Greece's Foreign Minister Theodoros Pangalos lashed out at
yesterday's occupations of Greek embassies and consulates throughout
Europe by Kurdish activists as he finally confirmed that Greece had
provided "temporary" refuge for Abdullah Ocalan, the rebel leader of
the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK).
Speaking at a hastily convened emergency news conference in Athens
yesterday morning, an irate Pangalos threatened to take "merciless"
action at home and abroad against Kurdish activists unless hostages
held in Greek embassies around Europe were released by noon, implying
that there could even be mass deportations of Kurds in Greece.

"We are giving them an ultimatum," Pangalos told the special news
conference. "Our behaviour will be merciless if they do not leave by 12
noon," he warned. In the wake of persistent official government denials
concerning the whereabouts of Ocalan, Pangalos admitted for the first
time that Greece had given Ocalan "temporary residence, for
humanitarian reasons" at the residence of the Greek ambassador in
Kenya.

Pangalos, admitting that Greece had sheltered Ocalan in a Greek
diplomatic building for the past 12 days, said that Ocalan himself, in
spite of Greek advice to the contrary, decided to attempt to leave
Kenya and go to Holland. The foreign minister said that contact with
Ocalan was lost during his transfer by car from the Greek ambassador's
residence to the airport. Ocalan's car was being followed by a number
of Greek embassy cars, including that of the Greek ambassador, which
"lost visual contact" with Ocalan's car.

Pangalos said that Greece had informed the Kenyan authorities and
awaited their update on exactly what happened, adding that contact had
also been made with the EU presidency, the German foreign minister and
the American government, asking them to intervene in order to find out
what exactly took place. He added that he would also be contacting the
British and Italian foreign ministers.

At the same time Pangalos said that he had sent a strict telegram to
the PKK leadership, asking it to order its members to withdraw from
occupied Greek embassies and consulates by midday. Pangalos
characterised as an "act of extreme brutality" the taking of hostages,
including women and children, at the Greek embassies in The Hague and
Vienna.

Accepting that Greece has always respected the struggle of the Kurdish
people and support for human rights, Pangalos reiterated that Greece "
never considered, or would consider, as expedient or useful the
presence of Ocalan on Greek territory for reasons concerning both the
interests of the Kurdish people and security and stability in the
region". He repeated that no application for granting political asylum
to Ocalan had been made to Greece, "and if such a request had been
submitted, under the 1991 Dublin Treaty on political asylum, such a
request would have been referred to Italy, which was the first European
country that Ocalan went to after his departure from Syria".

Replying to reporters' questions, Pangalos openly admitted for the
first time that Ocalan's plane had touched down at an airport in
western Greece in order to refuel after his failed attempts to land in
Holland before proceeding to Kenya.

Pangalos also revealed that Ocalan's presence on Greek territory in
Kenya was the exclusive knowledge of himself and the leadership at the
Greek foreign ministry. Finally, Pangalos reiterated that Greece should
not have been and should not be part of the Kurdish problem, which he
described as an internal Turkish problem that should not become part of
a Greek-Turkish dispute.

Two hours after Pangalos' impromptu press conference, the national
defence ministry's crisis management team held an emergency meeting to
" assess the situation following the attacks against the Greek
embassies abroad by protesting Kurds". According to media reports, the
crisis meeting was attended by the army, navy and airforce chiefs of
staff, national defence general staff senior officers and high-ranking
officials from the foreign ministry and Greek intelligence service
(EYP).

Later in the day, government spokesman Dimitris Reppas, who had
persistently denied government involvement in the prickly Ocalan saga,
requested clarifications from the Kenyan government concerning the
circumstances surrounding the capture of Ocalan. Reppas said that the
Greek government places exclusive responsibility for the latest
developments, including Ocalan's falling into the hands of the Turkish
authorities, with Ocalan himself, who negotiated with the Kenyan
authorities in person. Reppas also suggested the means of Ocalan's
transfer to Nairobi be such that it was open secret.

Reppas said Ocalan refused to leave Kenya for one of a number of
unspecified African countries that were willing to grant him asylum, as
had been suggested by the Greek side, instead choosing to seek asylum
in Holland, at which time the Greek authorities ceased to have any
participation in where the Kurdish leader would go.

A stern faced Reppas, who faced a barrage of reporters' questions
during his daily scheduled briefing, said that Ocalan had been in
direct contact with Kenyan government officials - in whom the Kurdish
leader had "shown trust" - with the aim of travelling to the
Netherlands. The Greek government, he added, has no information about
"the way things turned out" and bore no responsibility from the moment
of Ocalan's departure "from where has was, with the responsibility of
the Greek side" to an unknown destination. The handling of the issue by
the foreign ministry and jointly competent ministries was entirely
successful, Reppas said.

ATHENS NEWS
17 FEBRUARY 1999
OCALAN'S GREEK FRIEND, LAWYER TELLS THEIR STORY.
A different, more intriguing version to that of the government on the
Abdullah Ocalan saga also emerged yesterday. The backstage of PKK
leader's trip to Kenya, whence he ended up in the hands of the Turkish
security forces, was revealed by retired senior naval officer Andonis
Naxakis, a PKK sympathiser who played host to Ocalan when he visited
Greece at the end of last month.
Naxakis told SKAI television channel that, on Friday 29 January, he
chartered a private jet with the help of an unnamed Greek businessman
and following consultations with Kurdish representatives, transported
Ocalan from Leningrad to Athens. According to Naxakis, the Kurdish
leader was in dire danger from the Russian Mafia and had to leave
Russia urgently. The Russian secret services had apparently alerted
Greece, but Naxakis party escaped through the VIP exit of Hellinikon
Airport. The retired officer initially transported Ocalan to the house
of Voula Damianakou in Nea Makri, east of Athens, where he spent the
night, and took him to his own house on Saturday 30 January.

At this stage, Naxakis tried to bring Ocalan in touch with the Greek
foreign ministry so that he could apply for political asylum. Foreign
Minister Theodoros Pangalos allegedly agreed to visit the Kurdish
leader on that particular Saturday, but sent the head of the Greek
Information Agency (EYP) instead. EYP subsequently assumed the
responsibility of safeguarding Ocalan, and Naxakis told reporters that
he felt indirectly responsible for what happened next, since he had
arranged for the meeting.

Naxakis claims that on Monday 1 February the Greek government
guaranteed that Ocalan would be safely transported to a place of Greek
sovereignty, but the Kurdish leader discovered that they were referring
to the embassy in Nairobi just before he boarded the plane that was to
take him there on Tuesday. Naxakis' role ends at this point, but the
tale is continued by Failos Kranidiotis, one of Ocalan's lawyers, who
gave a full account of events as from Wednesday 10 February. On that
day, Kranidiotis was summoned to a secret location in Brussels for
consultations with PKK members, who told him that their leader was in
danger of being discovered and sent him to Nairobi.

Kranidiotis spent the weekend with Ocalan and was present as the
Kurdish leader conferred with Greek representatives on what to do next.
Ocalan's presence had become known in the Kenyan capital, and Athens
wanted him out of the embassy. According to the lawyer, Ocalan was
offered the options of being taken to a house in the Kenyan
countryside, or to be granted a temporary refuge by a local Greek
Orthodox Church. The Kurdish leader ruled out both plans, allegedly
stating that "Greece has brought me here under guarantee, and it should
get me out of here under guarantee".

In conversations with the head of the Greek foreign ministry's
diplomatic office, Ocalan asked for Greek Funds to buy a new passport,
a joint Greek-Kenyan guarantee of his safety, and a Greek plane-with a
government official on board - to fly him out of Nairobi. He also
reportedly made a fresh request for political asylum, which the Greek
foreign ministry apparently turned down as "disgraceful". The Kurdish
leader was also informed that four Greek security personnel were being
sent to the embassy to make sure that he left. At this point, one of
the two female fighters guarding the PKK leader pulled out a gun and
threatened to commit suicide. Kranidiotis was then sent to Athens with
another request for political asylum. Before he left, Ocalan allegedly
told him that he was caught between Turkiye and Greece, "the bandit
state on the one hand and the comedy state on the other". He was
intercepted on his way to Nairobi airport and was informed by the
Kenyan authorities that the President, Arab Moy, was fully aware of
Ocalan's presence.

All contact with the Kurdish leader was broken off on Monday 15
January, with the well-known results. PKK sources insist that their
leader was forced to leave the Nairobi embassy, despite the Greek
government's protests to the contrary, and that he was led away by
Kenyan police. Similar fears are voiced by his lawyers. Giuliano
Pisapia, Ocalan's legal representative in Italy, who visited his client
during the weekend, stated yesterday that there had been an operation
to capture the Kurdish leader as early as Sunday 14 February, but that
it had been called off due to the lawyer's presence. Eberhardt Schulz,
Ocalan's lawyer in Germany, claimed that his client had been tricked
into surrendering to the Kenyan authorities and had been dragged out of
the embassy by local forces. Meanwhile, the Italian news agency ANSA
reported on Monday that Ocalan had been handed over to the Kenyans by
the Greek embassy's staff

APPENDIX 1:
CAMPS AND CELLS OF THE TERRORIST ORGANIZATION PKK IN GREECE
LAVRION REFUGE CAMP: At the Lavrion Refugee Camp, apart from the PKK,
members of other terrorist organisations find shelter and are given
training. It has been found out that a bank account has been opened at
the Kaningos branch of the Greek National Bank for the PKK members
being sheltered at the Lavrion Camp. Samil Asmaad and Sinan Aslan, two
members of the PKK, are known to be responsible to meet such needs of
the terrorists.
LAMIA HALKIDA CAMP: This is a farmhouse 200 kilometres away from
Athens, used by the terrorist organisation PKK. The farmhouse is
surrounded by barbed wire fences. About 300-400 militants from
different terrorist groups are being sheltered at the camp. The
militants attend both political and military training in two different
phases. The military training includes all forms of bomb making and
planting explosives. The owners of the camp (farmhouse) are two Greek
citizens known as Dimitri and Marta. Two PKK terrorists trained at this
camp and apprehended by Turkish Security Forces have confessed that the
owners help the members of the PKK in the camp by all possible means;
they let the terrorists use their vehicles and they supply logistic
needs of the terrorists.

THE PKK CELL IN AHARNON/ATHENS: According to the testimonies of the PKK
terrorists apprehended in Turkiye, the PKK uses as a cell a flat on the
5th floor of the building, next to the station, at the very corner of
the road opposite the Saint Pandalemonas Church.

THE PKK CELL IN DAFNI/ATHENS: The location of this cell is described by
the terrorists as follows: "Take the Dafni bus. Get off at the Saint
Ionia stop. Walk up from the second street. Before you reach the end of
the street, the cell is on the third road across the street." In this
cell the PKK militants coming from Turkiye are trained on explosives
and attend a 15-day political training.

THE PKK CELL IN THESSALONICA: This PKK cell is depicted by the
militants as follows: "In a hilly district of the Thessalonica Bazaar,
there is a supermarket and a gas station next to the Goody's
Hamburgers. If you turn the corner from the cafe there, the second
floor of the building number 16 is the PKK cell."

APPENDIX 2
EXCERPTS FROM THE TESTIMONIES OF THE TERRORISTS TRAINED IN GREECE AND
SENT TO TURKIYE TO CONDUCT TERRORIST ACTS ON BEHALF OF THE TERRORIST
ORGANIZATION PKK
Some excerpts from the testimonies of terrorists apprehended by Turkish
Security Forces, which indicate the support provided by Greece to the
PKK militants are as follows:
1- TESTIMONY OF SEYITHAN SAMACAN (CODE-NAME AHMET-MAHMUT-SEYDO) FROM
SIVEREK/SANLIURFA APPREHENDED IN BATMAN ON 27 DECEMBER 1993:
"I went to the Samos Island from Kusadasi/Turkiye with a group of
friends by a boat. We surrendered to the Greek police who later took us
to the Lavrion camp in Athens. A PKK member code-named Deniz took me to
the PKK bureau in Athens. The PKK members were presented with Greek
passports and sent to the Bekaa Valley/Lebanon. We were always in
contact with the Kurdistan Solidarity Committee in Greece.
(Phone:003013634905)"

2- TESTIMONY OF GIYASETTIN ALTUN FROM VARTO/MUS APPREHENDED IN ISTANBUL
ON 11 MAY 1994:
"I went to Athens from Germany by plane with a group of friends. We
were taken to a PKK cell in Athens and then to somewhere 200 kilometres
away from Athens for training. A terrorist code-named Faik was
responsible for training in the camp where there were about 20
militants. In the camp we were trained on explosives to conduct
terrorist attacks against military, economic and tourism targets."

3- TESTIMONY OF IMAM GÜR (CODE-NAME AKIF) FROM BEYDOGMUS/ELAZIG,
ARRESTED ON 5 JUNE 1994:
"I went from Germany to Athens where I was provided with a false
passport. I was first taken to a cell and then to a camp with the
others I had met in the cell. In the camp we were trained on explosives
(bombs) and instructed to go to Turkiye, in order to attack public
buildings and tourism facilities. We were provided with the phone
numbers of the militants in Germany to get in touch if necessary."

4- TESTIMONY OF VEYSEL BOZALI (CODE-NAME SAHIN-SEHMUZ) FROM BINGÖL,
APPREHENDED IN ISTANBUL ON 12 MAY 1994:
"I went to Athens from Germany where I was provided with a false
passport. In Athens, a PKK member code-named Cemil met me and took me
to the Kurdish Committee. Then, a Greek lady took me and 10 other
fellows to a hilly area 200 kilometres away from Athens. We stayed at a
house in a forest. For 2 months we were trained on explosives. A PKK
member code-named Faik was responsible for the training. We were
instructed to attack military, economic and tourism targets in Turkiye"


5- TESTIMONY OF AHMET AKKURT (CODE-NAME CIHAN- ALI-HASAN) FROM
IDIL/SIRNAK ARRESTED IN ISTANBUL ON 22 JUNE 1994:
"I went to Athens from Germany with a false passport and was taken to
the camp. The camp was about 3 km away from the Aegean cost and was
surrounded by hills. We were given training on explosives for a month.
A PKK militant code-named Faik who was responsible for training told us
that we would be sent to Turkiye to hit economic and tourism targets."

6- TESTIMONY OF ATILLA TEKEL FROM ELAZIG WHO SURRENDERED TO THE TURKISH
SECURITY FORCES DURING THE OPERATION HELD IN NORTHERN IRAQ ON 21 MARCH
1995:
"I went to Athens from Germany with a group of friends. A 35-year old
man approached me at the passport checkpoint at the airport and asked
us whether we were Turkish or Kurdish. We said that we were Kurds. Then
we were taken to an office without any passport control and were given
some food. The Greek agent dealing with us phoned a PKK militant
code-named Rojhat. Rojhat came and took us to Heyva Sor ('Kurdish Red
Crescent', one of Pak's front establishments) which is 15 kilometres
from Athens. Rojhat was a Syrian about 30 years old and spoke Greek.
Later on he took us to a PKK camp, 154 kilometres away from Athens, on
the way to Macedonia. The camp was about 6,000 square meters large and
called Ibrahim Incedursun camp. In February 1995 there were about 40
terrorists in the camp. For 3 months we received political and military
training to conduct terrorist attacks in Turkish cities. The camp was
being run totally under the umbrella of Greece. Greek parliamentarians
and the public were providing material support to the PKK. The
publications of the PKK are sold mostly from Greece to Europe. Lavrion
Camp is 1.5 hours away from Athens. It is close to the seaside. Its
full capacity is 400 militants. Apart from the PKK, militants of
extreme leftist terrorist organisations such as TKP/ML, DEV SOL, TDKP,
TKIP, TKEP, TKP/KIVILCIM were trained in the camp."

7- TESTIMONY OF CANSUR KIRT (CODE-NAME KAWA REMZI) FROM
LICE/DIYARBAKIR, APPREHENDED IN IZMIR:
"I crossed the River Meriç to Greece with my friend code-named Bozan.
We were intending to go to Germany. A villager from whom we asked for
some food took us to a Greek police station. We told the Greek police
that we were Kurds and PKK members. We were sent to Athens and
transferred to the Lavrion Camp. In the camp there were about 30 other
militants. The police collected our ID's and questioned all of us one
by one. The representatives of each terrorist organisation in the camp
asked us to which organisation we belonged. For three months we took
political training in the camp. One day we were taken to a forest, 5-6
hours away from the camp where the PKK militant code-named Faik trained
us on the use of explosives and firearms. Faik instructed us to go back
to Athens and then to Turkiye to conduct terrorist acts."

8- TESTIMONY OF MEHMET KAVAK (CODE-NAME ÇIYA) FROM
CEYLANPINAR/SANLIURFA APPREHENDED IN IZMIR ON 5 MAY 1995:
"I went from Cologne to Athens on 31 December 1994. The police officer
at the passport check told me that I could not enter Greece since I did
not have a visa. Upon the instructions I had received from the PKK, I
told that I was a Kurd and was to be met by the members of the Kurdish
Committee. Then the police changed his attitude and helped me. I spent
the night at the airport. Then, a PKK member came and took me."

9- TESTIMONY OF METIN SAGLAM FROM ERZURUM APPREHENDED IN ISTANBUL ON 8
AUGUST 1995:
"I swam across the River Meriç to Greece in 1994. I was arrested by
the Greek police. I told the police that I was a PKK member and I
sought political asylum. I was questioned by the Greek intelligence and
police before being taken to the Lavrion camp. In the camp there were
members of the PKK and extreme leftist Turkish terrorist groups. I
stayed in the camp for 15 days. Then I went to the PKK cell in Athens.
After that I was taken to a farmhouse which belonged to a Greek couple.
The camp representatives, code-named Cemal and Faik, gave political and
military training to us. Faik taught us to make and plant different
kinds of bombs."

10- TESTIMONY OF MEHMET ÇEKIÇ (CODE-NAME HÜSEYIN YILMAZ) FROM
ADIYAMAN:
"I went from Frankfurt to Athens with a false Dutch passport. I gave
the numbers of the Heyva Sor (Kurdish Red Crescent) to the customs
officer in Athens and entered Greece. A PKK courier came to pick me up.
This courier talked to a Greek parliamentarian with white hair called
Dimitris. We went to the Heyva Sor building in Athens. Soon I was sent
to a camp. While I was in the camp I heard that another PKK affiliated
association called 'Kurdistan Centre' was opened."

11- TESTIMONY OF FADIK ISIK (CODE-NAME SAHIN-RAMAN) FROM KAHRAMANMARAS,
APPREHENDED IN ANTALYA:
"I was sent to Bucharest/Romania in April 1994. Under the auspices of
the ERNK Bucharest representative Ömer Agaoglu, I was sent to
Thessaloniki in January 1995 for training on explosives. Then I was
sent to Athens. From Athens a PKK member took me to a camp about 20 km.
away where the PKK members were receiving military and political
training. In February 1995, a man who was said to be a Greek deputy
came to the camp and visited the PKK representatives in the camp. Greek
media members, MED TV reporters, former MPs Remzi Kartal and Zübeyir
Aydar of HEP and Necdet Buldan, (a fugitive wanted by Turkiye) visited
the camp."

12- TESTIMONY OF EMINE DIDEM MARKOÇ (CODE-NAME NELA FILIZ AYTEN) FROM
ARDAHAN, APPREHENDED IN ADANA ON 24 JUNE 1996:
"We came from Frankfurt to Athens. Greek police arrested me with four
of my friends. A PKK member code-named Rojhat came and told the police
that we are PKK militants. Then the police released us although they
had realised that we had false Dutch passports. One evening we were
taken to the PKK camp in Halkida/ Lamia. We had political training for
45 days. After the political training we had military training. Then I
was sent to the PKK cell in Aharnon/Athens. Meanwhile I had an
operation at the Evangelismos State Hospital, due to a throat illness.
The bill for the operation was issued on behalf of Menal-Dilxwvaz who
was from the ERNK Balkans Representation. Thanks to the ERNK document,
the hospital bill was paid by the Greek Ministry of Health. Soon I had
a second operation which was also paid by the Greek Ministry of
Health."

13- INFORMATION DERIVED FROM THE TESTIMONY OF SEREF KILIÇ (CODE-NAME
YALÇIN) WHO WAS CAUGHT IN THE GARDEN OF THE TURKISH CONSULATE GENERAL
IN URIMIYAH/IRAN AND BROUGHT BACK TO ANKARA FOR INTERROGATION ON 23
DECEMBER 1997
Seref Kiliç has established contact with PKK members in the Çanakkale
prison while he was a student in Çanakkale 18 March University and
joined the organisation. He went to Romania via Bulgaria on 10 March
1997 with Hanim Demir and Orhan Yüce who were friends from the
university and following their stay in Romania for some time, they came
back to Bulgaria. They passed to Athens from Bulgaria by motorway on
27th-28th March with Hamza (code-name) (ERNK Bulgarian Responsible),
Orhan Yüce and Hanim Demir. Hamza took them (S. Kiliç H.Demir and
O.Yüce) to a PKK house and introduced them to the militants; Rojhat,
Hatip, and Pino (code-name). Mahir (code-name), who was the General
Coordinator of the Balkan Province at that time, Sait Ali (code-name)
and Ilgaz (code-name), who were Revolutionist People Party (DHP)
militants, came to the house in question and Mahir, after taking them
to a separate room, told them that they had to act in accordance with
the organisation's demands, collected their passports and ID cards, and
then requested Sait Ali to take them to the building where they would
receive training. At 24:00 on the same day's night (27-28 March 1997)
S. Ali took them with a white "Tempra" automobile to a white,
three-storey building which was on a side street in the centre of
Athens. A total of 45 people, made up of 3 teams consisting of 15
persons each, inhabited the building used by the organisation for
political training and one or two members stood guard around the clock
for security. 40 of the total of 45 persons receiving training were
university students. In the beginning of June 1997, in order to receive
combined military and political training, they were taken by a minibus
to a campsite in the countryside 3 hours from Athens which was still
under construction. 45 persons in the form of 3 teams, settled in the
encampment in the mountainous area, and every morning they continued
with the political courses that they had been receiving earlier, and in
the afternoons they were being given military courses on ambush,
penetration and raids by militants named Cemal and Çektar
(code-names). These courses lasted from the beginning of June until the
beginning of September 1997. As the militants dwelled in the
encampment, two Greek citizens Memo (code-name) and Dilan (code-name)
(woman) carried food to a place 1 km. away from the camp, each time
with different vehicles. Seref Kiliç decided to escape from the camp
with Rabia Coskun, but they were noticed and captured while trying to
communicate through passwords since it was forbidden to talk with each
other. After this incident, Rabia Coskun was sent to Athens, and Seref
Kiliç was "put into practice" (which meant, "cell imprisonment" in the
PKK jargon). He was "kept in practice" for 40 days, and within this
period some of his friends with whom he had arrived in the camp were
periodically transferred to the "front". In the beginning of September
1997, as this camp place has been exposed, encampment was transferred
to another mountainous place 50 km away, and political and military
training continued. In this period, Çektar and Cemal were replaced by
two other militants code-named Deniz and Ilgaz (woman). From time to
time, they were also instructed by a militant named Necmi. The number
of militants increased up to 85 with new arrivals. Most of these
militants were university students. Students of Eskisehir Anatolian
University also existed within the group. In the beginning of November
1997 Deniz and Ilgaz announced that the training was completed and that
they would be transferred to northern Iraq. They took all of the 60-65
militants then in the camp to Athens. In Athens, after driving for
about 1 km. from the club named "Riba's" that is located in the city
centre, they arrived at a building complex. There war a meter high
stone wall in front of the complex, which consisted of one three-storey
and six single-story buildings. The other sides were surrounded by
barbed wire. The three-storey building was used by a retired Greek
general who used to come to this place from time to time, stay for a
few hours and communicate with the high ranking militants of the terror
organisation in Greece. According to the statements of Seref Kiliç,
the house he was taken to on March 27-28, 1997 for training was located
at Praksiteuls Road. No: 28 in Athens. The daily schedule applied
during political training, the harsh attitude towards people that were
being trained (seizure of their ID Cards, not being allowed to speak
with each other or to leave the camp) confirm the statements given by
more recently arrested members of the terror organisation. It
transpires that the campsite where they were taken for military
training, 3 hours to Athens by minibus, is the mobile camp at a
mountainous area to the north of the Phasna town at Evia island. The
campsite where they were taken in early November 1997 is the "Haki
Karaer" camp which is also described in the statement of Dr. Serdar
(code-name) Hasan Belli who surrendered to the Turkish Consulate in
Piraeus on 8 December 1997 and who was interrogated at the Edirne
Police Headquarters after he was taken to Turkiye with a temporary
travel document.

14. TESTIMONY OF ULAS AKBAL (CODE-NAME DURAN-ARTES-MAHIR) FROM
DIYARBAKIR: " - In the Association of "Komal Mezopotamya" functioning
in Lavrion, the periodical "Fonito Kurdistan" in Greek was sold in
order to collect money to the organisation. A group of 50 persons were
given political training in a house in Athens. In the Lavrion Refugee
Camp, training on explosives was given by Serdar (code-name). Militants
were trained for bomb attacks in the big cities in Turkiye.

15. TESTIMONY OF 1970 BORN FETHI DEMIR (CODE-NAME MAHIR) WHO
SURRENDERED IN BINGÖL/GENÇ ON MARCH 6, 1998: "The names of the PKK
militants, who would come to Greece from Turkiye or from other European
countries, were given to the Greek Ministry of Public Order. The
Ministry transmitted their names to the relevant authorities at the
border or in the airports and they facilitated their passage to Greece.
PKK militants met me at the Athens Airport and took me to a house
belonging to the PKK. There I was told that there were other houses
like this on Tiriyö Septen Biriyö Street 154, Vasilik Sophias Street
154, Omonia Square, Kipseli district). We went to a training camp
approximately two hours away by car from Athens. At the Ministry of
Public Order there is a separate section dealing only with matters
concerning the PKK. Militants who crossed the Turkish border to Greece
were taken by the Greek police to the Lavrion Camp and from there they
were picked up by a PKK militant and accommodated in different PKK
houses in Greece. Political training was given at the Greek Island
Evia. Local police and intelligence service supported us. Logistics of
this camp were supplied by two Greek nationals called Dimitri and
Martha. We rented a building in the centre of Athens with the help of
Thedor Susanoglu who had worked for the Greek Consulate General in
Izmir in the 1980s. Militants that came to Greece were provided with
"Refugee Passport". Using these passports they could travel to all
Schengen countries and if they had to travel to another country,
necessary visas were provided by the help of the Greek Consulate
General in the country concerned. For those militants operating in
Greece, Greek language courses were given in Athens Pandion University.
The Greek Intelligence wanted us to select 7 persons. They would give
them special intelligence training. PKK terrorist organisation was in
close contact with three Ministers in the Greek government. Foreign
Minister Pangalos, Education Minister Arsenis and Defence Minister
Choxarcopoulos gave us continuous and wide support. Funds were provided
to the PKK from the budget of the Greek Parliament. Among other high
ranking officials who directly supported the PKK were the Former
Minister of Interior Baduvas (we always contacted him when we had
problems with the Greek police or border units), retired General
Naksasis (he was responsible for our connection with the Greek
Intelligence Service), Thedor Susanoglu mentioned before, who could
speak excellent Turkish and was responsible for all kinds o
correspondence between PKK leadership and Greek officials and
translation of letters etc. The PKK terrorist organisation operated in
Greece during 1996-1997 through the following organisations, ERNK
Office (Andresis Vasilisis Sophias Street 54, Phone N:724 7022), Heyva
Sor Kurdistan (Kaningos Street, Athens), Kurdish Culture Association,
Greek Representation of Derri Agency, Kurdish Solidarity Committee in
Thessalonica.

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